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Technical Round Materials-Biomedical Engineering-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Biomedical Engineering-Free Download

? Question 1. What Is Myoelectric Control?

Answer :

Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs.

? Question 2. What Is Bmi?

Answer :

BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person's height and weight. It is a person's weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m.

? Question 3. Explain Mri.

Answer :

MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ.

? Question 4. What Are The Wave Patterns Seen In An Eeg Scan?

Answer :

Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta - state of sleep, theta drowsiness, alpha - relaxation, beta - active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm

? Question 5. Explain What Is The Principle Behind Dna Fingerprinting?

Answer :

DNA fingerprinting is the technique of genetic fingerprinting. In this technique, DNA sequence can be used for identification of an individual. The main application of DNA fingerprinting is forensics. The main principle behind behind DNA fingerprinting is Polymerase Chain Reaction. This technique is also popularly known as DNA profiling.

? Question 6. What Is Pathogens. Name Some Types Of Pathogens?

Answer :

Pathogens are those organism which feeds on other organism for their food. Pathogens can be transported through many different routes, including airborne, direct or indirect contact, sexual contact, through blood, breast milk, or other body fluids, and through the fecal-oral route. Pathogens can be used to suppress pest population. Different types of pathogens are viral, bacterial, fungal etc.

? Question 7. What Is A Microarray?

Answer :

Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously.

? Question 8. Do You Know About Alzheimer's Disease?

Answer :

Alzheimer's is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer's is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests.

? Question 9. Do You Know About Epilepsy?

Answer :

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness.

? Question 10. Do You Know What Are The Most Commonly Used Technologies In Medical Imaging?

Answer :

Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

? Question 11. What Is Therapeutic Cloning?

Answer :

Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body.

? Question 12. What Is Biomechanics?

Answer :

Biomechanics applies principles of mechanics to understand and simulate medical problems and systems such as fluid transport and range of motion. Prosthetic organs such as artificial hearts, kidneys, and joints are examples of devices developed by biomechanical engineers.

? Question 13. What Is Bioinstrumentation?

Answer :

Bioinstrumentation involves use of engineering principles and methods, including computers, in developing devices for diagnosis and treatment of disease.

? Question 14. Do You Know What Biomedical Engineers Actually Do?

Answer :

Biomedical engineers may work in hospitals, universities, industry and laboratories. They enjoy a range of possible duties, including the design and development of artificial organs, modeling of physical processes, development of blood sensors and other physiologic sensors, design of therapeutic strategies and devices for injury recovery, development and refinement of imaging techniques and equipment, development of advanced detection systems, testing of product performance, and optimal lab design.

? Question 15. Do You Know What Is Biomedical Engineering?

Answer :

Biomedical Engineering blends traditional engineering techniques with biological sciences and medicine to improve the quality of human health and life. The discipline focuses both on understanding complex living systems - via experimental and analytical techniques - and on development of devices, methods and algorithms that advance medical and biological knowledge while improving the effectiveness and delivery of clinical medicine.

? Question 16. What You Know Dna Fingerprinting?what Techniques Are Used For Dna Fingerprinting?

Answer :

DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting.

? Question 17. What Is Biomaterials?

Answer :

Biomaterials involves development of natural living tissue and artificial materials for use in the human body. Choice of materials with appropriate properties is critical to design of functional organs, bones and other implantable materials, which may include alloys, ceramics, polymers and composites.

? Question 18. What Is Clinical Engineering In Biomedical Engineering?

Answer :

Clinical Engineering involves development and maintenance of computer databases, inventorying medical equipment and instruments as well as purchase of medical equipment used in hospitals. Clinical engineers may work with physicians to customize equipment to the explicit needs of the hospital or medical procedure.

? Question 19. What Is Medical Imaging?

Answer :

Medical Imaging combines electronic data processing, analysis and display with understanding of physical phenomena to identify and characterize health problems such as tumors, malformations and the like. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and other techniques are commonly used

? Question 20. What Is Rehabilitation Engineering?

Answer :

Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on enhancing the independence, capabilities and quality of life of individuals with physical impairments. This specialty may involve development of customized solutions to address highly specific needs of individuals.

? Question 21. What Is Systems Physiology?

Answer :

Systems Physiology focuses on understanding - at the microscopic and submicroscopic levels - how systems within living organisms function, from pharmaceutical drug response to metabolic systems and disease response, voluntary limb movements to skin healing and auditory physiology. This specialty involves experimentation and modeling using mathematical formulations.

? Question 22. Do You Know What Are Some Important Advances Made By Biomedical Engineers?

Answer :

Biomedical Engineers have developed many important techniques and equipment:

1. Hip joint replacement.

2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

3. Heart pacemakers.

4. Arthroscopic instrumentation for diagnostic and surgical purposes.

5. Heart-lung machines.

6. Angioplasty.

7. Bioengineered skin.

8. Time-release drug delivery.

9. Artificial articulated joints.

10. Kidney dialysis.

? Question 23. Do You Know What Is Flow Control In Biomedical Engineering?

Answer :

Flow control, also called optimized production technology, focuses on the efficient flow of material through the production process. The philosophy of flow control focuses on bottlenecks. For example, an owner using flow control will not buy a machine capable of 1,000 units an hour if supply is only 500 units. Examine systems and determine where lowest flow is experienced, then address that point and make sure it operates at full capacity. Flow control applies well where maximum productivity is required.

? Question 24. What Is Gram Staining Method?

Answer :

This method is used to identify bacterial species into two communities i.e. Gram positive and gram negative. This method is based on chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. It can be used to detect peptidoglycan, which is present in a thick layer in Gram positive bacteria. Purple/blue colour refers to the gram positive bacteria. Red colour stain refers to the gram negative bacteria. This method is very popularly used in the identification of bacterial organism.

? Question 25. Explain What Is Blood Brain Barrier?

Answer :

Blood brain barrier is caused in central nervous system, when blood circulation is separated from the brain extra cellular fluid (BECF). This phenomenon occurs along all capillaries. It consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. This barrier also consists of astrocytic end feet and also includes a thick basement membrane.

? Question 26. Do You Know What Is Lmo? State Some Of Its Importance?

Answer :

LMO stands for living modified organism. LMO are those organisms that have been genetically modified through the application of biotechnology. LMO also includes organisms that have been modified by novel recombinant DNA techniques as well as those that have been modified by mutagenesis or classical breeding and selection techniques. Importance of LMO's is that they can eat hazardous waste.

? Question 27. What Is Technique Of Gene Conversion?

Answer :

Gene conversion refers to the event in DNA genetic recombination. This event occurs at high frequencies during meiotic division but which also occurs in somatic cells. Through this process we can transfer DNA information from one DNA helix to another DNA helix, whose sequence is altered. Gene mutation can also be accomplished through this process. IT may lead to non-Mendelian inheritance. This phenomenon has often been recorded in fungal crosses.

? Question 28. What Is Rccs? What Is Its Lifespan?

Answer :

RCCS stands for rotary cell culture system. It is a device designed to grow three-dimensional cell clusters in microgravity. This device was developed by NASA to study the cell tissues of mammals-including humans-in microgravity. Tissues grown in the RCCS are larger and three-dimensional, with structural and chemical characteristics similar to normal tissue. RCCS has no moving parts, thus cells are less prone to damage and hence provides longer life span.

? Question 29. What Is Method Of Perfusion. State Some Of Its Drawbacks?

Answer :

Perfusion is the process of delivery of blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusion can be of two types over perfusion and under perfusion. Types of perfusion is classified according to the average level of perfusion across all tissues in an individual body, Tissues like the heart are considered overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue.

? Question 30. Explain Difference Between Introns And Exons?

Answer :

An intron refers to any nucleotide sequence within a gene which is removed by RNA splicing to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene. The term intron refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene, and the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses.

An exon can be referred to a sequence in DNA or its RNA transcript. In broad sense. An exon is a nucleic acid sequence that is represented in the mature form of an RNA molecule.

? Question 31. What Are Immunoglobulins? Explain Its Structure?

Answer :

Immunoglobulins are popularly known as antibody. These are large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulins are "Y" shaped structure which is having two tips and each tip of immunoglobulins contains a paratope. Immunoglobulins are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. The general structure of all antibodies is very similar; a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable.

? Question 32. What Is Frame Shift Mutation? Is This Mutation Similar To Single-nucleotide Polymorphism?

Answer :

This is the type of mutation in which DNA sequence is changed due to addition and deletion of nucleotides. This mutation changes the code for amino acids. This is also called framing error or reading frame shift. This mutation will cause the reading of the codons after the mutation to code for different amino acids. No, this mutation is not similar to single-nucleotide polymorphism. In single-nucleotide polymorphism nucleotide is replaced, rather than inserted or deleted.

? Question 33. Explain The Difference Between Retrovirus And Provirus?

Answer :

A retrovirus is a RNA virus which can be duplicated in a host cell using the reverse transcriptase enzyme. It can produce DNA from its RNA genome. The produced DNA is then incorporated into the host's genome by anintegrase enzyme. The RNA virus thereafter replicates as part of the host cell's DNA. Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae.

Provirus is a virus genome which can integrate into DNA of host cell. In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself but through replication of its host cell. This state can last over many host cell generations.

? Question 34. What Is Prosthetic Limb? What Are Its Drawbacks?

Answer :

It is an artificial device which can be used to replace a missing body part. It is based on the principle of biomechatronics. It can be used to replace body part missing from birth, due to injury or due to defect. The main drawback of prosthetic limb is its cost. Moreover, prosthetic limbs have to be replaced every 3-4 year due to the wear and tear. If the limb has fit tissues then the sockets in the limb have to be replaced every month.

? Question 35. Explain The Mechanism Of Elisa. What Are Its Uses?

Answer :

ELISA stands for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is a wet lab type analytical biochemistry assay. It can detect presence of a substance in a liquid or wet sample by using one subtype of heterogeneous, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. ELISA can be used as ligand binding assays. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant pathology. Quality check operations can also be performed in various industries with the help of ELISA.

? Question 36. What Is Isotopic Tracer Technique?

Answer :

This technique is used to understand chemical reaction and interactions in bio-chemistry and chemistry. In this technique, one or more of the atoms of the molecule of interest is substituted for an atom of the same chemical element, but that element belongs to different isotope. It can be used to detect the difference in number of neutrons separately from the other atoms of the same element. The atom has the same number of protons; it will behave in almost exactly the same way chemically as other atoms in the compound, and with few exceptions will not interfere with the reaction under investigation.

? Question 37. Explain The Difference Between Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria?

Answer :

In gram staining protocol, gram positive bacteria are stained dark blue or violet. Crystal violet stain can be retained by the gram positive bacteria because of the high amount of the peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

In gram staining protocol, gram negative bacteria do not retain crystal violet dye. Gram negative bacteria have pathogenic capability. Gram negative bacteria have cytoplasmic membrane which is not present in gram positive bacteria.

? Question 38. What Are Forbidden Clones?

Answer :

Clones refer to producing genetically identical individuals. Forbidden clones refer to clones of those cells which had immunological reactivity with self antigens. Embryonic life is eliminated from these types of clones. Such type of clones is called 'forbidden clones'.

? Question 39. What Is Superiority Of Tlc Over Paper Chromatography?

Answer :

TLC is superior over paper chromatography because of inorganic nature of adsorbent concentrated sulfuric acid spray. The spray is then followed by heating. It may be used to develop on the chromatogram by charring. Also, amino acid mixtures require 18 hours for separation on paper. It requires 3 hrs using cellulose TLC. The advantages of TLC lie in adsorbents which don't allow separation on paper. In TLC we have much wider choice of adsorbents depending upon needs and sample.

? Question 40. Explain The Biological Neuron Model. How Is It Different From Artificial Neuron?

Answer :

Biological neuron is also commonly known as spiking neuron model. This model is mathematical description of the properties of the nerve cell or neuron. This model is formulated to predict and describe the biological processes. This is different from artificial neuron because, artificial neuron is based on computational effectiveness. Artificial neuron is based on the synaptic weight for determining the neuron output.

1. What is Biomedical Engineering?

2. Do you know what is myoelectric control?

3. Do you know about BMI?

4. What is MRI?

5. Do you know what are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?

6. Do you know about Alzheimer's disease?

7. Do you know about epilepsy?

8. Do you know what are the most commonly used technologies in medical imaging?

9. What you know about microarray?

10. What is therapeutic cloning?

11. Is there one type of equipment that you feel you are the most efficient at repairing?

12. What is Bioinstrumentation?

13. What is Biomechanics?

14. What is Biomaterials?

15. What is Clinical Engineering in Biomedical Engineering?

16. What is Medical Imaging?

17. What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

18. What is Systems Physiology?

? What is myoelectric control?
Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs.

? What is BMI?
BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person's height and weight. It is a person's weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m.

? Explain MRI.
MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ.

? What are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?
Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta - state of sleep, theta ? drowsiness, alpha - relaxation, beta - active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm

? What is Alzheimer's disease?
Alzheimer's is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer's is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests.

? What is epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness.

? What are the commonly used technologies in medical imaging?
Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

? What is a microarray?
Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously.

? Explain therapeutic cloning.
Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body.

? What is DNA fingerprinting?
DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting

1.What are the characteristics that keep solid and fluid different

When the force is applied tangentially on solid then it experiences a

finite deformation and shear stress that is proportional to the

deformation. Whereas, when the same shear stress is applied on the

surface of fluid then it experiences continuous increasing deformation

where, the shear stress is proportional to the rate of change of

deformation

The fluid dynamic is dividend in three different areas. They are as

follows: Hydrodynamics (flow of liquids), Gas dynamics (flow of gases)

and Aerodynamics (flow of air). Whereas, the state of, solid doesn’t

represent any of the stages

2.What are the objectives of Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics deals with the theory of flow of air and it has many

practical applications in engineering. There are some objectives that

are being used in aerodynamics and these are as follows

It is used to predict the forces, moments and heat transfer from the bodies that is moving through the liquid

It deals with the movement of wings or use of the wind force. This

way it requires the calculations to be done for the aerodynamic heating

of the flight vehicles and the hydrodynamic forces applied on the

surface of the vehicle

It is used to determine the flows that are moving internally through

ducts. This way it makes the calculations and measurement of the flow

properties that is inside the rocket and jet engines

3.What are the sources involved in aerodynamics

There are two sources that are involved in the case of aerodynamics

forces and moments that are on the body. These forces are as follows

Pressure distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface

Shear stress distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface

These sources are for the body shapes and it doesn’t matter how complex

they are. The mechanism that is being used to communicate with the

bodies that is moving through a fluid. Both the pressure (p) and shear

stress (?) having the dimension force per unit area. This helps the

movement of the body through the fluid

4.What are the conditions given for the two flows to be dynamically similar

To measure the dynamicity of the two flows consider two different

flow fields over two different bodies. This way the conditions that get

generated are as follows

The streamlined pattern shouldn’t be geometrically similar

The distribution of the volume over change in volume (V/V8),

pressure over change in pressure (p/p8), and time over change in time

(T/T8). These changes take place throughout the flow of the field and

they remain the same against the common non-dimensional coordinates

The force coefficient remains the same

There is a similarity in both the flows like the solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both flows

5.What are the differences between continuum flow and free molecule flow

The flow that is moving over the body i.e. in a circular cylinder of

diameter d is the continuum flow, whereas the flow that consists of

individual molecules moving in random motion is the free molecule flow

The mean free path (?) defines the mean distance between the

collisions of the molecule and if this path (?) is smaller than the

scale of the body measured (d) then the flow of the body is considered

as continuum flow

6.What are the differences between inviscid and viscous flow

Viscous flow is the flow in which the molecule moves in random

fashion and transfers their mass, momentum and energy from one place to

another in fluid. Whereas, an inviscid flow is the flow in which there

is no involvement of friction, thermal conduction or diffusion while the

molecules are moving

Inviscid flow consists of the limited influence of friction, thermal

conduction and diffusion that is limited to thin region that is limited

to the body surface. Whereas, the viscous flows involve the flows that

dominates the aerodynamics of the blunt bodies like cylinder. In this

the flow expands around front face of cylinder and it separates from the

rear surface of it

7.What are the differences between incompressible and compressible flows

Incompressible flows are the flows that have a constant density (?).

Whereas, the compressible flows are those that consists of variable

densities

The flows that exist are compressible in nature. Whereas, incompressible flows, doesn’t exist in nature or are very rare

Incompressible flows are used to model aerodynamic problems without

loosing any detrimental accuracy i.e. most problems that exist in

hydrodynamics considers the density (?) = constant. Whereas,

compressible flow is hardly used as a mathematical model to, represent

the hydrodynamics

High speed flows are and must be treated as compressible, whereas incompressible flows are not considered for high speed flows

8.What are the different speed types of flows used in identifying Mach number

There are four types of flows that consist of different speeds and can be identified using Mach number

Subsonic flow where M<1 everywhere, this is a field that is

defined as subsonic if it matches the Mach number that is less than 1 at

every point. These are displayed by smooth streamlines that consists of

no discontinuity in slope. The flow velocity is everywhere less than

the speed of sound and the disturbances are all around the flow field

Transonic flow, where mixed regions exist and M<1 or M>1, this

is a flow field that defines that the M8 is increased just above the

unity and it is formed in front of the body. These are the mixed

subsonic and supersonic flows that are influenced by both the flows

Supersonic flow where M>1 everywhere, this type is defined when

Mach number is greater than 1 at every point. They are represented by

the presence of shock waves across which the flow properties and

streamlines changes discontinuously

Hypersonic flow where the speed is greater than supersonic, this is

defined when the shock waves moves closer to the body surface and the

strength of the shockwave increases leading to higher temperatures

between the shock and body surface

9.What are the major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance

There are two major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance and

these are handled by certifying technician in the field of support and

maintenance. These are divided into two sectors as

Category B1 (mechanical)these are the maintenance

technicians that have good knowledge regarding the working of airframe,

engine, electrical power systems and equipment. It also requires

additional knowledge of aircraft structures and materials

Category B2 (avionic)this deals with the

integrated knowledge of aircraft equipments, electrical, instrument and

radar related systems. They undergo proper training to handle the

aircraft equipments and gain practical experience to deal with day to

day activities

10.What are the operations performed by Category B technicians

Category B consists of two sectors in the field of maintenance and

they are divided in B1 and B2 with certain roles. The operations

performed by Category B technicians are as follows

Activities related to scheduled on field inspections for aircraft maintenance

Activities of complex rectification

Fault diagnosis on aircraft systems and their equipments

Modification and performing special instruction to monitor and manage the system

Repairing of airframe and other aircrafts

Activities performed like removal of aircraft components and fitting the required parts

Use of BITE (built-in test equipment) and diagnostic equipments to perform repair tasks

Supervising and certifying the work of other technicians involved in it

11.What is the main source of power in aircraft

The main source of power is the hydraulic motor that is provided by

the scheduled service and involves operations that allow technicians to

solve complex system problems. This setup required certifying the

technician to operate all the system the same way as it is been done

with one system. The hydraulic motor needs to be operated the same way

and maintained in a proper way. The alignment need to in synchronization

with the aircraft auxiliary power unity (APU) before anything is done

with the aircraft positioning. A standard need to, be followed to

maintain the aircrafts and its parts equipped and working

12.What are the differences in the job performed by line maintenance certifying staff and base maintenance certifying staff

The difference that exists between the two is that line maintenance

certifying staff has the responsibility to inspect, rectify and perform

the related or associated maintenance activities on the aircraft on the

airfield. Whereas, the base maintenance certifying staff, perform the

maintenance activities away from the live aircraft areas.

The maintenance that is being performed by the line maintenance staff is

restricted to use limited tools, and equipments that are present on the

site to perform the first line diagnostic maintenance. Whereas, Base

maintenance certifying staff is associated with the line maintenance

staff as it requires inspecting and performing complex modification in

the aircraft carriers

13.What is the role performed by Category C personnel in maintenance of aircraft

Category C personnel are responsible for maintaining the management

role of controlling the progress of the base maintenance inspections and

seeing the work that is getting performed. These handle the category B

and category A staff and monitor their work. They are responsible for

ensuring the good work that will be carried out by providing the

certification of maintenance. Category C personnel upon the completion

of the maintenance job done by the base maintenance staff provides the

certificate to allow the servicing of the aircraft to proceed. This way

the people working in the staff become eligible to perform and provide

services for flight

14.What are the safety recommendations required while maintaining aircraft

The safety recommendations are required while dealing with the

accidents and the inquiry of the aircrafts. The recommendations needed

are as follows

CAA (Civil aviation authority) examines the applicability of

self-certification of aircraft engineering and verifies the criticality

of the tasks that need to be performed on the system. They also check

the system for further services without doing any functional checks

Review of the system takes place to interpret the single components of the aircraft that is vital in its design

Reviewing of the quality assurance system and the reporting methods

take place to encourage more better designs to be provided for the use

Reviewing the need to, introduce a format of job description and grades that is being provided to the engineers and managers

Providing a mechanism for an independent assessment to carry out the work audit and operations can be performed smoothly

15.What are the different stress types present in aircraft operations

Stress is a result that is caused when a solid e.g. metal bar is

subjected to an external force. Stress is defined as force per unit area

and the basic unit includes MN/m2, N/mm2 and Pa. There are basically

three types of stress

Tensile stress: it is the stress that is setup when the force tries to pull the material apart

Compressive stress: it is the stress that is produced by the force that is trying to crush the material

Shear stress: is the stress that results from the force that tends

to cut through the material i.e. tend to put one material slide over

another one

16.Why is strain a major factor in aircraft engineering

Strain is when a material is altered in shape, this happens due to

the fact that the force is acting on the material. The body is strained

internally as well as externally without having any differences of

dimension but it just has the differences at the atomic level. It is the

ratio of change in dimension over the original dimension. It is very

important due to the fact that building an aircraft requires the

knowledge of these factors and the formulas that are associated with it

to successfully implementing the parts together. There are three types

of strain

Tensile strain

Compressive strain and

Shear strain

17.What are the different types of modulus involved in mechanics

Modulus of elasticity is given by the Hooke’s law that states that

stress is directly proportional to strain, while the material remains

elastic. The external forces that are acting on the material is just

having the sufficient to stretch the atomic bonds this way the material

can also return back to the original shape. The different types of

modulus are as follows

Modulus of rigidity: this defines the relationship between the shear stress (t ) and shear strain (? )

Bulk modulus: this defines that if a body volume v is subjected to

an increase in an external pressure then the volume will be changed by

dV, this deformation will be change in volume not in shape

18.What are the mechanical properties required to know before performing maintenance

The mechanical properties provide the definition of the behavior of

the material that is being put under the action of external forces. This

is an important aspect to aeronautical engineering that is also used to

gain knowledge for applications developed for aircrafts. This provides

an overall view of the structure of the aircraft and the maintenance

aspect of it. The properties used are as follows

Strength

Stiffness,

Specific strength and stiffness,

Ductility,

Toughness,

Malleability and elasticity

19.Explain in brief about each property used in mechanics

The properties of the mechanics are as follows

Strengththis is the applied force on a material

that can withstand prior to fracture. It is measured by the proof or

yield stress of a material that is under action

Working stressthis is the stress that is being

imposed on a material as a result of the load that is being subjected on

the material. The loads that are given must be in the elastic range

Proof stressdefines the tensile stress

Ultimate tensile stress (UTS)defines of a material that is given by a relationship or its maximum load

Specific strengthdefines the light and strong of a

material that is used in aircraft making. This is done to maximize the

payload and meeting all the safety requirements

Malleabilitydefines the ability to be rolled into sheets or get a shape under pressure. This includes examples of gold, copper and lead

Elasticitydefines the ability of a material to return to its original shape when an external force is removed from the material

20.What is the purpose of load extension graphs

Load extension graphs are used to show the result of mechanical test

done on the material to know their certain properties for example

finding out the heat treatment of a material. These graphs shows certain

phases of a material when it is being tested for destruction of the

properties like elastic range, limit of proportionality, etc. The

material needs to obey Hooke’s law. The elastic limit needs to be at or

very near to the limit of proportionality. If the limit is passed the

material ceases to be proportional to the load. If the stress increases

on the material then the waist reduces as the stress = force/area. This

graph represents a curve that shows different stages like elastic stage,

and plastic stage

21.Why is torsion such an important feature in aircraft engines

Torsion is used to drive shafts for aircraft engine driven pumps and

motors. They are also involved in having a force behind propeller

shafts, pulley assemblies and rive couplings for machinery. The shear

stress is setup within the shafts and it results from the torsional

loads. The size and the nature of torsional loads and stresses need to

be known while making the design or else premature failure can occur.

The shafts are used as a component to transmit torsional loads and

twisting moments or torque. They can be a cross section or a circular

component as it is more suitable to transmit the torque for pumps and

motors to supply the power to the aircraft system

22.What is the main function of propulsive thrust

Propulsive thrust is used in aircraft system, when an aircraft is

traveling through air in straight or level flight then the engine

produces a thrust that is equal to the air resistance or the drag force

on the aircraft. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag then the aircraft

will accelerate and if drag exceeds the engine thrusts then the

aircraft system will slow down. The thrust force that is used for

aircraft propulsion should always come from air or gas pressure. The

forces that are external always act on the engine or propeller. This

propeller can be driven either by a piston or a gas turbine engine. If

there is a use of jet engine then the high velocity exhaust gas is

produced

23.Why is the study of gyroscopes motion required to learn aircraft applications

Gyroscopic motion is considered as an important study for aircraft

application for the inertia and momentum of the body that is used in

circular motion. The momentum is the product of the mass of a body and

its velocity. This is a measure of the quantity of motion of a body.

Inertia is the force that doesn’t allow any change to happen in

momentum. Gyroscope is the rotating mass that can be moved freely at

right angles to its plane of rotation. This utilizes the gyro rotor or

gyroscopic inertia to provide the motion unless it is compelled by an

external force to change the state. This uses property of rigidity as

gyroscope acts as a reference point in space

24.What are the laws of gyro-dynamics

Gyro-dynamics deals with gyroscopic motion that is used for creating

aircraft application as it allows inertia and momentum of the body.

These laws consist of the two properties of rigidity and precession to

provide the visible effects gyro-dynamics. These are as follows

If a rotating body is mounted and it is free to move about any axis

that passes through the center of mass, then the spin axis that is used

will remain fixed in inertial space without displacing any of the frame

If a constant torque is applied to any direction such as about an

axis, or perpendicular to the axis, then the spin axis will move about

an axis that is mutually perpendicular to both the spin and the torque

axis

25.What is being expressed by Sperry’s rule of precession

Sperry’s rule of precession describes about the direction in which

the precession takes place. This precession is dependent on the

direction of rotation for the mass and the axis of the torque that is

applied on the material. It provides a guide to the direction of

precession that allows easy finding of the direction of the applied

torque. This also helps in finding out the direction of the rotation of

gyro-wheel. If the torque is applied and is perpendicular to the spin

axis then it can be transferred as a force

26.What are the elements required to display oscillatory motion

The elements required to display oscillatory motion are as follows

Periodthis is related to the time and it

signifies the time that elapses in between the motion that will repeat

itself after some time again. Oscillatory motions allow themselves to be

repeated after equal intervals of time and this is called as periodic

Cycleit represents the completion of one period and it also signifies the motion that is completed in one period

Frequencydefines the number of cycles completed in unit time

Amplitudedefines the distance from one point to another or from highest to lowest point of the motion from the central position

27.What are the different lift augmentation devices present

Lift augmentation devices provides flaps that are moving wing

sections that increase wing camber and provide an angel of attack. Flaps

have their own use like if an aircraft takes off and land in a short

distance then the wings of it should produce sufficient lift at lower

speed. Flaps provide a way to slow down the aircraft. There two

categories and they are as follows

Trailing edge flaps includes different flaps like

Plain flap that is used to retract the complete section of trailing edge and it is used in downward

Split flap gets formed by the hinged lower part of trailing edge and

the lowered top surface remains unchanged and it eliminates the airflow

that occurs over the top of the surface of the plain flap

Leading edge flaps: is used to augment the low speed lift that is

swept on the wing aircraft. They help in increase the camber and allow

the coupling to operate together with the trailing edge flaps

28.What are the steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed

There are various steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed are as follows

Build stiff wings that allow and provide the resistance to torsional diversion beyond the maximum speed of the aircraft

Use two sets of ailerons and one outboard pair that can be operated at low speeds

Use of one inboard pair that can be used to operate on high speeds,

this will have less twisting impact when the ailerons are positioned

outboard

Use spoilers that can be positioned independently or can be paired

with ailerons. These reduce the lift on the down going wing by

interrupting the airflow over the top surface

29.What are the functions performed by rudder

The rudder is involved in providing the movement to the ports that

gives a lift force to starboard. This will allow the aircraft to turn

and uses the ailerons effectively to bank the aircraft by minimum use of

rudder. The functions performed by rudder are as follows

It is used with different applications that are involved in taking off and landing to keep aircraft straight

Providing assistance that is, limited only for the aircraft to turn correctly

Used in applications during spin to reduce the roll rate of the

aircraft and there are some applications that provides low speeds and

high angles to allow the raising of the wings

30.What are the criteria need to be followed for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable

The criteria that are required for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable, is

To have a nose-down pitching disturbance that is used to produce the aerodynamics forces to give a nose-up restoring moment

This restoring moment that is produced should be large enough to

return the aircraft to its original position after the disturbance

The requirements are met by using the tail-plain that is horizontal stabilizer used to provide the stability to the aircraft

31. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

32. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

33. What is ram jet?

34. Why you would like to join the aviation industry?

35. Doesn’t simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal

protection system of are usable launch vehicle jeopardize the accuracy

of results?

36. Why insulating tiles on reusable launch vehicles must be isolated from one another?

37. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

38. Why are all shear loads and twisting moments set to zero for the preliminary design phase of TPS?

39. How difficult is to mould and shape graphite epoxies compared with

alloys or ceramic that may be used for thermal protective applications?

40. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle undersurface experiences during its mission?

41. Why the stall of the swept wing tends to occur at the tips first?

42. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

43. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

44. What is ram jet?

45. Why refrigeration is done inside aircraft, and why aircraft body is made of aluminum’s?

46. Does not simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal

protection system of are usable launch vehicles jeopardize the accuracy

of results?

47. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

48. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle under surface experiences during its mission?

49. Explain how you overcame a major obstacle?

50. What are the main areas in Aviation?

51. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

52. What made you choose aerospace engineer line as your career?

53. Explain the day to day responsibilities of Aerospace engineering?

54. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautically engineering?

55. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

56. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics and controls?

57. What is the testing done in aerospace engineering?

58. How would you handle if your co-worker is not co-operating with you?

59. What would you do if your Captain is not following the instructions properly?

60. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

61. When a pilot is assigned a speed, how much can one deviate from that speed?

62. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

63. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency situation

if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

64. How important is to get the passengers switch off the mobile phones

and laptops during land off? What could be the consequences?

65. How many types of emergency landings are there and explain?

66. What are the three tactical elements of electronic warfare?

67. What are the main areas in Aviation?

68. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

69. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautical engineering?

70. Does the knowledge of mathematics of Science is required to get into aerospace engineering?

71. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

72. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics, and controls?

73. What would you do if your Captain were not following the instructions properly?

74. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

75. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

76. You are about to take off the plane in few seconds and a

catastrophic engine fails, and your captain tells you not to take off

and just stay in the center line

77. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

78. What operational benefits do hydraulic actuator/rate controls have over gas charged units?

79. How do I decide which is the best technology to solve my vibration isolation problem?

80. What is isolation efficiency?

Tell us what you know about Biomedical Engineering professions receptive to women?
Biomedical Engineering is extremely attractive to women as a degree program and career. Women earn a greater percentage of college degrees in Biomedical Engineering than any other engineering discipline, according to the American Society for Engineering education. Among those earning B.S. degrees in biomedical engineering, 39% were awarded to women in 2000; at the master’s level, 34% of biomedical degrees awarded went to women; and at the doctoral level, 32% of biomedical engineering degrees awarded went to women.
The attractions for many women are: the flexibility and inherent creativity of the discipline relative to other engineering areas; the ability to work in a profession that strives to improve the quality of people’s lives; the existing critical mass of women in medical professions; and the integration of biological sciences.

11) Do you know what are some important advances made by Biomedical Engineers?
Biomedical Engineers have developed many important techniques and equipment:
–> Hip joint replacement
–> Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
–> Heart pacemakers
–> Arthroscopic instrumentation for diagnostic and surgical purposes
–> Heart-lung machines
–> Angioplasty
–> Bioengineered skin
–> Time-release drug delivery
–> Artificial articulated joints
–> Kidney dialysis

12) What is Systems Physiology?
Systems Physiology focuses on understanding – at the microscopic and submicroscopic levels – how systems within living organisms function, from pharmaceutical drug response to metabolic systems and disease response, voluntary limb movements to skin healing and auditory physiology. This specialty involves experimentation and modeling using mathematical formulations.

13) What is Rehabilitation Engineering?
Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on enhancing the independence, capabilities and quality of life of individuals with physical impairments. This specialty may involve development of customized solutions to address highly specific needs of individuals.

14) What is Medical Imaging?
Medical Imaging combines electronic data processing, analysis and display with understanding of physical phenomena to identify and characterize health problems such as tumors, malformations and the like. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and other techniques are commonly used

15) What is Clinical Engineering in Biomedical Engineering?
Clinical Engineering involves development and maintenance of computer databases, inventorying medical equipment and instruments as well as purchase of medical equipment used in hospitals. Clinical engineers may work with physicians to customize equipment to the explicit needs of the hospital or medical procedure.

16) What is Biomaterials?
Biomaterials involves development of natural living tissue and artificial materials for use in the human body. Choice of materials with appropriate properties is critical to design of functional organs, bones and other implantable materials, which may include alloys, ceramics, polymers and composites.

17) What is Biomechanics?
Biomechanics applies principles of mechanics to understand and simulate medical problems and systems such as fluid transport and range of motion. Prosthetic organs such as artificial hearts, kidneys, and joints are examples of devices developed by biomechanical engineers.

18) What is Bioinstrumentation?
Bioinstrumentation involves use of engineering principles and methods, including computers, in developing devices for diagnosis and treatment of disease.

19) Do you know what Biomedical Engineers actually do?
Biomedical engineers may work in hospitals, universities, industry and laboratories. They enjoy a range of possible duties, including the design and development of artificial organs, modeling of physical processes, development of blood sensors and other physiologic sensors, design of therapeutic strategies and devices for injury recovery, development and refinement of imaging techniques and equipment, development of advanced detection systems, testing of product performance, and optimal lab design.

20) Do you know what is Biomedical Engineering?
Biomedical Engineering blends traditional engineering techniques with biological sciences and medicine to improve the quality of human health and life. The discipline focuses both on understanding complex living systems – via experimental and analytical techniques – and on development of devices, methods and algorithms that advance medical and biological knowledge while improving the effectiveness and delivery of clinical medicine.

21) What you know DNA fingerprinting?
DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting.

22) What is therapeutic cloning?
Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body.

23) What you know about microarray?
Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously.

24) Do you know what are the most commonly used technologies in medical imaging?
Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

25) Do you know about epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness.

26) Do you know about Alzheimer’s disease?
Alzheimer’s is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer’s is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests.

27) Do you know what are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?
Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta – state of sleep, theta drowsiness, alpha – relaxation, beta – active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm

28) What is MRI?
MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ.

29) Do you know about BMI?
BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person’s height and weight. It is a person’s weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m.

30) Do you know what is myoelectric control?
Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs.

31) What is Biomedical Engineering?
Biomedical engineering is an application of engineering in medicine. It combines the expertise of life sciences, engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering deals with design and development of advanced medical devices, artificial replacement of organs, devices and methods for disease diagnosis and DNA chips. Biomedical engineering is one of the upcoming fields with its reach expanding exponentially everyday.

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