Technical Round Materials-Textile Technology-Free Download
1. What is Fiber?
Fiber, which is either spun (or twisted) into yarn or else directly
compressed into fabric.
2. What is yarn?
Yarn, which is woven, knitted, or otherwise made into fabric.
3. What is fabric?
Fabric, which by various finishing processes becomes finished consumers
4. Define Natural fibers?
Natural fibers that occur in nature can be classified as vegetable, animal,
5. Define Man made fibers?
The natural material of cellulose has been taken from cotton linters and
wood pulp, processed chemically, and changed in form and several other
characteristics into fibers of various lengths.
6. Define mineral fibers?
Glass fibers are produced by combining silica sand, limestone, and certain
7. Define metallic fibers?
Produced by mining and refining fibers such metals as aluminium, silver and
8. Define rubber fibers?
Made from the sap tapped from the rubber tree.
9. Give any three animal fibers?
Wool, Silk, Hair.
10. Give any three cellulosic fibers?
Rayon, Acetate, Triacetate.
11. Give any four vegetable fibers?
Cotton, linen, jute, hemp.
12. Give any three mineral fibers?
Glass, ceramic, graphite.
13. What is cotton fiber?
The cotton fiber grows in the seepod, or boll or the cotton plant. Cotton
yarn is used to make fabries for all type of apparel, home furnishings and
14. What is linen fiber?
Linen fiber is obtained from the stoke of the flax plant linen yarn can be
very strong and lustrous and in used for apparel, have furnishings and
15. What is silk fiber?
Is a fine continuous strand unwound from the cocoon of a moth caterpillar
known as the silk worm. Silk is composed of protein. Lustrous, smooth,
light weight, strong, and elastic. Used for apparel home furnishings, and
16. What is nylon?
Nylon is thermoplastic, resilient, elastic and very strong. It is used for
a wide variety of apparel, have furnishings and industrials products.
17. What is polyester?
Polyester fibers are thermo plastic, they have good strength and are
hydrophobic, do not absorb water well. Used for a wide variety of apparel,
home furnishings and industrial fabrics.
18. Define spandex?
Spandex fibers are extremely elastic. They are used for such purpose as
foundation garments, hosiery, swim wear and sports wear.
19. Name two kinds of spinning machine?
Ring frame, mule frame.
20. What is the standard of cotton yarn count?
The standard for the yarn count in cotton is I pound of fiber drawn out to
make 840 yards of yarn. The resultant thickness or size is known as count
number 1 or Ne1.
21. What is ply yarns?
Two or more strands or yarns are twisted together; they are designed as ply
22. What is ASTM?
American Society for Testing and Materials.
23. What is ISO?
International Organization for Standardization.
24. What is ANSI?
American National Standards Institute.
25. What is ICS?
Integrated Composite Spinning 84
Garments/Apparel Questions and Answers
1. What is seam?
Seam is joining of pieces of fabric together with stitching.
2. What is French seam?
French Seam is narrow seam within a seam, used on fabrics which ravel
3. What is trimming?
Trimming is Evenly cutting away part of the seam allowance .
4. What is seam Allowance?
Seam Allowance is the Width between fabric edge and seam line .
5. What is Plain Seam?
Plain Seam is the Most common type of seam, Suitable for all areas of a
garment and fabrics except for sheers and laces.
6. What is Gathers?
Gathers meanstheTiny, soft folds of fabric formed when a larger piece of
fabric is sewn to a smaller piece
7. What is seam finish?
Seam Finish istheTreatment on seam edges to prevent raveling and make the
seam stronger and last longer.
8. What is Basting?
Basting is the Temporarily joining layers of fabric together.
9. What is Grading ?
Grading means theTrimming each seam allowance to a different width.
10. What is Back stitching?
Sewing backward and forward in the same place to secure stitching, is known
A stitched fold that provides shape and fullness to a garment so that it
fits the curves of the body
12. What is Hem?
A finished edge on a garment, one of the last steps in sewing a garment is
called the hem.
13. What is Notching ?
Cutting V-shaped sections from the seam allowance is called notching.
14. What is Clipping?
Making straight cuts into the seam allowance is called clipping.
15. What is Topstitched Seam ?
A plain seam with a row of machine stitching on one or both sides of the
seam line is known as the top stitched seam.
16. What is Alter?
Alter means to change the pattern or garment so that it fits the body and
represents body measurements and proportions.
17. What is Applique.?
is A cut-out decoration, design or motif applied to base fabric.
18. What is Armscye?
Armscye means the Armhole; opening for a sleeve.
19. What is Asymmetrical ?
Asymmetrical means the One-sided, not geometrically balanced.
20. What is Baste?
Baste is the Stitches made by hand or machine to hold fabric pieces
21. What is Bias?
Bias is the Diagonal direction of fabric. True bias is at a 45-degree angle
to the grain line.
22. What is Binding?
Binding is the Strip to encase edges as a finish or trim.
23. What is Blind hem?
Blind hem means the Sewing a hem invisibly with hand or machine stitches.
24. What is Blouson?
Blouson means the Bloused effect of fullness gathered in at and falling
over a seam, typically the bodice over a skirt.
25. What is Bodice?
Bodice means the Portion of garment above the waist.
26. What is Bolt?
Bolt is the Unit in which fabric is packaged and sold by the manufacturer.
Usually contains 12 to 20 yards.
27. What is Boning?
Boning means the Flexible strips used to stiffen seams or edges.
28. What is Casing?
Casing is a folded-over edge of garment or area through which elastic or
ribbon is threaded.
29. What is Chevron?
Chevron is a V-shaped stripes.
30. what is Clean finish?
Clean finish means the method for finishing the raw edges of pockets, hems
31. What is Clip?
Clip is a cut in fabric to allow ease on curves or corners. Also used to
indicate notches in garment pattern.
32. What is Closure?
Closure means that which opens or closes a garment (buttons, snaps, etc.,
or the area on which they are Placed)
33. What is Colorfast?
Colorfast means the Fabric that will not fade or run during cleaning or
34. What is contrasting?
Contrasting means the Opposing; showing off differences of color, fabric,
35. What is Crease?
Crease is a line made by folding the fabric and pressing the fold on this
specified line .
36. What is Dart?
Dart is a tuck in the fabric that helps in fitting the garment over the
37. What is Dolman?
Dolman means the Sleeve set into a deep armhole so as to resemble a kimono
38. What is Double-breasted front?
Double-breasted means Front closing that overlaps enough to allow two rows
39. What is Drum Lining?
Drum lining is the Lining not sewn into garment seams.
40. What is Ease?
Ease is the even distribution of slight fullness when one section of a seam
is joined to a slightly shorter section without forming gathers or tucks.
Used to shape set-in sleeves, princess seams, etc.
41. What is Edge stitching?
Edge stitching is the Stitching placed 1/16 inch from the edge; may be
stitching detail, such as topstitching or stitching done to finish the
outer edge of a seam or facing edge.
42. What is Empire?
Empire is a High waistline bodice with a loose, straight skirt.
43. What is enclosed seam?
Enclosed seam means the seam allowance along a faced edge that is stitched
and turned to form an enclosed seam between two layers of fabric.
44. What is Eyelet?
Eyelet is a small, round, finished hole in a garment or fabric.
45. What do you mean by fabric hand?
Fabric hand means the way a fabric feels and drapes; its flexibility,
smooth- ness and softness.
46. What is facing?
Facing is to finish an edge by applying a fitted piece of fabric, binding,
etc. Also the right side of the fabric.
47. What is Fell stitch?
Fell stitch is a Neat, tiny, vertical stitches used in tailoring.
48. What is Finger Press?
Finger press means the Pressing a small area by crease with the fingers.
49. What is Finish?
Finish is any means of completing a raw garment edge to keep it from
raveling, rolling or fraying.
50. What is Flap?
Flap is the shaped garment piece attached by only one edge, such as a flap
51. What is Flare?
Flare is a Portion of garment that spreads out or widens.
52. What is Fly?
Fly means the fabric used as lap to conceal an opening in a garment.
53. What is Fold line?
Fold line is the line where fabric is folded, usually vertically, when
cutting out a garment. It is common for the center front of a garment to be
placed on a fold line.
54. What is Fusible web?
Fusible web is a web-like adhesive that melts when you apply heat and
55. What is Gather?
Gather means to draw up fabric fullness on a line of stitching.
56. What is Gore?
Gore i s a tapered section of a garment; wider at the lower edge.
57. What is Grade?
Grade means to reduce the bulk of enclosed seams by trimming the individu
al seam allowances different widths, clipping inward curves and corners,
notching convex curves, and trimming away excess fabric at outward corners.
58. What is Grosgrain?
Grosgrain means the Silk fabric or ribbon having heavy crosswise ribs.
59. What is Gusset?
Gusset is a fabric piece inserted at the un der arm to give ease in the
60. What is Hem?
Hem is the finished portion on skirts, jackets and sleeves held in place
with a hemming stitch.
61. What is Interfacing?
A carefully selected fabric placed between the garment and the facing
fabric for added body, to give support, and to maintain shape.
62. What is Join?
A term used in pattern directions that usually means to stitch together the
pieces re ferred to using normal seam allowances and regular stitches.
63. What is Keyhole?
A rounded neckline with an inverted, wedge-shaped opening at front or back.
64. What is Lapels?
A Part of a garment that turns back, especially the front neck- line fold
of a jacket.
65. What is Layout?
Cutting chart on instruction guide sheet showing the place ment of pattern
66. What is Line?
Line means Style, outline or effect given by the cut and construction of a
67. What is Marking?
Marking is the Transfer of construction symbols from paper pattern to
68. What is Match?
To bring notches or other construction markings on two pieces together.
69. What is Miter?
Miter To form a diagonal seam at a square corner.
70. What is Motif ?
A Unit of design; used as decoration or pattern.
71. What is Nap?
A Soft surface with fibers that lie smoothly in one direction.
72. What is Notch?
Notch means the Cutting wedges from seam allowances of an outward curve.
Also a pattern symbol transferred to fabric to indicate seaming.
73. What is Notions?
Items other than fabric or a pat- tern required to complete a garment, such
as buttons, thread, zipper, etc.
74. What is Pattern markings?
The symbols for construction printed on the pattern, such as for darts,
buttonholes, notches, dots or tucks. They are transferred from the pattern
to the fabric by means of tailors tacks, notches, chalk, basting or tem
porary fabric markers.
75. Whah is Peplum?
Peplum is a Small flounce or extension of garment around the hips, usually
from the bodice.
76. What is Pin basting?
Pin basting is the technique of Pinning seams before stitching.
77. What is Pinking?
Cutting raw edges with pinking or scalloping sheers to prevent raveling.
78. What is Pintuck?
A narrow channel of fabric stitched together to form tuck design detail,
used in French hand sewing.
79. What is Pivot?
The Stitching around a corner by leaving the needle in the fabric, raising
the presser foot, and turning the fabric in a new direction.
80. What is Placket?
Garment opening fastened with zipper, snaps or buttons. Finish applied to
sleeve opening with cuff.
81. What is Pre-shrink?
Washing/dry-cleaning fabric to allow for shrinkage of fabric before the
82. What is Princess line?
Garment fitted with seams instead of darts.
83. What is Ravel?
Ravel means the fray in the cutting edges of the fabric.
84. What is Raw edge?
Raw edge is the Unfinished edge of fabric.
85. What is Right side of fabric?
Right side is the Finished side of fabric, outside of garment.
86. What is Rip?
To remove stitches improperly placed; also tearing fabric along the
87. What is Roll?
Roll is the desired curve and fold (commonly on a collar); shaping
established by pressing, pad stitching, etc.
88. What is seam?
Seam refers the Two or more edges of fabric held together by sewing. Seam
should be well constructed and appropriate for the fabric, type of garment,
and the location on the garment.
89. What is Seam allowance?
Seam allowance means the Width of fabric beyond the seam line, not
including the garment area.
90. What is Seam binding?
Seam binding is the Ribbon-like tape used to finish edges.
91. What is secure?
Fasten permanently by means of a knot, backstitching, etc.
92. What is Self fabric?
Self fabric means the same material as the rest of the garment.
93. What is Selvage?
Selvage is the Lengthwise finished edges on all woven fabrics. Running
parallel to the lengthwise grain.
94.What is Semi-fitted?
Fitting to conform partly, but not too closely, to the shape of the figure.
95. What is Serger?
A machine that overcasts and trims an edge simultaneously.
96. What is Shank?
The Link between button and fabric to allow for the thickness of
97. What is Sheath?
Sheath means the Close-fitting dress with a straight skirt.
98. What is Shirt waist?
Dress with bodice details similar to a shirt.
99. What is Shrinking?
Constricting fabric with steam or water to eliminate excess in a specific
area. Also done to fabric before cutting out a garment to prevent further
100. What is Silhouette?
Silhouette means the Outline or contour of a figure or garment.
101. What is Single-breasted?
Center front closing with enough flap to allow one row of buttons.
102. What is Slash?
A Cut taken in fabric to facilitate construction or turning of fabric at a
point or corner.
103. What is slip stitch?
A hand stitch used to join two layers of fabric from the right side.
104. What is Stay?
Stay it Means of maintaining the shape of a garment area, by using a small
piece of fabric or tape that is sewn to an area of the garment to reinforce
and secure a position.
105. What is Stitching?
Stitching in the technique of sewing a straight stitch inconspicuously in
the seam well on the correct side of a previously stitched seam. Used to
complete waist- bands, cuffs, collars, and French bias binding.
106. What is a take?
Tack Joining two garment layers with small, loose, hand stitches or
107. What is Tailoring?
Tailoring means the Construction technique requiring special hand sewing
and pressing to mold fabric into a finished garment.
108. What is Taper?
Cutting or stitching at a slight diagonal, generally to make gradually
109. What is Template?
Template is a shape made of a stiff sub- stance, such as freezer paper,
usually the size of the finished design. (i.e., pocket, applique shape or
110. What is Tension ?
Tension Amount of pull on thread or fabric during construction. Also the
relationship of the needle and bobbin thread and how they interlock to form
the sewing machine stitch, creat- ing a balanced, looser or tighter stitch.
111. What is Thread count?
Thread count means the Number of threads in 1 square inch of fabric.
112. What is Topstitching?
Line of machine stitching parallel to a seam or edge, done from the right
side of a garment.
113. What is Trim?
To cut away excess fabric is called Trim .
114. What is Trimming?
A Feature added to a garment for ornamentation, such as braid or self -
115. What is Twill tape?
A Firmly woven tape used for tailoring to reinforce and prevent stretching.
116. What is Underlining?
Lining joined in garment seams that is used to give shape or support.
117. What is Under stitching?
Under stitching is Folding the entire seam allowance to the facing side or
under- side and then stitching on the correct side of the facing close to
the seam edge. This allows the seam to lie flat and keeps the seam edge
from showing on the correct side of the garment.
118. What is Vent?
A faced or lined slash in a garment for ease.
119. What is Welt?
Welt is a Strip of material stitched to a seam, border or edge.
120. What is Wrap-around?
Wrap-around means the Garment or part of a garment wrapped around a person,
such as a skirt.
121. What is Wrong side?
Wrong side means the inside of a garment or back side of fabric.
122. What is Yoke?
Yoke is the fitted portion of a garment, usually at shoulders or hips,
designed to support the rest of the garment hanging from it.
) What are the fibres used in Textile Industry?
Three basic types of fibres used in Textile industries are
2) What are the chemical based procedures used in textile
Bleach clean up
Dyeing & Printing
3) Mention what is the difference between yarn and thread?
There is three basic material you need to manufacture textile Thread, Yarn
and Fiber. A Fiber is the basic raw material to produce yarn or thread. A
textile Fiber could be natural or synthetic (man-made).
The difference between Yarn and Thread is
Yarn: It is a continuous twisted strand of wool, cotton or synthetic
fibre used for Knitting or weaving purpose
Thread: It is a fine cord made up of two or more twisted fibres used in
sewing and weaving
4) What are the different types of cotton available?
Different types of cotton available are
Grey cotton fabric
Bleached cotton fabric
Color or dyed cotton fabric
5) What is habutae?
It is a silk fabric specially produced only in Japan but recently the
reverse trend of importing this from China and Korea is increasing.
Question 1. List Different Types Of Washing Faults?
Color shade variation
After wash hole
Very dark and very light
Bottom hem and course edge destroy
Over blasting/low blasting
Over grinding/low grinding
Bad smell due to poor neutralization
Poor hand feel
To high hairiness
High or low effect/abrasion on garments
Spot on garments
Out of range/ level of ph value of garments
Question 2. List The Chemical Names Which Are Used In Washing
Sodium mete bi sulphite
LV (pocket clear)
Optical Brightening agent (3 types: Red, blue, yellow )
Sodium hypo sulphite
Sodium bi carbonate
Enzyme (Acid, Neutral , SL enzyme)
Potassium per manganate
Micro emulsion silicon
Buffer, stabilizer, fixing agent, catanizer , resin, anti staining
Dye for tinting or over dyeing
Question 3. Can I Dye My Cotton/silk/linen Dress?
Possibly, but keep in mind: 1, the thread and zipper will remain the
original color; 2. the trim issue (see above); 3. the stress of the
Question 4. Explain Different Types Of Wet Processing?
Normal wash / Garments wash/ Rinse wash, Pigment wash, Caustic wash,
Silicon wash, Stone wash, Enzyme wash, Stone Enzyme wash, Acid wash, Bleach
Question 5. What Action Of Enzyme Is On Garments?
The action of enzyme during enzyme wash, it hydrolysis the cellulose. At
first it attacks the having projecting fiber and hydrolyzed them. Then it
attacks the yarn portion inside fabric and partly hydrolyzed the yarn
portion and faded affect is produced.
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