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Technical Round Materials-Software Testing-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Software Testing-Free Download

1. What is Exploratory Testing?

Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the creation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typically without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used. For example, the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be produced afterwards.

2. What is "use case testing"?

In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish "use case" is used and the techniques used to do this is known as "Use Case Testing"

3. What is the difference between STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) ?

SDLC deals with developement/coding of the software while STLC deales with validation and verification of the software

4. What is traceability matrix?

The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as traceability matrix.

5. What is Equivalence partitioning testing?

Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method it reduces the time required for software testing.

6. What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?

White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are

1. Statement Coverage

2. Decision Coverage

7. In white box testing what do you verify?

In white box testing following steps are verified.

1. Verify the security holes in the code

2. Verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code

3. Verify the flow of structure according to the document specification

4. Verify the expected outputs

5. Verify all conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application

6. Verify the line by line coding and cover 100% testing

8. What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?

Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are

1. Equivalence Partitioning

2. Boundary value analysis

3. Cause effect graphing

9. What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?

Static testing: During Static testing method, the code is not executed and it is performed using the software documentation.

Dynamic testing: To perform this testing the code is required to be in an executable form.

10. What is verification and validation?

Verification is a process of evaluating software at development phase and to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the specified requirements. Validation is the process of evaluating software at the end of the development process and to check whether it meets the customer requirements.

11. What are different test levels?

There are four test levels

1. Unit/component/program/module testing

2. Integration testing

3. System testing

4. Acceptance testing

12. What is Integration testing?

Integration testing is a level of software testing process, where individual units of an application are combined and tested. It is usually performed after unit and functional testing.

13. What are the tables in testplans?

Test design, scope, test strategies , approach are various details that Test plan document consists of.

1. Test case identifier

2. Scope

3. Features to be tested

4. Features not to be tested

5. Test strategy & Test approach

6. Test deliverables

7. Responsibilities

8. Staffing and training

9. Risk and Contingencies

14. What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?

System Testing: System testing is finding defects when the system under goes testing as a whole, it is also known as end to end testing. In such type of testing, the application undergoes from beginning till the end.

UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific tests which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.

15. Mention the difference between Data Driven Testing and Retesting?

Retesting: It is a process of checking bugs that are actioned by development team to verify that they are actually fixed.

Data Driven Testing (DDT): In data driven testing process, application is tested with multiple test data. Application is tested with different set of values.

16. What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?

  • Record : Log and handle any problems which has happened
  • Report: Report the issues to higher level manager
  • Control: Define the issue management process

17. What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases and test script?

Difference between test scenarios and test cases is that

Test Scenarios: Test scenario is prepared before the actual testing starts, it includes plans for testing product, number of team members, environmental condition, making test cases, making test plans and all the features that are to be tested for the product.

Test Cases: It is a document that contains the steps that has to be executed, it has been planned earlier.

Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it's a short program used to test part of functionality of the software system. In other words a written set of steps that should be performed manually.

18. What is Latent defect?

Latent defect: This defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met

19. What are the two parameters which can be useful to know the quality of test execution?

To know the quality of test execution we can use two parameters

  • Defect reject ratio
  • Defect leakage ratio

20. What is the function of software testing tool "phantom"?

Phantom is a freeware, and is used for windows GUI automation scripting language. It allows to take control of windows and functions automatically. It can simulate any combination of key strokes and mouse clicks as well as menus, lists and more.

21. Explain what is Test Deliverables ?

Test Deliverables are set of documents, tools and other components that has to be developed and maintained in support of testing.

There are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle

  • Before Testing
  • During Testing
  • After the Testing

22. What is mutation testing?

Mutation testing is a technique to identify if a set of test data or test case is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to determine if the bugs are detected.

23. What all things you should consider before selecting automation tools for the AUT?

  • Technical Feasibility
  • Complexity level
  • Application stability
  • Test data
  • Application size
  • Re-usability of automated scripts
  • Execution across environment

24. How will you conduct Risk Analysis?

For the risk analysis following steps need to be implemented

1. Finding the score of the risk

2. Making a profile for the risk

3. Changing the risk properties

4. Deploy the resources of that test risk

5. Making a database of risk

25. What are the categories of debugging?

Categories for debugging

1. a) Brute force debugging

2. b) Backtracking

3. c) Cause elimination

4. d) Program slicing

5. e) Fault tree analysis

26. What is fault masking explain with example?

When presence of one defect hides the presence of another defect in the system is known as fault masking.

Example : If the "Negative Value" cause a firing of unhandled system exception, the developer will prevent the negative values inpu. This will resolve the issue and hide the defect of unhandled exception firing.

27. Explain what is Test Plan ? What are the information that should be covered in Test Plan ?

A test plan can be defined as a document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of testing activities and a test plan should cover the following details.

  • Test Strategy
  • Test Objective
  • Exit/Suspension Criteria
  • Resource Planning
  • Test Deliverables

28. How you can eliminate the product risk in your project ?

To eliminate product risk in your project, there is simple yet crucial step that can reduce the product risk in your project.

  • Investigate the specification documents
  • Have discussions about the project with all stakeholders including the developer
  • As a real user walk around the website

29. What are the common risk that leads to the project failure?

The common risk that leads to a project failure are

  • Not having enough human resource
  • Testing Environment may not be set up properly
  • Limited Budget
  • Time Limitations

30. On what basis you can arrive to an estimation for your project?

To estimate your project , you have to consider following points

  • Divide the whole project into a smallest tasks
  • Allocate each task to team members
  • Estimate the effort required to complete each task
  • Validate the estimation

31. Explain how you would allocate task to team members ?

Task

Member

  • Analyze software requirement specification
  • All the members
  • Create the test specification
  • Tester/Test Analyst
  • Build up the test environment
  • Test administrator
  • Execute the test cases
  • Tester, Test administrator
  • Report defects
  • Tester

32. Explain what is testing type and what are the commonly used testing type ?

To get an expected test outcome a standard procedure is followed which is referred as Testing Type.

Commonly used testing types are

  • Unit Testing: Test the smallest code of an application
  • API Testing: Testing API created for the application
  • Integration Testing: Individual software modules are combined and tested
  • System Testing: Complete testing of system
  • Install/UnInstall Testing: Testing done from the point of client/customer view
  • Agile Testing: Testing through Agile technique

33. While monitoring your project what all things you have to consider ?

The things that has to be taken in considerations are

  • Is you project on schedule
  • Are you over budget
  • Are you working towards the same career goal
  • Have you got enough resources
  • Are there any warning signs of impending problems
  • Is there any pressure from management to complete the project sooner

34. What are the common mistakes which creates issues ?

  • Matching resources to wrong projects
  • Test manager lack of skills
  • Not listening to others
  • Poor Scheduling
  • Underestimating
  • Ignoring the small problems
  • Not following the process

35. What does a typical test report contains? What are the benefits of test reports?

A test report contains following things:

  • Project Information
  • Test Objective
  • Test Summary
  • Defect

The benefits of test reports are:

  • Current status of project and quality of product are informed
  • If required, stake holder and customer can take corrective action
  • A final document helps to decide whether the product is ready for release

36. What is test management review and why it is important?

Management review is also referred as Software Quality Assurance or SQA. SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test manager to benchmark the project against the set standards.

37. What are the best practices for software quality assurance?

The best practices for an effective SQA implementation is

  • Continuous Improvement
  • Documentation
  • Tool Usage
  • Metrics
  • Responsibility by team members
  • Experienced SQA auditors

38. When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared ?

RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities.

39. What is difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?

Test Matrix : Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the plan, resources and time required to capture all phases of software testing

Traceability Matrix :Mapping between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix

40. In manual testing what are stubs and drivers?

Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing. In incremental testing there are two approaches namely bottom up and top down approach. Drivers are used in bottom up testing and stub is used for top down approach. In order to test the main module, stub is used, whuich is a dummy code or program .

41. What are the step you would follow once you find the defect?

Once defect is found you would follow the step

a) Recreate the defect

b) Attach the screen shot

c) Log the defect

42. Explain what is "Test Plan Driven" or "Key Word Driven" method of testing?

This technique uses the actual test case document developed by testers using a spread sheet containing special "key Words". The key words control the processing.

43. What is DFD (Data Flow Diagram) ?

When a "flow of data" through an information system is graphically represented then it is known as Data Flow Diagram. It is also used for the visualization of data processing.

44. Explain what is LCSAJ?

LCSAJ stands for 'linear code sequence and jump'. It consists of the following three items

a) Start of the linear sequence of executable statements

b) End of the linear sequence

c) The target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence

45. Explain what is N+1 testing?

The variation of regression testing is represented as N+1. In this technique the testing is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle 'N' are resolved and re-tested in test cycle N+1. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found.

46. What is Fuzz testing and when it is used?

Fuzz testing is used to detect security loopholes and coding errors in software. In this technique random data is added to the system in attempt to crash the system. If vulnerability persists, a tool called fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes. This technique is more useful for bigger projects but only detects major fault.

47. Mention what are the main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing?

The benefit of statement coverage metric is that

a) It does not require processing source code and can be applied directly to object code

b) Bugs are distributed evenly through code, due to which percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered

48. How to generate test cases for replace string method?

a) If characters in new string > characters in previous string. None of the characters should get truncated

b) If characters in new string< characters in previous string. Junk characters should not be added

c) Spaces after and before the string should not be deleted

d) String should be replaced only for the first occurrence of the string

49. How will you handle a conflict amogst your team members ?

  • I will talk individually to each person and note their concerns
  • I will find solution to the common problems raised by team members
  • I will hold a team meeting , reveal the solution and ask people to co-operate

50. Mention what are the categories of defects?

Mainly there are three defect categories

  • Wrong : When requirement is implemented incorrectly
  • Missing : It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met
  • Extra : A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements

51. Explain how does a test coverage tool works?

The code coverage testing tool runs parallel while performing testing on the actual product. The code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is done we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage.

52. Mention what is the difference between a "defect" and a "failure" in software testing?

In simple terms when a defect reaches the end customer it is called a failure while the defect is identified internally and resolved then it is referred as defect.

53. Explain how to test documents in a project that span across the software development lifecycle?

The project span across the software development lifecycle in following manner

  • Central/Project test plan: It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle
  • Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at final delivery
  • System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project
  • Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery

54. Explain which test cases are written first black boxes or white boxes?

Black box test cases are written first as to write black box test cases; it requires project plan and requirement document all these documents are easily available at the beginning of the project. While writing white box test cases requires more architectural understanding and is not available at the start of the project.

55. Explain what is the difference between latent and masked defects?

  • Latent defect: A latent defect is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met
  • Masked defect: It is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed

56. Mention what is bottom up testing?

Bottom up testing is an approach to integration testing, where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

57. Mention what are the different types of test coverage techniques?

Different types of test coverage techniques include

  • Statement Coverage: It verifies that each line of source code has been executed and tested
  • Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the source code is executed and tested
  • Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible route through a given part of code is executed and tested

58. Mention what is the meaning of breadth testing?

Breadth testing is a test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail

59. Explain what is the meaning of Code Walk Through?

Code Walk Through is the informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques

60. Mention what are the basic components of defect report format?

The basic components of defect report format includes

  • Project Name
  • Module Name
  • Defect detected on
  • Defect detected by
  • Defect ID and Name
  • Snapshot of the defect
  • Priority and Severity status
  • Defect resolved by
  • Defect resolved on

61. Mention what is the purpose behind doing end-to-end testing?

End-to end testing is done after functional testing. The purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is that

  • To validate the software requirements and integration with external interfaces
  • Testing application in real world environment scenario
  • Testing of interaction between application and database

62. Explain what it means by test harness?

A test harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, it involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.

63. Explain in a testing project what testing activities would you automate?

In a testing project testing activities you would automate are

  • Tests that need to be run for every build of the application
  • Tests that use multiple data for the same set of actions
  • Identical tests that needs to be executed using different browsers
  • Mission critical pages
  • Transaction with pages that do not change in short time

64. What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.

65. What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

66. What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

67. What is the purpose of exit criteria?

The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.

68. What determines the level of risk?

The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.

69. When is used Decision table testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

Learn More About Decision Table Testing Technique in the Video Tutorial

70. Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a 'cause-effect' table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called 'cause-effect graphing' which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table

71. What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?

To identify defects in any software work product.

72. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification.

Test case specification defines the expected results of a test.

73. What is the benefit of test independence?

It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.

74. As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria?

The exit criteria is determined on the bases of 'Test Planning'.

75. What is Alpha testing?

Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer's site.

76. What is beta testing?

Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.

77. Mention what is the difference between Pilot and Beta testing?

The difference between pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is actually done using the product by the group of user before the final deployment and in beta testing we do not input real data, but it is installed at the end customer to validate if the product can be used in production.

78. Given the following fragment of code, how many tests are required for 100% decision coverage?

if width > length

thenbiggest_dimension = width

if height > width

thenbiggest_dimension = height

end_if

elsebiggest_dimension = length

if height > length

thenbiggest_dimension = height

end_if

end_if

4

79. You have designed test cases to provide 100% statement and 100% decision coverage for the following fragment of code. if width > length then biggest_dimension = width else biggest_dimension = length end_if The following has been added to the bottom of the code fragment above. print "Biggest dimension is " &biggest_dimensionprint "Width: " & width print "Length: " & length How many more test cases are required?

None, existing test cases can be used.

80. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools?

Testing technique: – Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools.

Testing Tools: – Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing

81. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing …

User Acceptance Test Cases

82. Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:

Regression Testing

83. A wholesaler sells printer cartridges. The minimum order quantity is 5. There is a 20% discount for orders of 100 or more printer cartridges. You have been asked to prepare test cases using various values for the number of printer cartridges ordered. Which of the following groups contain three test inputs that would be generated using Boundary Value Analysis?

4, 5, 99

84. What is component testing?

Component testing, also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

85. What is functional system testing?

Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing.

86. What are the benefits of Independent Testing?

Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time.

87. In a REACTIVE approach to testing when would you expect the bulk of the test design work to be begun?

The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced.

88. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?

There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of:

1. Extreme Programming (XP)

2. Scrum

3. Lean Software Development

4. Feature-Driven Development

5. Agile Unified Process

6. Crystal

7. Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)

89. Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?

A 'Test Analysis' and 'Design' includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system.

90. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?

Because testing everything is not feasible.

91. What is random/monkey testing? When it is used?

Random testing often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input the system is tested and results are analysed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.

92. Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?

1. Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary.

2. Provide ideas for test process improvement.

3. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.

4. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.

93. Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques?

1. Equivalence Partitioning.

2. Use Case Testing.

3. Data Flow Analysis.

4. Exploratory Testing.

5. Decision Testing.

6. Inspections.

Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.

94. Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?

Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.

95. What are the phases of a formal review?

In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:

1. Planning

2. Kick-off

3. Preparation

4. Review meeting

5. Rework

6. Follow-up.

96. What is the role of moderator in review process?

The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.

97. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?

An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.

98. When should configuration management procedures be implemented?

During test planning.

99. A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders?

Security Testing

100. Testing where in we subject the target of the test , to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviours and ability of the target and of the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads?

Load Testing

101. Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is?

Integration Level Testing

102. What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called 'white-box' or 'glass-box' techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

103. When "Regression Testing" should be performed?

104 . What is negative and positive testing?

A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While a positive testing, is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

105. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing

106. What can static analysis NOT find?

For example memory leaks.

107. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

108. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people's knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

109. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?

Inspection

110. Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?

Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality.

111. An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004 what are the boundary values for testing this field?

1899,1900,2004,2005

112. Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test? a. Data tester b. Boundary tester c. Capture/Playback d. Output comparator.

d. Output comparator

113. To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data.

Driver

114. What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?

Lack of Objectivity

115."How much testing is enough?"

The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.

116. When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria bases on which you can stop testing.

1. Deadlines (Testing, Release)

2. Test budget has been depleted

3. Bug rate fall below certain level

4. Test cases completed with certain percentage passed

5. Alpha or beta periods for testing ends

6. Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point

117. Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

The main purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.

118.What are semi-random test cases?

Semi-random test cases are nothing but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.

119. Given the following code, which statement is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage?

Read p

Read q

IF p+q> 100

THEN Print "Large"

ENDIF

IF p > 50

THEN Print "p Large"

ENDIF

1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

120. Which review is normally used to evaluate a product to determine its suitability for intended use and to identify discrepancies?

Technical Review.

121. Faults found should be originally documented by whom?

By testers.

122. Which is the current formal world-wide recognized documentation standard?

There isn't one.

123. Which of the following is the review participant who has created the item to be reviewed?

Author

124. A number of critical bugs are fixed in software. All the bugs are in one module, related to reports. The test manager decides to do regression testing only on the reports module.

Regression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules.

125. Why does the boundary value analysis provide good test cases?

Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the 'edges' of the range of values.

126. What makes an inspection different from other review types?

It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists.

127. Why can be tester dependent on configuration management?

Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object.

128. What is a V-Model?

A software development model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software development phases

129. What is maintenance testing?

Triggered by modifications, migration or retirement of existing software

130. What is test coverage?

Test coverage measures in some specific way the amount of testing performed by a set of tests (derived in some other way, e.g. using specification-based techniques). Wherever we can count things and can tell whether or not each of those things has been tested by some test, then we can measure coverage.

131. Why is incremental integration preferred over "big bang" integration?

Because incremental integration has better early defects screening and isolation ability

132. When do we prepare RTM (Requirement traceability matrix), is it before test case designing or after test case designing?

It would be before test case designing. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already. This question also would depend on the organisation. If the organisations do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.

133. What is called the process starting with the terminal modules?

Bottom-up integration

134. During which test activity could faults be found most cost effectively?

During test planning

135. The purpose of requirement phase is

To freeze requirements, to understand user needs, to define the scope of testing

136. Why we split testing into distinct stages?

We split testing into distinct stages because of following reasons,

1. Each test stage has a different purpose

2. It is easier to manage testing in stages

3. We can run different test into different environments

4. Performance and quality of the testing is improved using phased testing

137. What is DRE?

To measure test effectiveness a powerful metric is used to measure test effectiveness known as DRE (Defect Removal Efficiency) From this metric we would know how many bugs we have found from the set of test cases. Formula for calculating DRE is

DRE=Number of bugs while testing / number of bugs while testing + number of bugs found by user

138. Which of the following is likely to benefit most from the use of test tools providing test capture and replay facilities? a) Regression testing b) Integration testing c) System testing d) User acceptance testing

Regression testing

139. How would you estimate the amount of re-testing likely to be required?

Metrics from previous similar projects and discussions with the development team

140. What studies data flow analysis?

The use of data on paths through the code.

141. What is a failure?

Failure is a departure from specified behaviour.

142. What are Test comparators?

Is it really a test if you put some inputs into some software, but never look to see whether the software produces the correct result? The essence of testing is to check whether the software produces the correct result, and to do that, we must compare what the software produces to what it should produce. A test comparator helps to automate aspects of that comparison.

143. Who is responsible for document all the issues, problems and open point that were identified during the review meeting

Scribe

144. What is the main purpose of Informal review

Inexpensive way to get some benefit

145. What is the purpose of test design technique?

Identifying test conditions and Identifying test cases

146. When testing a grade calculation system, a tester determines that all scores from 90 to 100 will yield a grade of A, but scores below 90 will not. This analysis is known as:

Equivalence partitioning

147. A test manager wants to use the resources available for the automated testing of a web application. The best choice is Tester, test automater, web specialist, DBA

148. During the testing of a module tester 'X' finds a bug and assigned it to developer. But developer rejects the same, saying that it's not a bug. What 'X' should do?

Send to the detailed information of the bug encountered and check the reproducibility

149. A type of integration testing in which software elements, hardware elements, or both are combined all at once into a component or an overall system, rather than in stages.

Big-Bang Testing

150. In practice, which Life Cycle model may have more, fewer or different levels of development and testing, depending on the project and the software product. For example, there may be component integration testing after component testing, and system integration testing after system testing.

V-Model

151. Which technique can be used to achieve input and output coverage? It can be applied to human input, input via interfaces to a system, or interface parameters in integration testing.

Equivalence partitioning

152. "This life cycle model is basically driven by schedule and budget risks" This statement is best suited for…

V-Model

153. In which order should tests be run?

The most important one must tests first

154. The later in the development life cycle a fault is discovered, the more expensive it is to fix. Why?

The fault has been built into more documentation, code, tests, etc

155. What is Coverage measurement?

It is a partial measure of test thoroughness.

156. What is Boundary value testing?

Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.

157. What is Fault Masking?

Error condition hiding another error condition.

158. What does COTS represent?

Commercial off The Shelf.

159.The purpose of which is allow specific tests to be carried out on a system or network that resembles as closely as possible the environment where the item under test will be used upon release?

Test Environment

160. What can be thought of as being based on the project plan, but with greater amounts of detail?

Phase Test Plan

161. Rapid Application Development?

Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls prior to going into production.

Ques.1. What is Software Testing?
Ans. Software testing is the process of evaluating a system to check if it satisfies its business requirements. It measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes like correctness, completeness, usability, performance etc. Basically, it is used for ensuring the quality of software to the stakeholders of the application.

Ques.2. Why is testing required?
Ans. We need software testing for following reasons-

1. Testing provides an assurance to the stakeholders that product works as intended.

2. Avoidable defects leaked to the end user/customer without proper testing adds bad reputation to the development company.

3. Defects detected earlier phase of SDLC results into lesser cost and resource utilisation of correction.

4. Saves development time by detecting issues in earlier phase of development.

5. Testing team adds another dimension to the software development by providing a different view point to the product development process.

Ques.3. When should we stop testing?
Ans. Testing can be stopped when one or more of the following conditions are met-

1. After test case execution - Testing phase can be stopped when one complete cycle of test cases is executed after the last known bug fix with agreed upon value of pass-percentage.

2. Once the testing deadline is met - Testing can be stoppped after deadlines get met with no high priority issues left in system.

3. Based on Mean Time Between failure (MTBF)- MTBF is the time interval between two inherent failures. Based on stakeholders decisions, if the MTBF is quite large one can stop the testing phase.

4. Based on code coverage value - Testing phase can be stopped when the automated code coverage reaches a specific threshold value with sufficient pass-percentage and no critical bug.

Ques.4. What is Quality Assurance?
Ans. Quality assurance is a process driven approach which checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards. It is considered as a preventive measure as it identifies the weakness in the process to build a software. It involves activites like document review, test cases review, walkthroughs, inspection etc.

Ques.5. What is Quality Control?
Ans. Quality control is product driven approach which checks that the developed product conforms to all the specified requirements. It is considered as a corrective measure as it tests the built product to find the defects. It involves different types of testing like functional testing, performance testing, usability testing etc.

Ques.6. What is the difference between Verification and Validation?
Ans. Following are the major differences between verification and validation-

#

Verification

Validation

1.

Verification is the process of evaluating the artifacts as well as the process of software development in order to ensure that the product being developed will comply to the standards.

Validation is the process of validating that the developed software product conforms to the specified business requirements.

2.

It is static process of analysing the documents and not the actual end product.

It involves dynamic testing of software product by running it.

3.

Verification is a process oriented approach.

Validation is a product oriented approach.

4.

Answers the question - "Are we building the product right?"

Answers the question - "Are we building the right product?"

5.

Errors found during verification require lesser cost/resources to get fixed as compared to be found during validation phase.

Errors found during validation require more cost/resources. Later the error is discovered higher is the cost to fix it.

Ques.7. What is SDLC?
Ans. Software Development Life Cycle refers to all the activities that are performed during software development, including - requirement analysis, designing, implementation, testing, deployment and maintenance phases.

Ques.8. Explain STLC - Software Testing life cycle.
Software testing life cycle refers to all the activities performed during testing of a software product. The phases include-

  • Requirement analyses and validation - In this phase the requirements documents are analysed and validated and scope of testing is defined.
  • Test planning - In this phase test plan strategy is defined, estimation of test effort is defined along with automation strategy and tool selection is done.
  • Test Design and analysis - In this phase test cases are designed, test data is prepared and automation scripts are implemented.
  • Test environment setup - A test environment closely simulating the real world environment is prepared.
  • Test execution - The test cases are prepared, bugs are reported and retested once resolved.
  • Test closure and reporting - A test closure report is prepared having the final test results summary, learnings and test metrics.

Ques.9. What are the different types of testing?
Testing can broadly be defined into two types-

  • Functional testing - Functional testing involves validating the functional specifications of the system.
  • Non Functional testing - Non functional testing includes testing the non-functional requirements of the system like performance, security, scalability, portability, endurance etc.

Going by the way the testing is done, it can be categorized as-

  • Black box testing - In black box testing, the tester need not have any knowledge of the internal architecture or implementation of the system. The tester interact with the system through the interface providing input and validating the received output.
  • White box testing - In white box testing, the tester analyses the internal architecture of the system as well as the quality of source code on different parameters like code optimization, code coverage, code reusability etc.
  • Gray box testing - In gray box testing, the tester has partial access to the internal architecture of the system e.g. the tester may have access to the design documents or database structure. This information helps tester to test the application better.

Ques.10. What is a test bed?
Ans. A test bed is a test environment used for testing an application. A test bed configuration can consist of the hardware and software requirement of the application under test including - operating system, hardware configurations, software configurations, tomcat, database etc.

Ques.11. What is a test plan?
Ans. A test plan is a formal document describing the scope of testing, the approach to be used, resources required and time estimate of carrying out the testing process. It is derived from the requirement documents(Software Requirement Specifications).



Ques.12. What is a test scenario?
Ans. A test scenario is derived from a use case. It is used for end end to end testing of a feature of an application. A single test scenario can cater multiple test cases. The scenario testing is particularly useful when there is time constraint while testing.

Ques.13. What is a test case?
Ans. A test case is used to test the conformance of an application with its requirement specifications. It is a set of conditions with pre-requisites, input values and expected results in a documented form.

Ques.14. What are some attributes of a test case?
Ans. A test case can have following attributes-

1. TestCaseId - A unique identifier of the test case.

2. Test Summary - Oneliner summary of the test case.

3. Description - Detailed description of the test case.

4. Prerequisite or pre-condition - A set of prerequisites that must be followed before executing the test steps.

5. Test Steps - Detailed steps for performing the test case.

6. Expected result - The expected result in order to pass the test.

7. Actual result - The actual result after executing the test steps.

8. Test Result - Pass/Fail status of the test execution.

9. Automation Status - Identifier of automation - whether the application is automated or not.

10. Date - The test execution date.

11. Executed by - Name of the person executing the test case.

Ques.15. What is a test script?
Ans. A test script is an automated test case written in any programming or scripting langauge. These are basically a set of instructions to evaluate the functioning of an application.

Ques.16. What is a bug?
Ans. A bug is a fault in a software product detected at the time of testing, causing it to function in an unanticipated manner.

Ques.17. What is a defect?
Ans. A defect is non-conformance with the requirement of the product detected in production (after the product goes live).

Ques.18. What are some defect reporting attributes?
Ans. Some of the attributes of a Defect resport are-

  • DefectId - A unique identifier of the defect.
  • Defect Summary - A one line summary of the defect, more like a defect title.
  • Defect Description - A detailed description of the defect.
  • Steps to reproduce - The steps to reproduce the defect.
  • Expected Result - The expected behavior from which the application is deviating because of the defect.
  • Actual Result- The current erroneous state of the application w.r.t. the defect.
  • Defect Severity - Based on the criticality of the defect, this field can be set to minor, medium, major or show stopper.
  • Priority - Based on the urgency of the defect, this field can be set on a scale of P0 to P3.

Ques.19. What are some of the bug or defect management tools?
Ans. Some of the most widely used Defect Management tools are - Jira, Bugzilla, Redmine, Mantis, Quality Center etc.

Ques.20. What is defect density?
Ans. Defect density is the measure of density of the defects in the system. It can be calculated by dividing number of defect identified by the total number of line of code(or methods or classes) in the application or program.

Ques.21. What is defect priority?
Ans. A defect priority is the urgency of the fixing the defect. Normally the defect priority is set on a scale of P0 to P3 with P0 defect having the most urgency to fix.

Ques.22. What is defect severity?
Ans. Defect severity is the severity of the defect impacting the functionality. Based on the organisation, we can have different levels of defect severity ranging from minor to critical or show stopper.

Ques.23. Give an example of Low priority-Low severity, Low priority-High severity, High priority-Low severity, High priority-High severity defects.
Ans.

1. Low priority-Low severity - A spelling mistake in a page not frequently navigated by users.

2. Low priority-High severity - Application crashing in some very corner case.

3. High priority-Low severity - Slight change in logo color or spelling mistake in company name.

4. High priority-High severity - Issue with login functionality.

Ques.24. What is a blocker?
Ans. A blocker is a bug of high priority and high severity. It prevents or blocks testing of some other major portion of the application as well.

Ques.25. What is a critical bug?
Ans. A critical bug is a bug that impacts a major functionality of the application and the application cannot be delivered without fixing the bug. It is different from blocker bug as it doesn't affect or blocks the testing of other part of the application.

1. What is Software Testing?

According to ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard – A process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (i.e., defects) and to evaluate the features of the software item.

2. What are Quality Assurance and Quality Control?

Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance involves in process-oriented activities. It ensures the prevention of defects in the process used to make Software Application. So the defects don’t arise when the Software Application is being developed.

Quality Control: Quality Control involves in product-oriented activities. It executes the program or code to identify the defects in the Software Application.

3. What is Verification in software testing?

Verification is the process, to ensure that whether we are building the product right i.e., to verify the requirements which we have and to verify whether we are developing the product accordingly or not. Activities involved here are Inspections, Reviews

4. What is Validation in software testing?

Validation is the process, whether we are building the right product i.e., to validate the product which we have developed is right or not. Activities involved in this is Testing the software application.

5. What is Static Testing?

Static Testing involves in reviewing the documents to identify the defects in the early stages of SDLC.

6. What is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing involves in the execution of code. It validates the output with the expected outcome.

7. What is White Box Testing?

White Box Testing is also called as Glass Box, Clear Box, and Structural Testing. It is based on applications internal code structure. In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. This testing usually was done at the unit level.

8. What is Black Box Testing?

Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the software under test without looking at the internal code structure. This can be applied to every level of software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing.

9. What is Grey Box Testing?

Grey box is the combination of both White Box and Black Box Testing. The tester who works on this type of testing needs to have access to design documents. This helps to create better test cases in this process.

10. What is Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive Testing: It is to determine what system supposed to do. It helps to check whether the application is justifying the requirements or not.

Negative Testing: It is to determine what system not supposed to do. It helps to find the defects from the software.

11. What is Test Strategy?

Test Strategy is a high-level document (static document) and usually developed by project manager. It is a document which captures the approach on how we go about testing the product and achieve the goals. It is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents like Test Plan are prepared by keeping this document as a base.

12. What is Test Plan and contents available in a Test Plan?

Test plan document is a document which contains the plan for all the testing activities to be done to deliver a quality product. Test Plan document is derived from the Product Description, SRS, or Use Case documents for all future activities of the project. It is usually prepared by the Test Lead or Test Manager.

1. Test plan identifier

2. References

3. Introduction

4. Test items (functions)

5. Software risk issues

6. Features to be tested

7. Features not to be tested

8. Approach

9. Items pass/fail criteria

10. Suspension criteria and resolution requirements

11. Test deliverables

12. Remaining test tasks

13. Environmental needs

14. Staff and training needs

15. Responsibility

16. Schedule

17. Plan risks and contingencies

18. Approvals

19. Glossaries

13. What is Test Suite?

Test Suite is a collection of test cases. The test cases which are intended to test an application.

14. What is Test Scenario?

Test Scenario gives the idea of what we have to test. Test Scenario is like a high-level test case.

15. What is Test Case?

Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of pre-conditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results.

16. What is Test Bed?

An environment configured for testing. Test bed consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.

17. What is Test Environment?

Test Environment is the combination of hardware and software on which Test Team performs testing.

Example:

  • Application Type: Web Application
  • OS: Windows
  • Web Server: IIS
  • Web Page Design: Dot Net
  • Client Side Validation: JavaScript
  • Server Side Scripting: ASP Dot Net
  • Database: MS SQL Server
  • Browser: IE/FireFox/Chrome

18. What is Test Data?

Test data is the data that is used by the testers to run the test cases. Whilst running the test cases, testers need to enter some input data. To do so, testers prepare test data. It can be prepared manually and also by using tools.

For example, To test a basic login functionality having a user id, password fields. We need to enter some data in the user id and password fields. So we need to collect some test data.

19. What is Test Harness?

A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with expected output.

20. What is Test Closure?

Test Closure is the note prepared before test team formally completes the testing process. This note contains the total no. of test cases, total no. of test cases executed, total no. of defects found, total no. of defects fixed, total no. of bugs not fixed, total no of bugs rejected etc.,

21. List out Test Deliverables?

1. Test Strategy

2. Test Plan

3. Effort Estimation Report

4. Test Scenarios

5. Test Cases/Scripts

6. Test Data

7. Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)

8. Defect Report/Bug Report

9. Test Execution Report

10. Graphs and Metrics

11. Test summary report

12. Test incident report

13. Test closure report

14. Release Note

15. Installation/configuration guide

16. User guide

17. Test status report

18. Weekly status report (Project manager to client)

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22. What is Unit Testing?

Unit Testing is also called as Module Testing or Component Testing. It is done to check whether the individual unit or module of the source code is working properly. It is done by the developers in developer’s environment.

23. What is Integration Testing?

Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration testing is done by three ways. Big Bang Approach, Top Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach

24. What is System Testing?

Testing the fully integrated application to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements is called System Testing AKA End to End testing. Verifying the completed system to ensure that the application works as intended or not.

25. What is Big Bang Approach?

Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing.

Top down and bottom up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These Stubs and Drivers are used to stand-in for missing components to simulate data communication between modules.

Manual Testing Interview Questions – 26-50:

26. What is Top-Down Approach?

Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended. Stubs are used as a temporary module if a module is not ready for integration testing.

27. What is Bottom-Up Approach?

It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended. Drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing.

28. What is End-To-End Testing?

Refer System Testing.

29. What is Functional Testing?

In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not. It falls within the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application.

30. What is Non-Functional Testing?

In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing. Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc., Main focus is to improve the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.

31. What is Acceptance Testing?

It is also known as pre-production testing. This is done by the end users along with the testers to validate the functionality of the application. After successful acceptance testing. Formal testing conducted to determine whether an application is developed as per the requirement. It allows the customer to accept or reject the application. Types of acceptance testing are Alpha, Beta & Gamma.

32. What is Alpha Testing?

Alpha testing is done by the in-house developers (who developed the software) and testers. Sometimes alpha testing is done by the client or outsourcing team with the presence of developers or testers.

33. What is Beta Testing?

Beta testing is done by a limited number of end users before delivery. Usually, it is done in the client place.

34. What is Gamma Testing?

Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. It is done at the client place. It is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

35. What is Smoke Testing?

Smoke Testing is done to make sure if the build we received from the development team is testable or not. It is also called as “Day 0” check. It is done at the “build level”. It helps not to waste the testing time to simply testing the whole application when the key features don’t work or the key bugs have not been fixed yet.

36. What is Sanity Testing?

Sanity Testing is done during the release phase to check for the main functionalities of the application without going deeper. It is also called as a subset of Regression testing. It is done at the “release level”. At times due to release time constraints rigorous regression testing can’t be done to the build, sanity testing does that part by checking main functionalities.

37. What is Retesting?

To ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build. Say, Build 1.0 was released. Test team found some defects (Defect Id 1.0.1, 1.0.2) and posted. Build 1.1 was released, now testing the defects 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 in this build is retesting.

38. What is Regression Testing?

Repeated testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software components.

Usually, we do regression testing in the following cases:

1. New functionalities are added to the application

2. Change Requirement (In organizations, we call it as CR)

3. Defect Fixing

4. Performance Issue Fix

5. Environment change (E.g., Updating the DB from MySQL to Oracle)

39. What is GUI Testing?

Graphical User Interface Testing is to test the interface between the application and the end user.

40. What is Recovery Testing?

Recovery testing is performed in order to determine how quickly the system can recover after the system crash or hardware failure. It comes under the type of non-functional testing.

41. What is Globalization Testing?
Globalization is a process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without any changes.

42. What is Internationalization Testing (I18N Testing)?

Refer Globalization Testing.

43. What is Localization Testing (L10N Testing)?

Localization is a process of adapting globalization software for a specific region or language by adding local specific components.

44. What is Installation Testing?
It is to check whether the application is successfully installed and it is working as expected after installation.

45. What is Formal Testing?
It is a process where the testers test the application by having pre-planned procedures and proper documentation.

46. What is Risk Based Testing?

Identify the modules or functionalities which are most likely cause failures and then testing those functionalities.

47. What is Compatibility Testing?
It is to deploy and check whether the application is working as expected in a different combination of environmental components.

48. What is Exploratory Testing?
Usually, this process will be carried out by domain experts. They perform testing just by exploring the functionalities of the application without having the knowledge of the requirements.

49. What is Monkey Testing?

Perform abnormal action on the application deliberately in order to verify the stability of the application.

50. What is Usability Testing?

To verify whether the application is user-friendly or not and was comfortably used by an end user or not. The main focus in this testing is to check whether the end user can understand and operate the application easily or not. An application should be self-exploratory and must not require training to operate it.

Manual Testing Interview Questions – 51-75:

51. What is Security Testing?

Security testing is a process to determine whether the system protects data and maintains functionality as intended.

52. What is Soak Testing?

Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time to identify the performance problems is called Soak Testing.

53. What is Performance Testing?

This type of testing determines or validates the speed, scalability, and/or stability characteristics of the system or application under test. Performance is concerned with achieving response times, throughput, and resource-utilization levels that meet the performance objectives for the project or product.

54. What is Load Testing?

It is to verify that the system/application can handle the expected number of transactions and to verify the system/application behavior under both normal and peak load conditions.

55. What is Volume Testing?

It is to verify that the system/application can handle a large amount of data

56. What is Stress Testing?

It is to verify the behavior of the system once the load increases more than its design expectations.

57. What is Scalability Testing?

Scalability testing is a type of non-functional testing. It is to determine how the application under test scales with increasing workload.

58. What is Concurrency Testing?

Concurrency testing means accessing the application at the same time by multiple users to ensure the stability of the system. This is mainly used to identify deadlock issues.

59. What is Fuzz Testing?

Fuzz testing is used to identify coding errors and security loopholes in an application. By inputting massive amount of random data to the system in an attempt to make it crash to identify if anything breaks in the application.

60. What is Adhoc Testing?

Ad-hoc testing is quite opposite to the formal testing. It is an informal testing type. In Adhoc testing, testers randomly test the application without following any documents and test design techniques. This testing is primarily performed if the knowledge of testers in the application under test is very high. Testers randomly test the application without any test cases or any business requirement document.

61. What is Interface Testing?

Interface testing is performed to evaluate whether two intended modules pass data and communicate correctly to one another.

62. What is Reliability Testing?
Perform testing on the application continuously for long period of time in order to verify the stability of the application

63. What is Bucket Testing?

Bucket testing is a method to compare two versions of an application against each other to determine which one performs better.

64. What is A/B Testing?

Refer Bucket Testing.

65. What is Split Testing?

Refer Bucket Testing.

66. What are the principles of Software Testing?

1. Testing shows presence of defects

2. Exhaustive testing is impossible

3. Early testing

4. Defect clustering

5. Pesticide Paradox

6. Testing is context depending

7. Absence of error fallacy

67. What is Exhaustive Testing?

Testing all the functionalities using all valid and invalid inputs and preconditions is known as Exhaustive testing.

68. What is Early Testing?

Defects detected in early phases of SDLC are less expensive to fix. So conducting early testing reduces the cost of fixing defects.

69. What is Defect clustering?

Defect clustering in software testing means that a small module or functionality contains most of the bugs or it has the most operational failures.

70. What is Pesticide Paradox?

Pesticide Paradox in software testing is the process of repeating the same test cases, again and again, eventually, the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. So to overcome this Pesticide Paradox, it is necessary to review the test cases regularly and add or update them to find more defects.

71. What is Walk Through?

A walkthrough is an informal meeting conducts to learn, gain understanding, and find defects. The author leads the meeting and clarifies the queries raised by the peers in the meeting.

72. What is Inspection?

Inspection is a formal meeting lead by a trained moderator, certainly not by the author. The document under inspection is prepared and checked thoroughly by the reviewers before the meeting. In the inspection meeting, the defects found are logged and shared with the author for appropriate actions. Post inspection, a formal follow-up process is used to ensure a timely and corrective action.

73. Who are all involved in an inspection meeting?

Author, Moderator, Reviewer(s), Scribe/Recorder and Manager.

74. What is a Defect?

The variation between the actual results and expected results is known as a defect. If a developer finds an issue and corrects it by himself in the development phase then it’s called a defect.

75. What is a Bug?

If testers find any mismatch in the application/system in testing phase then they call it as Bug.

Software Testing Interview Questions – 76-100:

76. What is an Error?

We can’t compile or run a program due to a coding mistake in a program. If a developer unable to successfully compile or run a program then they call it as an error.

77. What is a Failure?

Once the product is deployed and customers find any issues then they call the product as a failure product. After release, if an end user finds an issue then that particular issue is called as a failure.

78. What is Bug Severity?

Bug/Defect severity can be defined as the impact of the bug on customer’s business. It can be Critical, Major or Minor. In simple words, how much effect will be there on the system because of a particular defect.

79. What is Bug Priority?

Defect priority can be defined as how soon the defect should be fixed. It gives the order in which a defect should be resolved. Developers decide which defect they should take up next based on the priority. It can be High, Medium or Low. Most of the times the priority status is set based on the customer requirement.

80. Tell some examples of Bug Severity and Bug Priority?

High Priority & High Severity: Submit button is not working on a login page and customers are unable to login to the application

Low Priority & High Severity: Crash in some functionality which is going to deliver after couple of releases

High Priority & Low Severity: Spelling mistake of a company name on the homepage

Low Priority & Low Severity: FAQ page takes a long time to load

81. What is the difference between a Standalone application, Client-Server application and Web application?

Standalone application:

Standalone applications follow one-tier architecture. Presentation, Business, and Database layer are in one system for a single user.

Client-Server Application:

Client-server applications follow two-tier architecture. Presentation and Business layer are in a client system and Database layer on another server. It works majorly in Intranet.

Web Application:

Web server applications follow three-tier or n-tier architecture. The presentation layer is in a client system, a Business layer is in an application server and Database layer is in a Database server. It works both in Intranet and Internet.

82. What is Bug Life Cycle?

Bug life cycle is also known as Defect life cycle. In Software Development process, the bug has a life cycle. The bug should go through the life cycle to be closed. Bug life cycle varies depends upon the tools (QC, JIRA etc.,) used and the process followed in the organization.

83. What is Bug Leakage?

A bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. If now that bug (which was missed by the testing team) was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage.

84. What is Bug Release?

Releasing the software to the Production with the known bugs then we call it as Bug Release. These known bugs should be included in the release note.

85. What is Defect Age?

Defect age can be defined as the time interval between date of defect detection and date of defect closure.

Defect Age = Date of defect closure – Date of defect detection

Assume, a tester found a bug and reported it on 1 Jan 2016 and it was successfully fixed on 5 Jan 2016. So the defect age is 5 days.

86. What is Error Seeding?

Error seeding is a process of adding known errors intendedly in a program to identify the rate of error detection. It helps in the process of estimating the tester skills of finding bugs and also to know the ability of the application (how well the application is working when it has errors.)

87. What is Showstopper Defect?

A showstopper defect is a defect which won’t allow a user to move further in the application. It’s almost like a crash.

Assume that login button is not working. Even though you have a valid username and valid password, you could not move further because the login button is not functioning.

88. What is HotFix?

A bug which needs to handle as a high priority bug and fix it immediately.

89. What is Boundary Value Analysis?

Boundary value analysis (BVA) is based on testing the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions. The Behavior at the edge of each equivalence partition is more likely to be incorrect than the behavior within the partition, so boundaries are an area where testing is likely to yield defects. Every partition has its maximum and minimum values and these maximum and minimum values are the boundary values of a partition. A boundary value for a valid partition is a valid boundary value. Similarly, a boundary value for an invalid partition is an invalid boundary value.

90. What is Equivalence Class Partition?

Equivalence Partitioning is also known as Equivalence Class Partitioning. In equivalence partitioning, inputs to the software or system are divided into groups that are expected to exhibit similar behavior, so they are likely to be proposed in the same way. Hence selecting one input from each group to design the test cases.

91. What is Decision Table testing?

Decision Table is aka Cause-Effect Table. This test technique is appropriate for functionalities which has logical relationships between inputs (if-else logic). In Decision table technique, we deal with combinations of inputs. To identify the test cases with decision table, we consider conditions and actions. We take conditions as inputs and actions as outputs.

92. What is State Transition?

Using state transition testing, we pick test cases from an application where we need to test different system transitions. We can apply this when an application gives a different output for the same input, depending on what has happened in the earlier state.

93. What is an entry criteria?

The prerequisites that must be achieved before commencing the testing process.

94. What is an exit criteria?

The conditions that must be met before testing should be concluded.

95. What is SDLC?

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) aims to produce a high-quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned information technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance.

96. What are the different available models of SDLC?

1. Waterfall

2. Spiral

3. V Model

4. Prototype

5. < Agile

97. What is STLC?

STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) identifies what test activities to carry out and when to accomplish those test activities. Even though testing differs between Organizations, there is a testing life cycle.

98. What is RTM?

Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) is used to trace the requirements to the tests that are needed to verify whether the requirements are fulfilled. Requirement Traceability Matrix AKA Traceability Matrix or Cross Reference Matrix.

99. What is Test Metrics?

Software test metrics is to monitor and control process and product. It helps to drive the project towards our planned goals without deviation. Metrics answer different questions. It’s important to decide what questions you want answers to.

100. When to stop testing? (Or) How do you decide when you have tested enough?

There are many factors involved in the real-time projects to decide when to stop testing.

1. Testing deadlines or release deadlines

2. By reaching the decided pass percentage of test cases

3. The risk in the project is under acceptable limit

4. All the high priority bugs, blockers are fixed

5. When acceptance criteria is met

As per ISTQB, It depends on the risks for the system being tested.

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