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Technical Round Materials-PHP-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-PHP-Free Download

) What is PHP?

PHP is a web language based on scripts that allow developers to dynamically create generated web pages.

2) What do the initials of PHP stand for?

PHP means PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.

3) Which programming language does PHP resemble?

PHP syntax resembles Perl and C

4) What does PEAR stand for?

PEAR means "PHP Extension and Application Repository". It extends PHP and provides a higher level of programming for web developers.

5) What is the actually used PHP version?

Version 7.1 or 7.2 is the recommended version of PHP.

6) How do you execute a PHP script from the command line?

Just use the PHP command line interface (CLI) and specify the file name of the script to be executed as follows:

php script.php

7) How to run the interactive PHP shell from the command line interface?

Just use the PHP CLI program with the option -a as follows:

php -a

8) What is the correct and the most two common way to start and finish a PHP block of code?

The two most common ways to start and finish a PHP script are:

<?php [ --- PHP code---- ] ?> and <? [--- PHP code ---] ?>

9) How can we display the output directly to the browser?

To be able to display the output directly to the browser, we have to use the special tags <?= and ?>.

10) What is the main difference between PHP 4 and PHP 5?

PHP 5 presents many additional OOP (Object Oriented Programming) features.

11) Is multiple inheritance supported in PHP?

PHP supports only single inheritance; it means that a class can be extended from only one single class using the keyword 'extended'.

12) What is the meaning of a final class and a final method?

'final' is introduced in PHP5. Final class means that this class cannot be extended and a final method cannot be overridden.

13) How is the comparison of objects done in PHP?

We use the operator '==' to test is two objects are instanced from the same class and have same attributes and equal values. We can test if two objects are referring to the same instance of the same class by the use of the identity operator '==='.

14) How can PHP and HTML interact?

It is possible to generate HTML through PHP scripts, and it is possible to pass pieces of information from HTML to PHP.

15) What type of operation is needed when passing values through a form or an URL?

If we would like to pass values through a form or an URL, then we need to encode and to decode them using htmlspecialchars() and urlencode().

16) How can PHP and Javascript interact?

PHP and Javascript cannot directly interact since PHP is a server side language and Javascript is a client-side language. However, we can exchange variables since PHP can generate Javascript code to be executed by the browser and it is possible to pass specific variables back to PHP via the URL.

17) What is needed to be able to use image function?

GD library is needed to execute image functions.

18) What is the use of the function 'imagetypes()'?

imagetypes() gives the image format and types supported by the current version of GD-PHP.

19) What are the functions to be used to get the image's properties (size, width, and height)?

The functions are getimagesize() for size, imagesx() for width and imagesy() for height.

20) How failures in execution are handled with include() and require() functions?

If the function require() cannot access the file then it ends with a fatal error. However, the include() function gives a warning, and the PHP script continues to execute.

21) What is the main difference between require() and require_once()?

require(), and require_once() perform the same task except that the second function checks if the PHP script is already included or not before executing it.

(same for include_once() and include())

22) How can I display text with a PHP script?

Two methods are possible:

<!--?php echo "Method 1"; print "Method 2"; ?-->

23) How can we display information of a variable and readable by a human with PHP?

To be able to display a human-readable result we use print_r().

24) How is it possible to set an infinite execution time for PHP script?

The set_time_limit(0) added at the beginning of a script sets to infinite the time of execution to not have the PHP error 'maximum execution time exceeded.' It is also possible to specify this in the php.ini file.

25) What does the PHP error 'Parse error in PHP - unexpected T_variable at line x' means?

This is a PHP syntax error expressing that a mistake at the line x stops parsing and executing the program.

26) What should we do to be able to export data into an Excel file?

The most common and used way is to get data into a format supported by Excel. For example, it is possible to write a .csv file, to choose for example comma as a separator between fields and then to open the file with Excel.

27) What is the function file_get_contents() useful for?

file_get_contents() lets reading a file and storing it in a string variable.

28) How can we connect to a MySQL database from a PHP script?

To be able to connect to a MySQL database, we must use mysqli_connect() function as follows:

<!--?php $database = mysqli_connect("HOST", "USER_NAME", "PASSWORD"); mysqli_select_db($database,"DATABASE_NAME"); ?-->

29) What is the function mysql_pconnect() useful for?

mysql_pconnect() ensure a persistent connection to the database, it means that the connection does not close when the PHP script ends.

This function is not supported in PHP 7.0 and above

30) How be the result set of Mysql handled in PHP?

The result set can be handled using mysqli_fetch_array, mysqli_fetch_assoc, mysqli_fetch_object or mysqli_fetch_row.

31) How is it possible to know the number of rows returned in the result set?

The function mysqli_num_rows() returns the number of rows in a result set.

32) Which function gives us the number of affected entries by a query?

mysqli_affected_rows() return the number of entries affected by an SQL query.

33) What is the difference between mysqli_fetch_object() and mysqli_fetch_array()?

The mysqli_fetch_object() function collects the first single matching record where mysqli_fetch_array() collects all matching records from the table in an array.

34) How can we access the data sent through the URL with the GET method?

To access the data sent via the GET method, we use $_GET array like this:

www.url.com?var=value

$variable = $_GET["var"]; this will now contain 'value'

35) How can we access the data sent through the URL with the POST method?

To access the data sent this way, you use the $_POST array.

Imagine you have a form field called 'var' on the form when the user clicks submit to the post form, you can then access the value like this:

$_POST["var"];

36) How can we check the value of a given variable is a number?

It is possible to use the dedicated function, is_numeric() to check whether it is a number or not.

37) How can we check the value of a given variable is alphanumeric?

It is possible to use the dedicated function, ctype_alnum to check whether it is an alphanumeric value or not.

38) How do I check if a given variable is empty?

If we want to check whether a variable has a value or not, it is possible to use the empty() function.

39) What does the unlink() function mean?

The unlink() function is dedicated for file system handling. It simply deletes the file given as entry.

40) What does the unset() function mean?

The unset() function is dedicated for variable management. It will make a variable undefined.

41) How do I escape data before storing it in the database?

The addslashes function enables us to escape data before storage into the database.

42) How is it possible to remove escape characters from a string?

The stripslashes function enables us to remove the escape characters before apostrophes in a string.

43) How can we automatically escape incoming data?

We have to enable the Magic quotes entry in the configuration file of PHP.

44) What does the function get_magic_quotes_gpc() means?

The function get_magic_quotes_gpc() tells us whether the magic quotes is switched on or no.

45) Is it possible to remove the HTML tags from data?

The strip_tags() function enables us to clean a string from the HTML tags.

46) what is the static variable in function useful for?

A static variable is defined within a function only the first time, and its value can be modified during function calls as follows:

<!--?php function testFunction() { static $testVariable = 1; echo $testVariable; $testVariable++; } testFunction(); //1 testFunction(); //2 testFunction(); //3 ?-->

47) How can we define a variable accessible in functions of a PHP script?

This feature is possible using the global keyword.

48) How is it possible to return a value from a function?

A function returns a value using the instruction 'return $value;'.

49) What is the most convenient hashing method to be used to hash passwords?

It is preferable to use crypt() which natively supports several hashing algorithms or the function hash() which supports more variants than crypt() rather than using the common hashing algorithms such as md5, sha1 or sha256 because they are conceived to be fast. Hence, hashing passwords with these algorithms can create vulnerability.

50) Which cryptographic extension provide generation and verification of digital signatures?

The PHP-OpenSSL extension provides several cryptographic operations including generation and verification of digital signatures.

51) How is a constant defined in a PHP script?

The define() directive lets us defining a constant as follows:

define ("ACONSTANT", 123);

52) How can you pass a variable by reference?

To be able to pass a variable by reference, we use an ampersand in front of it, as follows $var1 = &$var2

53) Will a comparison of an integer 12 and a string "13" work in PHP?

"13" and 12 can be compared in PHP since it casts everything to the integer type.

54) How is it possible to cast types in PHP?

The name of the output type has to be specified in parentheses before the variable which is to be cast as follows:

* (int), (integer) - cast to integer

* (bool), (boolean) - cast to boolean

* (float), (double), (real) - cast to float

* (string) - cast to string

* (array) - cast to array

* (object) - cast to object

55) When is a conditional statement ended with endif?

When the original if was followed by: and then the code block without braces.

56) How is the ternary conditional operator used in PHP?

It is composed of three expressions: a condition, and two operands describing what instruction should be performed when the specified condition is true or false as follows:

Expression_1?Expression_2 : Expression_3;

57) What is the function func_num_args() used for?

The function func_num_args() is used to give the number of parameters passed into a function.

58) If the variable $var1 is set to 10 and the $var2 is set to the character var1, what's the value of $$var2?

$$var2 contains the value 10.

59) What does accessing a class via :: means?

:: is used to access static methods that do not require object initialization.

60) In PHP, objects are they passed by value or by reference?

In PHP, objects passed by value.

61) Are Parent constructors called implicitly inside a class constructor?

No, a parent constructor have to be called explicitly as follows:

parent::constructor($value)

62) What's the difference between __sleep and __wakeup?

__sleep returns the array of all the variables that need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.

63) What is faster?

1- Combining two variables as follows:

$variable1 = 'Hello ';

$variable2 = 'World';

$variable3 = $variable1.$variable2;

Or

2- $variable3 = "$variable1$variable2";

$variable3 will contain "Hello World". The first code is faster than the second code especially for large large sets of data.

64) what is the definition of a session?

A session is a logical object enabling us to preserve temporary data across multiple PHP pages.

65) How to initiate a session in PHP?

The use of the function session_start() lets us activating a session.

66) How can you propagate a session id?

You can propagate a session id via cookies or URL parameters.

67) What is the meaning of a Persistent Cookie?

A persistent cookie is permanently stored in a cookie file on the browser's computer. By default, cookies are temporary and are erased if we close the browser.

68) When do sessions end?

Sessions automatically end when the PHP script finishes executing but can be manually ended using the session_write_close().

69) What is the difference between session_unregister() and session_unset()?

The session_unregister() function unregister a global variable from the current session and the session_unset() function frees all session variables.

70) What does $GLOBALS mean?

$GLOBALS is associative array including references to all variables which are currently defined in the global scope of the script.

71) What does $_SERVER mean?

$_SERVER is an array including information created by the web server such as paths, headers, and script locations.

72) What does $_FILES means?

$_FILES is an associative array composed of items sent to the current script via the HTTP POST method.

73) What is the difference between $_FILES['userfile']['name'] and $_FILES['userfile']['tmp_name']?

$_FILES['userfile']['name'] represents the original name of the file on the client machine,

$_FILES['userfile']['tmp_name'] represents the temporary filename of the file stored on the server.

74) How can we get the error when there is a problem to upload a file?

$_FILES['userfile']['error'] contains the error code associated with the uploaded file.

75) How can we change the maximum size of the files to be uploaded?

We can change the maximum size of files to be uploaded by changing upload_max_filesize in php.ini.

76) What does $_ENV mean?

$_ENV is an associative array of variables sent to the current PHP script via the environment method.

77) What does $_COOKIE mean?

$_COOKIE is an associative array of variables sent to the current PHP script using the HTTP Cookies.

78) What does the scope of variables mean?

The scope of a variable is the context within which it is defined. For the most part, all PHP variables only have a single scope. This single scope spans included and required files as well.

79) what the difference between the 'BITWISE AND' operator and the 'LOGICAL AND' operator?

$a and $b: TRUE if both $a and $b are TRUE.

$a & $b: Bits that are set in both $a and $b are set.

80) What are the two main string operators?

The first is the concatenation operator ('.'), which returns the concatenation of its right and left arguments. The second is ('.='), which appends the argument on the right to the argument on the left.

81) What does the array operator '===' means?

$a === $b TRUE if $a and $b have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types.

82) What is the differences between $a != $b and $a !== $b?

!= means inequality (TRUE if $a is not equal to $b) and !== means non-identity (TRUE if $a is not identical to $b).

83) How can we determine whether a PHP variable is an instantiated object of a certain class?

To be able to verify whether a PHP variable is an instantiated object of a certain class we use instanceof.

84) What is the goto statement useful for?

The goto statement can be placed to enable jumping inside the PHP program. The target is pointed by a label followed by a colon, and the instruction is specified as a goto statement followed by the desired target label.

85) what is the difference between Exception::getMessage and Exception:: getLine?

Exception::getMessage lets us getting the Exception message and Exception::getLine lets us getting the line in which the exception occurred.

86) What does the expression Exception::__toString means?

Exception::__toString gives the String representation of the exception.

87) How is it possible to parse a configuration file?

The function parse_ini_file() enables us to load in the ini file specified in filename and returns the settings in it in an associative array.

88) How can we determine whether a variable is set?

The boolean function isset determines if a variable is set and is not NULL.

89) What is the difference between the functions strstr() and stristr()?

The string function strstr(string allString, string occ) returns part of allString from the first occurrence of occ to the end of allString. This function is case-sensitive. stristr() is identical to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

90) what is the difference between for and foreach?

for is expressed as follows:

for (expr1; expr2; expr3)

statement

The first expression is executed once at the beginning. In each iteration, expr2 is evaluated. If it is TRUE, the loop continues, and the statements inside for are executed. If it evaluates to FALSE, the execution of the loop ends. expr3 is tested at the end of each iteration.

However, foreach provides an easy way to iterate over arrays, and it is only used with arrays and objects.

91) Is it possible to submit a form with a dedicated button?

It is possible to use the document.form.submit() function to submit the form. For example: <input type=button value="SUBMIT" onClick="document.form.submit()">

92) What is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()?

The function eregi_replace() is identical to the function ereg_replace() except that it ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters.

93) Is it possible to protect special characters in a query string?

Yes, we use the urlencode() function to be able to protect special characters.

94) What are the three classes of errors that can occur in PHP?

The three basic classes of errors are notices (non-critical), warnings (serious errors) and fatal errors (critical errors).

95) What is the difference between characters \034 and \x34?

\034 is octal 34 and \x34 is hex 34.

96) How can we pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?

It is possible to pass the variables between the PHP pages using sessions, cookies or hidden form fields.

97) Is it possible to extend the execution time of a PHP script?

The use of the set_time_limit(int seconds) enables us to extend the execution time of a PHP script. The default limit is 30 seconds.

98) Is it possible to destroy a cookie?

Yes, it is possible by setting the cookie with a past expiration time.

99) What is the default session time in PHP?

The default session time in php is until the closing of the browser

100) Is it possible to use COM component in PHP?

Yes, it's possible to integrate (Distributed) Component Object Model components ((D)COM) in PHP scripts which is provided as a framework.

101) Explain whether it is possible to share a single instance of a Memcache between multiple PHP projects?

Yes, it is possible to share a single instance of Memcache between multiple projects. Memcache is a memory store space, and you can run memcache on one or more servers. You can also configure your client to speak to a particular set of instances. So, you can run two different Memcache processes on the same host and yet they are completely independent. Unless, if you have partitioned your data, then it becomes necessary to know from which instance to get the data from or to put into.

102) Explain how you can update Memcached when you make changes to PHP?

When PHP changes you can update Memcached by

  • Clearing the Cache proactively: Clearing the cache when an insert or update is made
  • Resetting the Cache: It is similar to the first method but rather than just deleting the keys and waiting for the next request for the data to refresh the cache, reset the values after the insert or update.

? ?

PHP is a server side scripting language commonly used for web applications. PHP has many frameworks and cms for creating websites.Even a non technical person can cretae sites using its CMS.WordPress,osCommerce are the famus CMS of php.It is also an object oriented programming language like java,C-sharp etc.It is very eazy for learning

? What is the use of "echo" in php?

It is used to print a data in the webpage, Example: <?php echo 'Car insurance'; ?> , The following code print the text in the webpage

? How to include a file to a php page?

We can include a file using "include() " or "require()" function with file path as its parameter.

? What's the difference between include and require?

If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.

? require_once(), require(), include().What is difference between them?

require() includes and evaluates a specific file, while require_once() does that only if it has not been included before (on the same page). So, require_once() is recommended to use when you want to include a file where you have a lot of functions for example. This way you make sure you don't include the file more times and you will not get the "function re-declared" error.

? Differences between GET and POST methods ?

We can send 1024 bytes using GET method but POST method can transfer large amount of data and POST is the secure method than GET method .

? How to declare an array in php?

Eg : var $arr = array('apple', 'grape', 'lemon');

? What is the use of 'print' in php?

This is not actually a real function, It is a language construct. So you can use with out parentheses with its argument list.
Example print('PHP Interview questions');
print 'Job Interview ');

? What is use of in_array() function in php ?

in_array used to checks if a value exists in an array

? What is use of count() function in php ?

count() is used to count all elements in an array, or something in an object

? What's the difference between include and require?

It's how they handle failures. If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.

? What is the difference between Session and Cookie?

The main difference between sessions and cookies is that sessions are stored on the server, and cookies are stored on the user's computers in the text file format. Cookies can't hold multiple variable while session can hold multiple variables..We can set expiry for a cookie,The session only remains active as long as the browser is open.Users do not have access to the data you stored in Session,Since it is stored in the server.Session is mainly used for login/logout purpose while cookies using for user activity tracking

? How to set cookies in PHP?

Setcookie("sample", "ram", time()+3600);

? How to Retrieve a Cookie Value?

eg : echo $_COOKIE["user"];

? How to create a session? How to set a value in session ? How to Remove data from a session?

Create session : session_start();
Set value into session : $_SESSION['USER_ID']=1;
Remove data from a session : unset($_SESSION['USER_ID'];

? what types of loops exist in php?

for,while,do while and foreach (NB: You should learn its usage)

? Note:-

MySQLi (the "i" stands for improved) and PDO (PHP Data Objects) are the MySQL extensions used to connect to the MySQL server in PHP5 or verions, MySQL extension was deprecated in 2012.

MySQLi only works with MySQL databases whereas PDO will works with 12 other Database systems

I recommend PDO because, if you want to choose another database instead of MySQL, then you only have to change the connection string and a few queries. But if you are using MySQLi you will need to rewrite the entire code

? How to create a mysql connection?

Example (PDO)

<?php
$servername =
"localhost" ;
$username =
"username" ;
$password =
"password" ;

try {
$conn =
new PDO( "mysql:host=$servername;dbname=myDB" , $username, $password);
// set the PDO error mode to exception
$conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
echo "Connected successfully" ;
}
catch (PDOException $e)
{
echo "Connection failed: " . $e->getMessage();
}
?>

Example (MySQLi Object-Oriented)

<?php
$servername =
"localhost" ;
$username =
"username" ;
$password =
"password" ;
$dbname =
"myDB" ; // Optional

// Create connection
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);

// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
die ( "Connection failed: " . $conn->connect_error);
}

echo "Connected successfully" ;
?>

Example (MySQLi Procedural)

<?php
$servername =
"localhost" ;
$username =
"username" ;
$password =
"password" ;
$dbname =
"myDB" ; // Optional


// Create connection
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);

// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
die ( "Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
echo "Connected successfully" ;
?>

? How to execute an sql query? How to fetch its result ?

Example (MySQLi Object-oriented)


$sql =
"SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests" ;
$result = $conn->query($sql);
// execute sql query

if ($result->num_rows > 0 ) {
// output data of each row
while ($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) { // fetch data from the result set
echo "id: " . $row[ "id" ]. " - Name: " . $row[ "firstname" ]. " " . $row[ "lastname" ]. "<br>" ;
}
}
else {
echo "0 results" ;
}

Example (MySQLi Procedural)


$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests";
$result = mysqli_query($conn, $sql); // execute sql query

if (mysqli_num_rows($result) > 0) {
// output data of each row
while($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)) { // fetch data from the result set
echo "id: " . $row["id"]. " - Name: " . $row["firstname"]. " " . $row["lastname"]. "<br>";
}
} else {
echo "0 results";
}

Example (PDO)

Method 1:USE PDO query method

$stmt = $db->query('SELECT id FROM Employee');
$row_count = $stmt->rowCount();
echo $row_count.' rows selected';

Method 2: Statements With Parameters

$stmt = $db->prepare("SELECT id FROM Employee WHERE name=?");
$stmt->execute(array($name));
$rows = $stmt->fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

? Write a program using while loop

<?php
$x =
1 ;

while ($x <= 5 ) {
echo "The number is: $x <br>" ;
$x++;
}
?>

? How we can retrieve the data in the result set of MySQL using PHP?

MySQLi methods

  • 1. mysqli_fetch_row
  • 2. mysqli_fetch_array
  • 3. mysqli_fetch_object
  • 4. mysqli_fetch_assoc

PDO methods

  • 1. PDOStatement::fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC)
  • 2. PDOStatement::fetch(PDO::FETCH_OBJ)
  • 3. PDOStatement::fetch()
  • 4. PDOStatement::fetch(PDO::FETCH_NUM)

? What is the use of explode() function ?

Syntax : array explode ( string $delimiter , string $string [, int $limit ] );
This function breaks a string into an array. Each of the array elements is a substring of string formed by splitting it on boundaries formed by the string delimiter.

? What is the difference between explode() and str_split() functions?

str_split function splits string into array by regular expression. Explode splits a string into array by string.

? What is the use of mysql_real_escape_string() function?

It is used to escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement

? Write down the code for save an uploaded file in php.

<?php
if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] == 0)
{
move_uploaded_file ($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"],
"upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"]);
echo "Stored in: " . "upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"];
}
?>

? How to create a text file in php?

<?php
$filename = "/home/user/guest/newfile.txt";
$file =
fopen ( $filename, "w" );
if( $file == false )
{
echo ( "Error in opening new file" ); exit();
}
fwrite ( $file, "This is a simple test\n" );
fclose ( $file );
?>

? How to strip whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning and end of a string ?

The trim() function removes whitespaces or other predefined characters from both sides of a string.

? What is the use of header() function in php ?

The header() function sends a raw HTTP header to a client browser.Remember that this function must be called before sending the actual out put.For example, You do not print any HTML element before using this function.

? How to redirect a page in php?

The following code can be used for it, header("Location:index.php");

? How stop the execution of a php scrip ?

exit() function is used to stop the execution of a page

? How to set a page as a home page in a php based site ?

index.php is the default name of the home page in php based sites

? How to find the length of a string?

strlen() function used to find the length of a string

? what is the use of rand() in php?

It is used to generate random numbers.If called without the arguments it returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and getrandmax(). If you want a random number between 6 and 12 (inclusive), for example, use rand(6, 12).This function does not generate cryptographically safe values, and should not be used for cryptographic uses. If you want a cryptographically secure value, consider using openssl_random_pseudo_bytes() instead.

? what is the use of isset() in php?

This function is used to determine if a variable is set and is not NULL

? What is the difference between mysql_fetch_array() and mysql_fetch_assoc() ?

mysql_fetch_assoc function Fetch a result row as an associative array, While mysql_fetch_array() fetches an associative array, a numeric array, or both

? What is mean by an associative array?

Associative arrays are arrays that use string keys is called associative arrays.

? What is the importance of "method" attribute in a html form?

"method" attribute determines how to send the form-data into the server.There are two methods, get and post. The default method is get.This sends the form information by appending it on the URL.Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.

? What is the importance of "action" attribute in a html form?

The action attribute determines where to send the form-data in the form submission.

? What is the use of "enctype" attribute in a html form?

The enctype attribute determines how the form-data should be encoded when submitting it to the server. We need to set enctype as "multipart/form-data" when we are using a form for uploading files

? How to create an array of a group of items inside an HTML form ?

We can create input fields with same name for "name" attribute with squire bracket at the end of the name of the name attribute, It passes data as an array to PHP.
For instance :

<input name="animal[]" id="cat" />
<input name="animal[]" id="rat" />
<input name="animal[]" id="lion" />
<input name="animal[]" id="snake" />

? Define Object-Oriented Methodology

Object orientation is a software programming methodology that is based on the modeling a real world system.An object is the core concept involved in the object orientation. An object is the copy of the real world enity.An object oriented model is a collection of objects and its inter-relationships

? How do you define a constant?

Using define() directive, like define ("MYCONSTANT",150)

? How send email using php?

To send email using PHP, you use the mail() function.This mail() function accepts 5 parameters as follows (the last 2 are optional). You need webserver, you can't send email from localhost. eg :

<?php
mail($to,$subject,$message,$headers);
?>

mcrypt_encrypt :- string mcrypt_encrypt ( string $cipher , string $key , string $data , string $mode [, string $iv ] );
Encrypts plaintext with given parameters

? How to find current date and time?

The date() function provides you with a means of retrieving the current date and time, applying the format integer parameters indicated in your script to the timestamp provided or the current local time if no timestamp is given. In simplified terms, passing a time parameter is optional - if you don't, the current timestamp will be used.

? How to convert one date format into another in PHP ?

<?php
$old_date = date('l, F d y h:i:s');
// returns Saturday, January 30 10 02:06:34
$old_date_timestamp = strtotime($old_date);
$new_date = date('Y-m-d H:i:s', $old_date_timestamp);
?>

? Difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect?

There is a good page in the php manual on the subject, in short mysql_pconnect() makes a persistent connection to the database which means a SQL link that do not close when the execution of your script ends. mysql_connect()provides only for the databasenewconnection while using mysql_pconnect , the function would first try to find a (persistent) link that's already open with the same host, username and password. If one is found, an identifier for it will be returned instead of opening a new connection... the connection to the SQL server will not be closed when the execution of the script ends. Instead, the link will remain open for future use.

? What is the use of "ksort" in php?

It is used for sort an array by key in reverse order.

? What is the difference between $var and $$var?

They are both variables. But $var is a variable with a fixed name. $$var is a variable who's name is stored in $var. For example, if $var contains "message", $$var is the same as $message.

? What are the encryption techniques in PHP

MD5 PHP implements the MD5 hash algorithm using the md5 function,

<?php
$encrypted_text = md5 ($msg);
?>

? What is the use of the function htmlentities?

htmlentities Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.

? How to delete a file from the system

Unlink() deletes the given file from the file system.

? How to get the value of current session id?

session_id() function returns the session id for the current session.

? What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?

  • Mysql_fetch_array Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both.
  • mysql_fetch_object ( resource result ) Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row, or FALSE if there are no more rows
  • mysql_fetch_row() fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. The row is returned as an array. Each result column is stored in an array offset, starting at offset 0.

? What are the different types of errors in PHP ?

Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:

  • 1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script - for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all - although you can change this default behavior.
  • 2. Warnings: These are more serious errors - for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.
  • 3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors - for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP's default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.

? what is sql injection ?

SQL injection is a malicious code injection technique.It exploiting SQL vulnerabilities in Web applications

? What is x+ mode in fopen() used for?

Read/Write. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists

? How to find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string

strpos() is used to find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string

? What is PEAR?

PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components.The project seeks to provide a structured library of code, maintain a system for distributing code and for managing code packages, and promote a standard coding style.PEAR is broken into three classes: PEAR Core Components, PEAR Packages, and PECL Packages. The Core Components include the base classes of PEAR and PEAR_Error, along with database, HTTP, logging, and e-mailing functions. The PEAR Packages include functionality providing for authentication, networking, and file system features, as well as tools for working with XML and HTML templates.

? Distinguish between urlencode and urldecode?

This method is best when encode a string to used in a query part of a url. it returns a string in which all non-alphanumeric characters except -_. have replece with a percentege(%) sign . the urldecode->Decodes url to encode string as any %and other symbole are decode by the use of the urldecode() function.

? What are the different errors in PHP?

In PHP, there are three types of runtime errors, they are:

Warnings:
These are important errors. Example: When we try to include () file which is not available. These errors are showed to the user by default but they will not result in ending the script.
Notices:
These errors are non-critical and trivial errors that come across while executing the script in PHP. Example: trying to gain access the variable which is not defined. These errors are not showed to the users by default even if the default behavior is changed.
Fatal errors:
These are critical errors. Example: instantiating an object of a class which does not exist or a non-existent function is called. These errors results in termination of the script immediately and default behavior of PHP is shown to them when they take place. Twelve different error types are used to represent these variations internally.

1. Who is the father of PHP ?
Rasmus Lerdorf is known as the father of PHP.


2. What is the difference between $name and $$name?
$name is variable where as $$name is reference variable like $name=sonia and $$name=singh so $sonia value is singh.


3. What are the method available in form submitting?

GET and POST


4.How can we get the browser properties using PHP?

<?php

echo $_SERVER[‘HTTP_USER_AGENT’].”\n\n”;
$browser=get_browser(null,true);
print_r($browser);
?>


5. What Is a Session?

A session is a logical object created by the PHP engine to allow you to preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests. Sessions are commonly used to store temporary data to allow multiple PHP pages to offer a complete functional transaction for the same visitor.

6. How can we register the variables into a session?

<?php
session_register($ur_session_var);
?>


7. How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?

Register the variable into the session
Pass the variable as a cookie
Pass the variable as part of the URL



8. How can we know the total number of elements of Array?

sizeof($array_var)
count($array_var)



9. How can we create a database using php?

mysql_create_db();


10. What is the functionality of the function strstr and stristr?

strstr() returns part of a given string from the first occurrence of a given substring to the end of the string.
For example:strstr("user@example.com","@") will return "@example.com".
stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.



11. What are encryption functions in PHP?


CRYPT(), MD5()


12. How to store the uploaded file to the final location?

move_uploaded_file( string filename, string destination)


13. Explain mysql_error().

The mysql_error() message will tell us what was wrong with our query, similar to the message we would receive at the MySQL console.


14. What is Constructors and Destructors?

CONSTRUCTOR : PHP allows developers to declare constructor methods for classes. Classes which have a constructor method call this method on each newly-created object, so it is suitable for any initialization that the object may need before it is used.
DESTRUCTORS : PHP 5 introduces a destructor concept similar to that of other object-oriented languages, such as C++. The destructor method will be called as soon as all references to a particular object are removed or when the object is explicitly destroyed or in any order in shutdown sequence.

15. Explain the visibility of the property or method.

The visibility of a property or method must be defined by prefixing the declaration with the keywords public, protected or private.
Class members declared public can be accessed everywhere.
Members declared protected can be accessed only within the class itself and by inherited and parent classes.
Members declared as private may only be accessed by the class that defines the member.

16. What are the differences between Get and post methods.

There are some defference between GET and POST method
1. GET Method have some limit like only 2Kb data able to send for request
But in POST method unlimited data can we send
2. when we use GET method requested data show in url but
Not in POST method so POST method is good for send sensetive request


17. What are the differences between require and include?

Both include and require used to include a file but when included file not found
Include send Warning where as Require send Fatal Error


18. What is use of header() function in php ?

The header() function sends a raw HTTP header to a client.We can use herder()
function for redirection of pages. It is important to notice that header() must
be called before any actual output is seen.

19. List out the predefined classes in PHP?

Directory
stdClass
__PHP_Incomplete_Class
exception
php_user_filter


20. What type of inheritance that PHP supports?

In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class,that is, multiple inheritance is not supported. Classes are extended using the keyword 'extends'.


21. How can we encrypt the username and password using php?

You can encrypt a password with the following Mysql>SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD("Password");
We can encode data using base64_encode($string) and can decode using base64_decode($string);

22. What is the difference between explode and split?

Split function splits string into array by regular expression. Explode splits a string into array by string.
For Example:explode(" and", "India and Pakistan and Srilanka");
split(" :", "India : Pakistan : Srilanka");
Both of these functions will return an array that contains India, Pakistan, and Srilanka.

23. How do you define a constant?

Constants in PHP are defined using define() directive, like define("MYCONSTANT", 100);


24. How do you pass a variable by value in PHP?

Just like in C++, put an ampersand in front of it, like $a = &$b;


25. What does a special set of tags <?= and ?> do in PHP?

The output is displayed directly to the browser.


26. How do you call a constructor for a parent class?

parent::constructor($value)


27. What’s the special meaning of __sleep and __wakeup?

__sleep returns the array of all the variables than need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.


28. What is the difference between PHP and JavaScript?

javascript is a client side scripting language, so javascript can make popups and other things happens on someone’s PC. While PHP is server side scripting language so it does every stuff with the server.


29. What is the difference between the functions unlink and unset?

unlink() deletes the given file from the file system.
unset() makes a variable undefined.


30. How many ways can we get the value of current session id?

session_id() returns the session id for the current session.


31. What are default session time and path?

default session time in PHP is 1440 seconds or 24 minutes
Default session save path id temporary folder /tmp


32. for image work which library?

we will need to compile PHP with the GD library of image functions for this to work. GD and PHP may also require other libraries, depending on which image formats you want to work with.


33. How can we get second of the current time using date function?

<?php
$second = date(“s”);
?>


34. What are the Formatting and Printing Strings available in PHP?

printf()- Displays a formatted string
sprintf()-Saves a formatted string in a variable
fprintf() -Prints a formatted string to a file
number_format()-Formats numbers as strings


35. How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP?

$result = mysql_query($sql, $db_link);
$num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result);
echo "$num_rows rows found";

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