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Technical Round Materials-Ubuntu-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Ubuntu-Free Download

Que 1) What do you understand by Linux Kernal? Is it legal to edit it?

Ans: ‘Kernal’ basically refers to that core component of the computer operating system that provides basic services for the other parts as well as interacts with user commands. When it comes to ‘Linux Kernal’, it is referred as low-level system software providing an interface for user-level interactions.

Linux Kernal is considered as free and open source software which is capable of managing hardware resources for the users. As it is released under General Public Licence (GPL), it becomes legal for anyone to edit it.

Que 2) Differentiate between LINUX and UNIX?

Ans: Although there are multiple differences between LINUX and UNIX, enlisted below table covers all the major differences.

LINUX

UNIX

LINUX is an open source software development and free operating system used for computer hardware & software, game development, PCs, etc.

UNIX is an operating system which is basically used in Intel, HP, internet servers, etc.

LINUX has priced as well as freely distributed and downloaded versions.

Different versions/flavours of UNIX have different price structures.

Users of this operating system could be anyone including home users, developers, etc.

This operating system was basically developed for mainframes, servers and workstations except for OSX which is designed such that it can be used by anyone.

File support system includes Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Jfs, Xfs, Btrfs, FAT, etc.

File support system includes jfs, gpfs, hfs, etc.

BASH (Bourne Again Shell) is the Linux default shell i.e. text mode interface which supports multiple command interpreters.

Bourne shell serves as the text mode interface which is now compatible with many others including BASH.

LINUX provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome.

Common desktop environment was created which serves as a GUI for UNIX.

Examples: Red Hat, Fedora, Ubuntu, Debian, etc.

Examples: Solaris, All Linux

It provides higher security and has about 60-100 viruses listed till date.

It is also highly secured and has about 85-120 viruses listed till date.

Que 3) Enlist the basic components of LINUX?

Ans: Linux operating system basically consists of 3 components which are enlisted below

  • Kernel: This is considered as the core part and is responsible for all major activities of Linux operating system. Linux Kernel is considered as free and open source software which is capable of managing hardware resources for the users. It consists of various modules and interacts directly with the underlying hardware.
  • System Library: Most of the functionalities of the operating system are implemented by System Libraries. These act as a special function using which application programs accesses Kernel’s features.
  • System Utility: These programs are responsible for performing specialized, individual level tasks.

Que 4) Why we use LINUX?

Ans: LINUX is used widely because it is completely different from other operating systems where every aspect comes with something extra i.e. some additional features. Some of the major reasons to use LINUX are listed below

  • It is an open source operating system where programmers get the advantage of designing their own custom OS
  • Software and the server licensing required to install Linux is completely free and can be installed on many computers as required
  • It has low or minimum but controllable issues with viruses, malware, etc
  • It is highly secured and supports multiple file systems

Que 5) Enlist the features of Linux operating system?

Ans: Following are some important features of LINUX operating system

  • Linux kernel and application programs can be installed on any kind of hardware platform and thus is considered as portable.
  • It serves the purpose of multitasking by serving various functions simultaneously.
  • It provides the security services in three ways namely, Authentication, Authorization, and Encryption.
  • It supports multiple users to access the same system resource but by using different terminals for operation.
  • Linux provides hierarchical file system and its code is freely available to all.
  • It has its own application support (to download and install applications) and customized keyboards.
  • Linux distros provide live CD/USB to their users for installation.

Que 6) Explain LILO?

Ans: LILO (Linux Loader) is the boot loader for Linux operating system to load it into the main memory so that it can begin its operations. Bootloader here is a small program that manages a dual boot. LILO resides in MBR (Master Boot Record).

Its major advantage is that it allows the fast bootup of Linux when installing in the MBR.

Its limitation lies in the fact that it is not possible for all computers to tolerate modification of MBR.

Que 7) What is Swap space?

Ans: Swap space is the amount of physical memory that is allocated for use by Linux to hold some concurrent running programs temporarily. This condition usually occurs when Ram does not have enough memory to support all concurrent running programs. This memory management involves the swapping of memory to and from physical storage.

There are different commands and tools available to manage the Swap space usage.

Que 8) What do you understand by Root account?

Ans: As the name suggests, it is like a system administrator account which gives you the ability to fully control the system. Root account serves as the default account whenever Linux is installed.Below mentioned functions can be performed by Root account

Below mentioned functions can be performed by Root account

  • Create user accounts
  • Maintain user accounts
  • Assign different permissions to each account created and so on..

Que 9) Explain virtual desktop?

Ans: When there are multiple windows available on the current desktop and there appears the problem of minimizing and maximizing windows or restoring all the current programs, there ‘Virtual Desktop’ serves as an alternative. It allows you to open one or more programs on a clean slate. Virtual desktops are basically stored on a remote server and serve the following benefits:

Virtual desktops are basically stored on a remote server and serve the following benefits

  • Cost savings as the resources can be shared and allocated as and when required.
  • Resources and energy are more efficiently used.
  • Data integrity is improved.
  • Centralized administration
  • Less compatibility issues.

Que 10) Differentiate between BASH and DOS?

Ans: The basic differences between BASH and DOS can be understood from the below table

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BASH

DOS

BASH commands are case sensitive.

DOS commands are not case sensitive.

‘/’ character used as a directory separator.
‘\’ character acts as an escape character.

‘/’ character: serves as a command argument delimiter.
‘\’ character: serves as a directory separator.

File naming convention includes: 8 character file name followed by a dot and 3 characters for the extension.

No file naming convention is followed in DOS.

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Que 11) Explain the term GUI?

Ans: GUI stands for the Graphical user interface. GUI is considered as the most attractive and user-friendly because it consists of the usage of images and icons. These images and icons are clicked and being manipulated by the users for the purpose of communication with the system.

Advantages of GUI:

  • Allows users to navigate and operate the software with the help of visual elements.
  • More intuitive and rich interface is possible to be created.
  • Less chances of occurrence of errors as complex, multi-step, dependent tasks are easily grouped together.
  • Productivity is enhanced with the means of multitasking as with a simple click of the mouse, the user is able to maintain multiple open applications and transitions between them.

Disadvantages of GUI:

  • End-users have less control over the operating system and file systems.
  • Although it is easier to use mouse and keyboard for navigation and controlling operating system, the whole process is a bit slow.
  • It requires more resources because of the elements that need to be loaded such as icons, fonts, etc.

Que 12) Explain the term CLI?

Ans: CLI stands for Command Line Interface. It is a way for humans to interact with computers and is also known as Command line user interface. It relies on textual request and response transaction process where user types declarative commands to instruct the computer to perform operations.

Advantages of CLI

  • Very flexible
  • Can easily access commands
  • Much faster and easier to use by expert
  • Does not use much CPU processing time.

Disadvantages of CLI

  • Learning and remembering type commands is hard.
  • Have to be typed precisely.
  • Can be very confusing.
  • Surfing web, graphics, etc are few tasks which are hard or impossible to do on the command line.

Que 13) Enlist some Linux distributors (Distros) along with its usage?

Ans: Different parts of LINUX say kernel, system environment, graphical programs, etc are developed by different organizations. LINUX Distributions (Distros) assemble all these different parts of Linux and give us a compiled operating system to be installed and used.

There are around six hundred Linux distributors. Let us see some of the important ones

  • UBuntu: It is a well known Linux Distribution with a lot of pre-installed apps and easy to use repositories libraries. It is very easy to use and works like MAC operating system.
  • Linux Mint: It uses cinnamon and mate desktop. It works on windows and should be used by newcomers.
  • Debian: It is the most stable, quicker and user-friendly Linux Distributors.
  • Fedora: It is less stable but provides the latest version of the software. It has GNOME3 desktop environment by default.
  • Red Hat Enterprise: It is to be used commercially and to be well tested before release. It usually provides the stable platform for a long time.
  • Arch Linux: Every package is to be installed by you and is not suitable for the beginners.

Que 14) How can you determine the total memory used by LINUX?

Ans: It is always required to keep a check on the memory usage in order to find out whether the user is able to access the server or the resources are adequate. There are roughly 5 methods that determine the total memory used by the Linux.

This is explained as below

  • Free command : This is the most simple and easy to use the command to check memory usage. For example: ‘$ free –m’, the option ‘m’ displays all the data in MBs.
  • /proc/meminfo: The next way to determine the memory usage is to read /proc/meminfo file. For example: ‘$ cat /proc/meminfo’
  • Vmstat : This command basically lays out the memory usage statistics. For example: ‘$ vmstat –s’
  • Top command : This command determines the total memory usage as well as also monitors the RAM usage.
  • Htop : This command also displays the memory usage along with other details.

Que 15) Explain the 3 kinds of file permissions under LINUX?

Ans: Every file and directory in Linux are assigned three types of owners namely ‘User’, ‘Group’, and ‘Others’. Find the three kinds of permissions defined for all the three owners

  • Read : This permission allows you to open and read the file as well as list the contents of the directory.
  • Write : This permission allows you to modify the contents of the file as well as allows adding, removing and renaming files stored in the directories.
  • Execute : User can access and run the file in the directory. You cannot run a file unless the execute permission is set.

Que 16) What is the maximum length for any file name under LINUX?

Ans: The maximum length for any filename under Linux is 255 characters.

Que 17) How permissions are granted under LINUX?

Ans: A system administrator or the owner of the file can grant permissions using the ‘chmod’ command. Following symbols are used while writing permissions



  • ‘+’ for adding permission
  • ‘-‘ for denying permission

Permissions also includes single letter which denotes

u : user; g: group; o: other; a: all; r: read; w: write; x: execute.

Que 18) What are the different modes when using the vi editor?

Ans: The 3 different kinds of modes in vi editor are enlisted below

  • Command Mode/ Regular Mode
  • Insertion Mode/ Edit Mode
  • Ex Mode/ Replacement Mode

Que 19) Explain the Linux Directory commands along with the description?

Ans: Enlisted below are the directory commands along with descriptions

  • pwd: It is a built-in command which stands for ‘print working directory’. It displays the current working location, working path starting with / and directory of the user. Basically, it displays the full path to the directory you are currently in.
  • Is: This command list out all the files in the directed folder.
  • cd: This stands for ‘change directory’. This command is used to change to the directory you want to work from the present directory. We just need to type cd followed by the directory name to access that particular directory.
  • mkdir: This command is used to create an entirely new directory.
  • rmdir: This command is used to remove a directory from the system.

Que 20) Differentiate between Cron and Anacron?

Ans: Difference between Cron and Anacron can be understood from the below table

Cron

Anacron

Cron allows the user to schedule tasks to be executed every minute.

Anacron allows the user to schedule tasks to be run either on a specific date or the first available cycle after the date.

Tasks can be scheduled by any normal user and are basically used when tasks have to be completed/executed at a particular hour or minute.

Anacron can be used only by super users and is used when a task has to be executed irrespective of hour or minute.

It is ideal for servers

It is ideal for desktops and laptops

Cron expects the system to be running 24x7.

Anacron does not expects the system to be running 24x7.

Que 21) Explain the work of Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination on Linux operating system?

Ans: The work of Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination on Linux operating system is same as is for Windows i.e. to restart the system. The only difference is that there is no confirmation message displayed and a system is rebooted directly.

Que 22) What is the role of case sensitivity in affecting the way commands are used?

Ans: Linux is considered as cases sensitive. Case sensitivity can sometimes serve as the reason for displaying different answers for the same command as you might enter different format of commands each time. In terms of case sensitivity, the command is same but the only difference occurs with regard to uppercase and lowercase letters.

For example cd, CD, Cd are different commands with different outputs.

Que 23) Explain Linux Shell?

Ans: For executing any commands user uses a program known as the shell. Linux shell is basically a user interface used for executing the commands and communicating with Linux operating system. Shell does not use the kernel to execute certain programs, create files, etc. There are several shells available with Linux which includes the following

  • BASH (Bourne Again SHell)
  • CSH ( C Shell)
  • KSH ( Korn Shell)
  • TCSH

There are basically two types of Shell commands

  • Built-in shell commands: These commands are called from the shell and executed directly within the shell. Examples: ‘pwd’, ’help’, ’type’, ’set’, etc.
  • External/ Linux commands: These commands are totally shell independent, have their own binary and are located in the file system.

Que 24) What is a Shell script?

Ans: As the name suggests, the shell script is the script written for the shell. This is a program file or says a flat text file where certain Linux commands are executed one after another. Although the execution speed is slow, Shell script is easy to debug and can also simplify everyday automation processes.

Que 25) Explain the features of Stateless Linux server?

Ans: The word stateless itself means ‘no state’. When on a single workstation, no state exists for the centralized server, and then the stateless Linux server comes into the picture. Under such conditions, scenarios like keeping all the systems on the same particular state can occur.

Some of the features of Stateless Linux server are explained below

  • Stores prototype of every machine
  • Store snapshots
  • Store home directories
  • Uses LDAP which determines the snapshot of state to be run on which system.

Que 26) What are system calls used for process management in Linux?

Ans: Process management in Linux uses certain system calls. These are mentioned in below table with a brief explanation

System calls

Explanation

Fork()

To create a new process

Exec()

For execution of a new program

Wait()

To make the process to wait

Exit()

Exit/terminate the process

Getpid()

To find the unique process id

Getppid()

To find the parent process id

Nice()

To bias the currently running process property

Que 27) Enlist some Linux file content commands?

Ans: There are many commands present in Linux which are used to look at the contents of the file.

Some of them are enlisted below

  • head: Displays the beginning of the file
  • tail: Displays the last part of the file
  • cat: Concatenate files and print on the standard output.
  • more: Displays the content in pager form and is used to view text in the terminal window one page or screen at a time.
  • less: Displays the content in pager form and allows backward and single line movement.

Que 28) Explain Redirection?

Ans: It is well known that every command takes an input and displays an output. Keyboard serves as the standard input device and screen serves as the standard output device. Redirection is defined as the process of directing data from one output to another or even cases exist where output serves as an input data for another process.

There are basically three streams available in which input and output of Linux environment are distributed.

These are explained as below

  • Input Redirection: ‘<’ symbol is used for input redirection and is numbered as (0). Thus it is denoted as STDIN(0).
  • Output Redirection: ‘>’ symbol is used for output redirection and is numbered as (1). Thus it is denoted as STDOUT(1).
  • Error Redirection: It is denoted as STDERR(2).

Que 29) Why is Linux considered as more secured than other operating systems?

Ans: Linux is an open source operating system and nowadays it is growing rapidly in the tech world/market. Although the entire code written in Linux can be read by anyone, then to it is considered as more secure because of the following reasons

  • Linux provides its user with limited default privileges which are basically restricted to the lower levels .i.e. in the case of any virus attack, it will reach only local files and folders where the system-wide damage is saved.
  • It has a powerful auditing system which includes detailed logs.
  • Enhanced features of IPtables are used in order to implement a greater level of security for Linux machine.
  • Linux has tougher program permissions before installing anything on your machine.

Que 30) Explain command grouping in Linux?

Ans: Command grouping is basically done by the use of braces ‘()’ and parenthesis ‘{}’. Redirection is applied to the entire group when the command is grouped.

  • When commands are placed within the braces, then they are executed by the current shell. Eg: (list)
  • When the commands are placed within the parenthesis, then they are executed by a subshell. Eg: {list;}

Que 31) What is Linux pwd (print working directory) command?

Ans: Linux pwd command displays the whole path of the current location you are working in starting from the root ‘/’. For example, to print the current working directory enter “$ pwd”.

It can be used for the bellow purposes

  • To find the full path of the current directory
  • Store the full path
  • Verify the absolute and physical path

Que 32) Explain the Linux ‘cd’ command options along with the description?

Ans: ‘cd’ stands for change directory and is used to change the current directory on which user is working.

cd syntax : $ cd {directory}

Following purposes can be served with ‘cd’ commands

  • Change from current to a new directory
  • Change directory using the absolute path
  • Change directory using the relative path

Few of the ‘cd’ options are enlisted below

  • cd~: Brings you to the home directory
  • cd-: Brings you to the previous directory
  • . : Bring you to the parent directory
  • cd/: Takes you to the entire system’s root directory

Que 33) What is know about grep commands?

Ans: Grep stands for ‘global regular expression print’. This command is used for matching a regular expression against text in a file. This command performs pattern-based searching and only the matching lines are displayed as output. It makes use of options and parameters that are specified along with the command line.

For example: Suppose we need to locate the phrase “our orders” in HTML file named as “order-listing.html”. Then the command will be as follows:

$ grep “our orders” order-listing.html

The grep command outputs the entire matching line to the terminal.

Que 34) How to create a new file and modify an existing file in vi editor? Also, enlist the commands used to delete information from vi editor.?

Ans: Find below the commands with the description

  • vi filename: This is the command used to create a new file as well as modify an existing file.
  • View filename: This command opens an existing file in read-only mode.
  • X: This command deletes the character which is under the cursor or before the cursor location.
  • dd: This command is used to delete the current line.

Que 35) Enlist some Linux networking and troubleshooting commands?

Ans: Every computer is connected to network internally or externally for the purpose of exchanging information. Network troubleshooting and configuration are essential parts of and network administration. The networking commands enable you to quickly troubleshoot connection issues with another system, check the response of another host, etc.

Network administrator maintains system network which includes network configuration and troubleshooting. Mentioned below are few commands along with their description:

Mentioned below are few commands along with their description

  • Hostname: To view the hostname (domain and IP address) of the machine and to set the hostname.
  • Ping: To check if the remote server is reachable or not.
  • ifconfig: To display and manipulate route and network interfaces. It displays network configuration. ‘ip’ is the replacement of ifconfig command.
  • netstat: It displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics. ‘ss’ is the replacement of netstat command which is used to get more information.
  • Traceroute: It is network troubleshooting utility which is used to find the number of hops required for a particular packet to reach the destination.
  • Tracepath: It is same as traceroute with a difference that it does not require root privileges.
  • Dig: This command is used to query the DNS name servers for any task related to DNS lookup.
  • nslookup: To find DNS related query.
  • Route: It shows the details of the route table and manipulates IP routing table.
  • mtr: This command combines ping and track path into a single command.
  • Ifplugstatus: This command tells us whether the network cable is plugged in or not.

1. Compare Linux & Windows

Criteria

Linux

Windows

Type of OS

Open Source

Proprietary

Customization

High level of customization

Cannot be changed

Security

Excellent

Cannot be changed

2. What is LILO?

  • LILO is Linux Loader is a boot loader for Linux. It is used to load Linux into the memory and start the Operating system. LILO can be configured to boot other operating systems as well. LILO is customizable, which means that if the default configuration is not correct, it can be changed. Config file for LILO is lilo.conf.
  • LILO is also a code snippet which loads PC BIOS into the main memory at the time of starting the computer system. It handles the following tasks :
    1. Locating Linux kernel.
    2. Identifying other supporting programs and loading them in the memory.
    3. Starting Kernel.
  • The selection of various kernel images and boot routines is supported by LILO. For this reason, it is known as boot manager.

3. You wish to print a file ‘draft’ with 60 lines on a page. What command would you use?

The command used : pr -l60 draft

  • The default page length when using pr is 66 lines.
  • The -l option specifies a different length.

4. What is LD_LIBRARY_PATH?

  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH is an environment variable. It is used for debugging a new library or a non-standard library. It is also used to identify what directories need to be searched. Path to search for directories needs to given.
  • The variable can be set using setenv —LD_LIBRARY_PATH–$PATH.
  • It is used to search for the shared objects / dynamic libraries by the operating system for extendable functionality at runtime.

5. Name a service that you should disable (which acts both as Web and FTP Server) on a Linux Server.

The finger service should be disabled because a remote user can get important information about the system by using that command.

6. What does Sar provide? Where are Sar logs stored?

Sar collects, reports, or saves system activity information, sar serves to log and evaluate a variety of information regarding system activity. With performance problems, sar also permits retroactive analysis of the load values for various sub-systems (CPUs, memory, disks, interrupts, network interfaces and so forth) and limitation of problems in this manner. If CPU utilization is near 100 % (user + nice + system), the workload sampled is CPU-bound.
By default, log files of Sar command is located at /var/log/sa/sadd file, where dd parameter indicates the current day.

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7. How to check Memory stats and CPU stats as a Linux admin?

Using ‘free’ & ‘vmstat’ command, we can display the physical and virtual memory statistics, respectively. With the help of ‘sar’ command, we can see the CPU utilization & other stats.

8. How to reduce or shrink the size of LVM partition?

Below are the logical steps to reduce size of LVM partition :

  • Unmount the filesystem using unmount command,
  • Use resize2fs command , e.g resiz2fs /dev/mapper/myvg-mylv 10G
  • Now use the lvreduce command as lvreduce -L 10G /dev/mapper/myvg-mylv

The above Command will shrink the size LVM partition and fixes the filesystem size to 10GB.Most in-depth, industry-led curriculum in linux.

9. What are the different modes of Network bonding in Linux?

Below are list of modes used in Network Bonding :

  • balance-rr or 0 – round-robin mode for fault tolerance and load balancing.
  • active-backup or 1 – Sets active-backup mode for fault tolerance.
  • balance-xor or 2 – Sets an XOR (exclusive-or) mode for fault tolerance and load balancing.
  • broadcast or 3 – Sets a broadcast mode for fault tolerance. All transmissions are sent on all slave interfaces.
  • 802.3ad or 4 – Sets an IEEE 802.3ad dynamic link aggregation mode. Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed & duplex settings.
  • balance-tlb or 5 – Sets a Transmit Load Balancing (TLB) mode for fault tolerance & load balancing.
  • balance-alb or 6 – Sets an Active Load Balancing (ALB) mode for fault tolerance & load balancing.

10. How to check and verify the status of the bond interface?

Using the command ‘cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0,’ we can check what mode is enabled and what LAN cards are used in this bond. In this example, we have one one bond interface. However, we can have multiple bond interfaces like bond1, bond2 and so on.

11. How can you enhance the security of password file?

Linux keep user account information in a text file called /etc/passwd. This file also stores one way encrypted password. It is accessed by several tools to get user information, which is a security risk, so file need to ‘Word Readable.’ To minimize the security risk, you can use shadow password format. This method saves account information in regular file /etc/passwd.

However, the password is stored as a single “x” character (not actually stored in this file). A second file, called “/etc/shadow” contains encrypted password as well as other information such as account or password expiration values, etc. The /etc/shadow file is readable only by the root account and is therefore less of a security risk

12. What command can you use to make a tape archive file of a /home directory and send it to the /dev/tape device?

The correct command is tar -cvf /dev/tape /home.
The -xvf option is used to extract files from an archive.Expert Linux Professionals are in much demand.

13. Suppose your FTP Server is hacked and the entire server needs to be restored. How should you restore the original kernel system files?

You cannot restore the entire operating system from tape backup device. So you should reinstall the core operating system, and then restore system configuration files and user data from tape backup device.

14. Why should you avoid Telnet to administer a Linux system remotely?

Telnet uses most insecure method for communication. It sends data across the network in plain text format and anybody can easily find out the password using the network tool. In the case of Telnet, these include the passing of login credentials in plain text, which means anyone running a sniffer on your network can find the information he needs to take control of a device in a few seconds by eavesdropping on a Telnet login session.

15. What is Puppet Server?

Puppet is an open-source & enterprise software for configuration management toll in UNIX like operating system. Puppet is an IT automation software that is used to push configuration to its clients (puppet agents) using code. Puppet code can do multiple tasks from installing new software to checking file permissions to updating user accounts.

16. What is the difference between Cron and Anacron?

1. Minimum granularity with Cron is minute while it is in days with Anacron.

2. Cron job can be scheduled by any normal user while Anacron can be scheduled only by the super user (the superuser is a special user account used for system administration. Depending on the operating system (OS), the actual name of this account might be root,administrator, admin or supervisor)

3. Cron expects the system to be up and running while the Anacron doesn’t expect the system to be up and running all the time. In case of Anacron, if a job is scheduled and the system is down that time, it will execute the job as soon as the system is up and running.

4. Cron is ideal for servers while Anacron is ideal for desktops and laptops.

5. Cron should be used when you want a job to be executed at a particular hour and minute while Anacron should be used in when the job can be executed irrespective of the hour and minute.

17. What command is used to check the number of files, disk space and each user’s defined quota?

repquota command is used to check the status of the user’s quota along with the disk space and number of files used.
This command gives a summary of the user’s quota that how much space and files are left for the user. Each user has a defined quota in Linux. This is done mainly for the security as some users have only limited access to files. This provides a security to the files from unwanted access. The quota can be given to a single user or to a group of users.

18. What is the name and path of the main system log?

By default, the main system log is ‘/var/log/messages’. This file contains all the messages and the script written by the user. By default, all scripts are saved in this file. This is the standard system log file, which contains messages from all system software, non-kernel boot issues, and messages that go to ‘dmesg’. dmesg is a system file that is written upon system boot.

19. Can Linux computer be made a router so that several machines may share a single Internet connection? How?

Yes, a Linux machine can be made a router. This is called “IP Masquerade.” IP Masquerade is a networking function in Linux similar to the one-to-many (1: Many) NAT (Network Address Translation) servers found in many commercial firewalls and network routers.

The IP Masquerade feature allows other “internal” computers connected to this Linux box (via PPP, Ethernet, etc.) to also reach the Internet as well. Linux IP Masquerading allows this functionality even if the internal computers do not have IP addresses.

The IP masquerading can be done by the following steps :

  • The Linux PC must have an internet connection and a connection to LAN. Typically, the Linux PC has two network interfaces-an Ethernet card for the LAN and a dial-up PPP connection to the Internet (through an ISP).
  • All other systems on your LAN use the Linux PC as the default gateway for TCP/IP networking. Use the same ISP-provided DNS addresses on all systems.
  • Enable IP forwarding in the kernel. By default the IP forwarding is not enabled. To ensure that IP forwarding is enabled when you reboot your system, place this command in the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file.
  • Run /sbin/iptables-the IP packet filter administration program-to set up the rules that enable the Linux PC to masquerade for your LAN.

20. How to change window manager by editing your home directory?

“/.xinitrc file” allows changing the window manager we want to use when logging into X from that account. The dot in the file name shows you that the file is a hidden file and doesn’t show when you do a normal directory listing. For setting a window manager we have to save a command in this file.

The syntax of command is : exec window manager . After this, save the file. Next time when you run a startx a new window manager will open and become default.
The commands for starting some popular window managers and desktop environments are :

  • KDE = startkde
  • Gnome = gnome-session.
  • Blackbox = blackbox.
  • FVWM = fvwm
  • Window Maker = wmaker.
  • IceWM = icewm

21. How shadow passwords are given by in Linux?

pwconv command is used for giving shadow passwords. Shadow passwords are given for better system security. The pwconv command creates the file /etc/shadow and changes all passwords to ‘x’ in the /etc/passwd file.

First, entries in the shadowed file which don’t exist in the main file are removed. Then, shadowed entries which don’t have `x’ as the password in the main file are updated. Any missing shadowed entries are added. Finally, passwords in the main file are replaced with `x’. These programs can be used for initial conversion as well to update the shadowed file if the main file is edited by hand.

22. What daemon is used for scheduling of the commands?

The crontab command is used for scheduling of the commands to run at a later time.
SYNTAX

crontab [ -u user ] file

crontab [ -u user ] { -l | -r | -e }

Options
l List – display the current crontab entries.
r Remove the current crontab.
e Edit the current crontab using the editor specified by the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables.
When user exits from the editor, the modified crontab will be installed automatically. Each user can have their own crontab, and though these are files in /var, they are not intended to be edited directly.
If the –u option is given than the crontab gives the name of the user whose crontab is to be tweaked. If it is given without this then it will display the crontab of the user who is executing the command.

23. What shell does a Linux Administrator assign to a POP3 mail-only account?

POP3 mail only account is assigned to the /bin/false shell. However, assigning bash shell to a POP3 mail only gives user login access, which is avoided. /bin/nologin can also be used. This shell is provided to the user when we don’t want to give shell access to the user. The user cannot access the shell and it rejects shell login on the server as in Telnet. It is mainly for the security of the shells.

POP3 is basically used for downloading mail to mail program. So for illegal downloading of emails on the shell, this account is assigned to the /bin/false shell or /bin/nologin. These both shells are same as they both do the same work of rejecting the user login to the shell.

The main difference between these two shells is that false shell shows the incorrect code and any unusual coding when user login to it. But the nologin shell simply tells that no such account is available. So nologin shell is used often in Linux.

24. If a volume group named VG0 already exists and we need to extend this volume group up to 4GB. How will you do it?

  • Firstly create Physical volume (/dev/sda7) of size 4GB.
  • Now run following command.
    vgextend VG0 /dev/sda7

25. Is there any relation between modprobe.conf file and network devices?

Yes, this file assigns a kernel module to each network device.

For Example :-

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/modprobe.conf

alias eth0 b44

Here, b44 is the kernel module for network device eth0.

We can confirm whether this module “b44” is present or not by the following command

[root@localhost ~]# lsmod |grep b44

b44 29005 0

26. What is YUM?

YUM stands for Yellow dog Updater, Modified because it is based on YUP, the Yellow dog Updater. Where does the name Yellow dog come from? Yellow Dog is a version of Linux for the Power Architecture hardware and is RPM-based, just like Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora. YUP, and later YUM, were written by the Linux community as a way to maintain an RPM-based system

27. What is the role of Kudzu?

Kudzu is used to detect new Hardware. RedHat Linux runs a hardware discoverer, named kudzu. When attempting to identify a serial port Kudzu resets the serial port. This stops the serial console. Kudzu is configured from the file/etc/sysconfig/kudzu.
Kudzu can be prevented from resetting hardware, by setting the configuration parameter SAFE to yes.

28. What is the difference between ext2 and ext3 file systems?

  • The ext3 file system is an enhanced version of the ext2 file system.
  • The most important difference between Ext2 and Ext3 is that Ext3 supports journaling.
  • After an unexpected power failure or system crash (also called an unclean system shutdown), each mounted ext2 file system on the machine must be checked for consistency by the e2fsck program. This is a time-consuming process and during this time, any data on the volumes is unreachable.
  • The journaling provided by the ext3 file system means that this sort of file system check is no longer necessary after an unclean system shutdown. The only time a consistency check occurs using ext3 is in certain rare hardware failure cases, such as hard drive failures. The time to recover an ext3 file system after an unclean system shutdown does not depend on the size of the file system or the number of files. Rather, it depends on the size of the journal used to maintain consistency. The default journal size takes almost a second to recover, depending on the speed of the hardware.

29. Explain /proc filesystem?

/proc is a virtual file system that provides detailed information about Linux kernel, hardware and running processes. Files under /proc directory named as Virtual files.
Since /proc contains virtual files, it is called virtual file system. These virtual files have unique qualities. Most of them are listed as zero bytes in size.
Virtual files such as /proc/interrupts, /proc/meminfo, /proc/mounts, and /proc/partitions provide an up-to-the-moment glimpse of the system’s hardware. Others: /proc/filesystems file and the /proc/sys/ directory provide system configuration information and interfaces.

30. How do you create ext4 file system?

# mke2fs -t ext4 /dev/DEV

31. How to Enable ACLs for /home partition?

Add following entry in /etc/fstab
LABEL=/home /home ext3 acl 1 2
Now remount /home partition with acl option.
mount -t ext3 -o acl /dev/sda3 /home

1) What is Linux?

Linux is an operating system based on UNIX and was first introduced by Linus Torvalds. It is based on the Linux Kernel and can run on different hardware platforms manufactured by Intel, MIPS, HP, IBM, SPARC, and Motorola. Another popular element in Linux is its mascot, a penguin figure named Tux.

2) What is the difference between UNIX and LINUX?

Unix originally began as a propriety operating system from Bell Laboratories, which later on spawned into different commercial versions. On the other hand, Linux is free, open source and intended as a non-propriety operating system for the masses.

3) What is BASH?

BASH is short for Bourne Again SHell. It was written by Steve Bourne as a replacement to the original Bourne Shell (represented by /bin/sh). It combines all the features from the original version of Bourne Shell, plus additional functions to make it easier and more convenient to use. It has since been adapted as the default shell for most systems running Linux.

4) What is Linux Kernel?

The Linux Kernel is a low-level systems software whose main role is to manage hardware resources for the user. It is also used to provide an interface for user-level interaction.

5) What is LILO?

LILO is a boot loader for Linux. It is used mainly to load the Linux operating system into main memory so that it can begin its operations.

6) What is a swap space?

Swap space is a certain amount of space used by Linux to temporarily hold some programs that are running concurrently. This happens when RAM does not have enough memory to hold all programs that are executing.

7) What is the advantage of open source?

Open source allows you to distribute your software, including source codes freely to anyone who is interested. People would then be able to add features and even debug and correct errors that are in the source code. They can even make it run better and then redistribute these enhanced source code freely again. This eventually benefits everyone in the community.

8 ) What are the basic components of Linux?

Just like any other typical operating system, Linux has all of these components: kernel, shells and GUIs, system utilities, and an application program. What makes Linux advantageous over other operating system is that every aspect comes with additional features and all codes for these are downloadable for free.

9) Does it help for a Linux system to have multiple desktop environments installed?

In general, one desktop environment, like KDE or Gnome, is good enough to operate without issues. It's all a matter of preference for the user, although the system allows switching from one environment to another. Some programs will work in one environment and not work on the other, so it could also be considered a factor in selecting which environment to use.

10) What is the basic difference between BASH and DOS?

The key differences between the BASH and DOS console lie in 3 areas:

- BASH commands are case sensitive while DOS commands are not;

- Under BASH, / character is a directory separator and \ acts as an escape character. Under DOS, / serves as a command argument delimiter and \ is the directory separator

- DOS follows a convention in naming files, which is 8 character file name followed by a dot and 3 characters for the extension. BASH follows no such convention.

11) What is the importance of the GNU project?

This so-called Free software movement allows several advantages, such as the freedom to run programs for any purpose and freedom to study and modify a program to your needs. It also allows you to redistribute copies of software to other people, as well as the freedom to improve software and have it released for the public.

12) Describe the root account.

The root account is like a systems administrator account and allows you full control of the system. Here you can create and maintain user accounts, assigning different permissions for each account. It is the default account every time you install Linux.

13) What is CLI?

CLI is short for Command Line Interface. This interface allows the user to type declarative commands to instruct the computer to perform operations. CLI offers greater flexibility. However, other users who are already accustomed to using GUI find it difficult to remember commands including attributes that come with it.

14) What is GUI?

GUI, or Graphical User Interface, make use of images and icons that users click and manipulate as a way of communicating with the computer. Instead of having to remember and type commands, the use of graphical elements makes it easier to interact with the system, as well as adding more attraction through images, icons, and colors.

15) How do you open a command prompt when issuing a command?

To open the default shell (which is where the command prompt can be found), press Ctrl-Alt-F1. This will provide a command line interface (CLI) from which you can run commands as needed.

16) How can you find out how much memory Linux is using?

From a command shell, use the "concatenate" command: cat /proc/meminfo for memory usage information. You should see a line starting something like Mem: 64655360, etc. This is the total memory Linux thinks it has available to use.

You can also use commands

free - m

vmstat

top

htop

to find current memory usage

17) What is a typical size for a swap partition under a Linux system?

The preferred size for a swap partition is twice the amount of physical memory available on the system. If this is not possible, then the minimum size should be the same as the amount of memory installed.

18) What are symbolic links?

Symbolic links act similarly to shortcuts in Windows. Such links point to programs, files or directories. It also allows you instant access to it without having to go directly to the entire pathname.

19) Does the Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination work on Linux?

Yes, it does. Just like Windows, you can use this key combination to perform a system restart. One difference is that you won't be getting any confirmation message and therefore, a reboot is immediate.

20) How do you refer to the parallel port where devices such as printers are connected?

Whereas under Windows you refer to the parallel port as the LPT port, under Linux you refer to it as /dev/lp . LPT1, LPT2 and LPT3 would therefore be referred to as /dev/lp0, /dev/lp1, or /dev/lp2 under Linux.

21) Are drives such as hard drive and floppy drives represented with drive letters?

No. In Linux, each drive and device have different designations. For example, floppy drives are referred to as /dev/fd0 and /dev/fd1. IDE/EIDE hard drives are referred to as /dev/hda, /dev/hdb, /dev/hdc, and so forth.

22) How do you change permissions under Linux?

Assuming you are the system administrator or the owner of a file or directory, you can grant permission using the chmod command. Use + symbol to add permission or – symbol to deny permission, along with any of the following letters: u (user), g (group), o (others), a (all), r (read), w (write) and x (execute). For example, the command chmod go+rw FILE1.TXT grants read and write access to the file FILE1.TXT, which is assigned to groups and others.

23) In Linux, what names are assigned to the different serial ports?

Serial ports are identified as /dev/ttyS0 to /dev/ttyS7. These are the equivalent names of COM1 to COM8 in Windows.

24) How do you access partitions under Linux?

Linux assigns numbers at the end of the drive identifier. For example, if the first IDE hard drive had three primary partitions, they would be named/numbered, /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2 and /dev/hda3.

25) What are hard links?

Hard links point directly to the physical file on disk, and not on the pathname. This means that if you rename or move the original file, the link will not break since the link is for the file itself, not the path where the file is located.

26) What is the maximum length for a filename under Linux?

Any filename can have a maximum of 255 characters. This limit does not include the path name, so therefore the entire pathname and filename could well exceed 255 characters.

27)What are filenames that are preceded by a dot?

In general, filenames that are preceded by a dot are hidden files. These files can be configuration files that hold important data or setup info. Setting these files as hidden makes it less likely to be accidentally deleted.

28) Explain virtual desktop.

This serves as an alternative to minimizing and maximizing different windows on the current desktop. Using virtual desktops can clear the desktop when you can open one or more programs. Rather than minimizing/restoring all those programs as needed, you can simply shuffle between virtual desktops with programs intact in each one.

29) How do you share a program across different virtual desktops under Linux?

To share a program across different virtual desktops, in the upper left-hand corner of a program window look for an icon that looks like a pushpin. Pressing this button will "pin" that application in place, making it appear in all virtual desktops, in the same position onscreen.

30) What does a nameless (empty) directory represent?

This empty directory name serves as the nameless base of the Linux file system. This serves as an attachment for all other directories, files, drives, and devices.

31) What is the pwd command?

The pwd command is short for print working directory command.

Example:

pwd

Output:

/home/guru99/myDir

32) What are daemons?

Daemons are services that provide several functions that may not be available under the base operating system. Its main task is to listen for service request and at the same time to act on these requests. After the service is done, it is then disconnected and waits for further requests.

33) How do you switch from one desktop environment to another, such as switching from KDE to Gnome?

Assuming you have these two environments installed, just log out from the graphical interface. Then at the login screen, type your login ID and password and choose which session type you wish to load. This choice will remain your default until you change it to something else.

34) What are the kinds of permissions under Linux?

There are 3 kinds of permissions under Linux:- Read: users may read the files or list the directory- Write: users may write to the file of new files to the directory- Execute: users may run the file or lookup a specific file within a directory

35) How does case sensitivity affect the way you use commands?

When we talk about case sensitivity, commands are considered identical only if every character is encoded as is, including lowercase and uppercase letters. This means that CD, cd, and Cd are three different commands. Entering a command using uppercase letters, where it should be in lowercase, will produce different outputs.

36) What are environmental variables?

Environmental variables are global settings that control the shell's function as well as that of other Linux programs. Another common term for environmental variables is global shell variables.

37) What are the different modes when using vi editor?

There are 3 modes under vi:- Command mode – this is the mode where you start in- Edit mode – this is the mode that allows you to do text editing- Ex mode – this is the mode wherein you interact with vi with instructions to process a file

38) Is it possible to use shortcuts for a long pathname?

Yes, there is. A feature known as filename expansion allows you do this using the TAB key. For example, if you have a path named /home/iceman/assignments directory, you would type as follows: /ho[tab]/ice[tab]/assi[tab] . This, however, assumes that the path is unique and that the shell you're using supports this feature.

39) What is redirection?

Redirection is the process of directing data from one output to another. It can also be used to direct an output as an input to another process.

40) What is grep command?

grep a search command that makes use of pattern-based searching. It makes use of options and parameters that are specified along with the command line and applies this pattern in searching the required file output.

41) What could be the problem when a command that was issued gave a different result from the last time it was used?

One highly possible reason for getting different results from what seems to be the same command has something to do with case sensitivity issues. Since Linux is case sensitive, a command that was previously used might have been entered in a different format from the present one. For example, to lists all files in the directory, you should type the command ls, and not LS. Typing LS will either result in an error message if there is no program by that exact name exist or may produce a different output if there is a program named LS that performs another function.

42) What are the contents of /usr/local?

It contains locally installed files. This directory matters in environments where files are stored on the network. Specifically, locally-installed files go to /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/lib, etc.). Another application of this directory is that it is used for software packages installed from source, or software not officially shipped with the distribution.

43) How do you terminate an ongoing process?

Every process in the system is identified by a unique process id or pid. Use the kill command followed by the pid to terminate that process. To terminate all process at once, use kill 0.

44) How do you insert comments in the command line prompt?

Comments are created by typing the # symbol before the actual comment text. This tells the shell to completely ignore what follows. For example "# This is just a comment that the shell will ignore."

45) What is command grouping and how does it work?

You can use parentheses to group commands. For example, if you want to send the current date and time along with the contents of a file named OUTPUT to a second file named MYDATES, you can apply command grouping as follows: (date cat OUTPUT) > MYDATES

46) How do you execute more than one command or program from a single command line entry?

You can combine several commands by separating each command or program using a semicolon symbol. For example, you can issue such a series of commands in a single entry:

ls –l cd .. ls –a MYWORK which is equivalent to 3 commands: ls -l cd.. ls -a MYWORK

**Note that this will be executed one after the other, in the order specified.

47) Write a command that will look for files with an extension "c", and has the occurrence of the string "apple" in it.

Answer:

Find ./ -name "*.c" | xargs grep –i "apple"

48) Write a command that will display all .txt files, including its individual permission.

Answer:

ls -al *.txt

49) Write a command that will do the following:

-look for all files in the current and subsequent directories with an extension c,v
-strip the,v from the result (you can use sed command)
-use the result and use a grep command to search for all occurrences of the word ORANGE in the files.

Find ./ -name "*.c,v" | sed 's/,v//g' | xargs grep "ORANGE"

50) What, if anything, is wrong with each of the following commands?

a) ls -l-s
b) cat file1, file2
c) ls - s Factdir

Answers:
a) there should be space between the 2 options: ls -l -s
b) do not use commas to separate arguments: cat file1 file2
c) there should be no space between hyphen and option label: ls –s Factdir

51) What is the command to calculate the size of a folder?

To calculate the size of a folder uses the command du –sh folder1.

52) How can you find the status of a process?

Use the command

ps ux

53) How can you check the memory status?

You can use the command

free -m to display output in MB

free -g to display output in GB

54) Explain how to color the Git console?

To color the Git console, you can use the command git config—global color.ui auto. In the command, the color.ui variable sets the default value for a variable such as color.diff and color.grep.

55) How can you append one file to another in Linux?

To append one file to another in Linux you can use command cat file2 >> file 1. The operator >> appends the output of the named file or creates the file if it is not created. While another command cat file 1 file 2 > file 3 appends two or more files to one.

56) Explain how you can find a file using Terminal?

To find a file you have to use a command, find . –name "process.txt" . It will look for the current directory for a file called process.txt.

57) Explain how you can create a folder using Terminal?

To create a folder, you have to use command mkdir. It will be something like these: ~$ mkdir Guru99

58) Explain how you can view the text file using Terminal?

To view the text file, go to the specific folder where the text files are located by using the command cd and then type less filename.txt.

59) Explain how to enable curl on Ubuntu LAMP stack?

To enable curl on Ubuntu, first, install libcurl, once done use following command sudo/etc/init .d /apache2 restart or sudo service apache2 restart.

60) Explain how to enable root logging in Ubuntu?

The command which enables root logging is

#sudo sh-c 'echo "greater-show-manual-login=true" >>/etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf'

61) How can you run a Linux program in the background simultaneously when you start your Linux Server?

By using nohup. It will stop the process receiving the NOHUP signal and thus terminating it you log out of the program which was invoked with. & runs the process in the background.

62) Explain how to uninstall the libraries in Linux?

To uninstall the libraries in Linux, you can use command sudo apt-get remove library_name

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