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Technical Round Materials-Aeronautical Engineering-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Aeronautical Engineering-Free Download

What are the characteristics that keep solid and fluid different?

• When the force is applied tangentially on solid then it experiences a finite deformation and shear stress that is proportional to the deformation. Whereas, when the same shear stress is applied on the surface of fluid then it experiences continuous increasing deformation where, the shear stress is proportional to the rate of change of deformation.
• The fluid dynamic is dividend in three different areas. They are as follows: Hydrodynamics (flow of liquids), Gas dynamics (flow of gases) and Aerodynamics (flow of air). Whereas, the state of, solid doesn’t represent any of the stages.

What are the objectives of Aerodynamics?

Aerodynamics deals with the theory of flow of air and it has many practical applications in engineering. There are some objectives that are being used in aerodynamics and these are as follows:
• It is used to predict the forces, moments and heat transfer from the bodies that is moving through the liquid.
• It deals with the movement of wings or use of the wind force. This way it requires the calculations to be done for the aerodynamic heating of the flight vehicles and the hydrodynamic forces applied on the surface of the vehicle.
• It is used to determine the flows that are moving internally through ducts. This way it makes the calculations and measurement of the flow properties that is inside the rocket and jet engines.

What are the sources involved in aerodynamics?

There are two sources that are involved in the case of aerodynamics forces and moments that are on the body. These forces are as follows:
• Pressure distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface
• Shear stress distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface
These sources are for the body shapes and it doesn’t matter how complex they are. The mechanism that is being used to communicate with the bodies that is moving through a fluid. Both the pressure (p) and shear stress (?) having the dimension force per unit area. This helps the movement of the body through the fluid.

What are the conditions given for the two flows to be dynamically similar?

To measure the dynamicity of the two flows consider two different flow fields over two different bodies. This way the conditions that get generated are as follows:
• The streamlined pattern shouldn’t be geometrically similar.
• The distribution of the volume over change in volume (V/V8), pressure over change in pressure (p/p8), and time over change in time (T/T8). These changes take place throughout the flow of the field and they remain the same against the common non-dimensional coordinates
• The force coefficient remains the same.
• There is a similarity in both the flows like the solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both flows.

What are the differences between continuum flow and free molecule flow?

• The flow that is moving over the body i.e. in a circular cylinder of diameter d is the continuum flow, whereas the flow that consists of individual molecules moving in random motion is the free molecule flow.
• The mean free path (?) defines the mean distance between the collisions of the molecule and if this path (?) is smaller than the scale of the body measured (d) then the flow of the body is considered as continuum flow.
• The path (?) that is of same order as the body scale then the gas molecules then the body surface will have an impact of the molecules and this is known as free molecular flow.

What are the differences between inviscid and viscous flow?

• Viscous flow is the flow in which the molecule moves in random fashion and transfers their mass, momentum and energy from one place to another in fluid. Whereas, an inviscid flow is the flow in which there is no involvement of friction, thermal conduction or diffusion while the molecules are moving.
• Inviscid flow consists of the limited influence of friction, thermal conduction and diffusion that is limited to thin region that is limited to the body surface. Whereas, the viscous flows involve the flows that dominates the aerodynamics of the blunt bodies like cylinder. In this the flow expands around front face of cylinder and it separates from the rear surface of it.

What are the differences between incompressible and compressible flows?

• Incompressible flows are the flows that have a constant density (?). Whereas, the compressible flows are those that consists of variable densities.
• The flows that exist are compressible in nature. Whereas, incompressible flows, doesn't exist in nature or are very rare.
• Incompressible flows are used to model aerodynamic problems without loosing any detrimental accuracy i.e. most problems that exist in hydrodynamics considers the density (?) = constant. Whereas, compressible flow is hardly used as a mathematical model to, represent the hydrodynamics.
• High speed flows are and must be treated as compressible, whereas incompressible flows are not considered for high speed flows.

What are the different speed types of flows used in identifying Mach number?

There are four types of flows that consist of different speeds and can be identified using Mach number:
• Subsonic flow where M<1 everywhere, this is a field that is defined as subsonic if it matches the Mach number that is less than 1 at every point. These are displayed by smooth streamlines that consists of no discontinuity in slope. The flow velocity is everywhere less than the speed of sound and the disturbances are all around the flow field.
• Transonic flow, where mixed regions exist and M<1 or M>1, this is a flow field that defines that the M8 is increased just above the unity and it is formed in front of the body. These are the mixed subsonic and supersonic flows that are influenced by both the flows.
• Supersonic flow where M>1 everywhere, this type is defined when Mach number is greater than 1 at every point. They are represented by the presence of shock waves across which the flow properties and streamlines changes discontinuously.
• Hypersonic flow where the speed is greater than supersonic, this is defined when the shock waves moves closer to the body surface and the strength of the shockwave increases leading to higher temperatures between the shock and body surface.

What are the major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance?

There are two major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance and these are handled by certifying technician in the field of support and maintenance. These are divided into two sectors as:
• Category B1 (mechanical): these are the maintenance technicians that have good knowledge regarding the working of airframe, engine, electrical power systems and equipment. It also requires additional knowledge of aircraft structures and materials.
• Category B2 (avionic): this deals with the integrated knowledge of aircraft equipments, electrical, instrument and radar related systems. They undergo proper training to handle the aircraft equipments and gain practical experience to deal with day to day activities.

What are the operations performed by Category B technicians?

Category B consists of two sectors in the field of maintenance and they are divided in B1 and B2 with certain roles. The operations performed by Category B technicians are as follows:
• Activities related to scheduled on field inspections for aircraft maintenance.
• Activities of complex rectification
• Fault diagnosis on aircraft systems and their equipments.
• Modification and performing special instruction to monitor and manage the system
• Repairing of airframe and other aircrafts
• Activities performed like removal of aircraft components and fitting the required parts.
• Use of BITE (built-in test equipment) and diagnostic equipments to perform repair tasks.
• Supervising and certifying the work of other technicians involved in it.

What is the main source of power in aircraft?

The main source of power is the hydraulic motor that is provided by the scheduled service and involves operations that allow technicians to solve complex system problems. This setup required certifying the technician to operate all the system the same way as it is been done with one system. The hydraulic motor needs to be operated the same way and maintained in a proper way. The alignment need to in synchronization with the aircraft auxiliary power unity (APU) before anything is done with the aircraft positioning. A standard need to, be followed to maintain the aircrafts and its parts equipped and working.

What are the differences in the job performed by line maintenance certifying staff and base maintenance certifying staff?

The difference that exists between the two is that line maintenance certifying staff has the responsibility to inspect, rectify and perform the related or associated maintenance activities on the aircraft on the airfield. Whereas, the base maintenance certifying staff, perform the maintenance activities away from the live aircraft areas.
The maintenance that is being performed by the line maintenance staff is restricted to use limited tools, and equipments that are present on the site to perform the first line diagnostic maintenance. Whereas, Base maintenance certifying staff is associated with the line maintenance staff as it requires inspecting and performing complex modification in the aircraft carriers.

What is the role performed by Category C personnel in maintenance of aircraft?

Category C personnel are responsible for maintaining the management role of controlling the progress of the base maintenance inspections and seeing the work that is getting performed. These handle the category B and category A staff and monitor their work. They are responsible for ensuring the good work that will be carried out by providing the certification of maintenance. Category C personnel upon the completion of the maintenance job done by the base maintenance staff provides the certificate to allow the servicing of the aircraft to proceed. This way the people working in the staff become eligible to perform and provide services for flight.

What are the safety recommendations required while maintaining aircraft?

The safety recommendations are required while dealing with the accidents and the inquiry of the aircrafts. The recommendations needed are as follows:
• CAA (Civil aviation authority) examines the applicability of self-certification of aircraft engineering and verifies the criticality of the tasks that need to be performed on the system. They also check the system for further services without doing any functional checks.
• Review of the system takes place to interpret the single components of the aircraft that is vital in its design.
• Reviewing of the quality assurance system and the reporting methods take place to encourage more better designs to be provided for the use.
• Reviewing the need to, introduce a format of job description and grades that is being provided to the engineers and managers.
• Providing a mechanism for an independent assessment to carry out the work audit and operations can be performed smoothly.

What are the different stress types present in aircraft operations?

Stress is a result that is caused when a solid e.g. metal bar is subjected to an external force. Stress is defined as force per unit area and the basic unit includes MN/m2, N/mm2 and Pa. There are basically three types of stress:
• Tensile stress: it is the stress that is setup when the force tries to pull the material apart.
• Compressive stress: it is the stress that is produced by the force that is trying to crush the material.
• Shear stress: is the stress that results from the force that tends to cut through the material i.e. tend to put one material slide over another one.

Why is strain a major factor in aircraft engineering?

Strain is when a material is altered in shape, this happens due to the fact that the force is acting on the material. The body is strained internally as well as externally without having any differences of dimension but it just has the differences at the atomic level. It is the ratio of change in dimension over the original dimension. It is very important due to the fact that building an aircraft requires the knowledge of these factors and the formulas that are associated with it to successfully implementing the parts together. There are three types of strain:
• Tensile strain
• Compressive strain and
• Shear strain

What are the different types of modulus involved in mechanics?

Modulus of elasticity is given by the Hooke’s law that states that stress is directly proportional to strain, while the material remains elastic. The external forces that are acting on the material is just having the sufficient to stretch the atomic bonds this way the material can also return back to the original shape. The different types of modulus are as follows:
• Modulus of rigidity: this defines the relationship between the shear stress (t ) and shear strain (? )
• Bulk modulus: this defines that if a body volume v is subjected to an increase in an external pressure then the volume will be changed by dV, this deformation will be change in volume not in shape.

What are the mechanical properties required to know before performing maintenance?

The mechanical properties provide the definition of the behavior of the material that is being put under the action of external forces. This is an important aspect to aeronautical engineering that is also used to gain knowledge for applications developed for aircrafts. This provides an overall view of the structure of the aircraft and the maintenance aspect of it. The properties used are as follows:
• Strength
• Stiffness,
• Specific strength and stiffness,
• Ductility,
• Toughness,
• Malleability and elasticity

Explain in brief about each property used in mechanics?

The properties of the mechanics are as follows:
• Strength: this is the applied force on a material that can withstand prior to fracture. It is measured by the proof or yield stress of a material that is under action.
• Working stress: this is the stress that is being imposed on a material as a result of the load that is being subjected on the material. The loads that are given must be in the elastic range.
• Proof stress: defines the tensile stress
• Ultimate tensile stress (UTS): defines of a material that is given by a relationship or its maximum load.
• Specific strength: defines the light and strong of a material that is used in aircraft making. This is done to maximize the payload and meeting all the safety requirements.
• Malleability: defines the ability to be rolled into sheets or get a shape under pressure. This includes examples of gold, copper and lead.
• Elasticity: defines the ability of a material to return to its original shape when an external force is removed from the material.

What is the purpose of load extension graphs?

Load extension graphs are used to show the result of mechanical test done on the material to know their certain properties for example finding out the heat treatment of a material. These graphs shows certain phases of a material when it is being tested for destruction of the properties like elastic range, limit of proportionality, etc. The material needs to obey Hooke’s law. The elastic limit needs to be at or very near to the limit of proportionality. If the limit is passed the material ceases to be proportional to the load. If the stress increases on the material then the waist reduces as the stress = force/area. This graph represents a curve that shows different stages like elastic stage, and plastic stage.

Why is torsion such an important feature in aircraft engines?

Torsion is used to drive shafts for aircraft engine driven pumps and motors. They are also involved in having a force behind propeller shafts, pulley assemblies and rive couplings for machinery. The shear stress is setup within the shafts and it results from the torsional loads. The size and the nature of torsional loads and stresses need to be known while making the design or else premature failure can occur. The shafts are used as a component to transmit torsional loads and twisting moments or torque. They can be a cross section or a circular component as it is more suitable to transmit the torque for pumps and motors to supply the power to the aircraft system.

What is the main function of propulsive thrust?

Propulsive thrust is used in aircraft system, when an aircraft is traveling through air in straight or level flight then the engine produces a thrust that is equal to the air resistance or the drag force on the aircraft. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag then the aircraft will accelerate and if drag exceeds the engine thrusts then the aircraft system will slow down. The thrust force that is used for aircraft propulsion should always come from air or gas pressure. The forces that are external always act on the engine or propeller. This propeller can be driven either by a piston or a gas turbine engine. If there is a use of jet engine then the high velocity exhaust gas is produced.

Why is the study of gyroscopes motion required to learn aircraft applications?

Gyroscopic motion is considered as an important study for aircraft application for the inertia and momentum of the body that is used in circular motion. The momentum is the product of the mass of a body and its velocity. This is a measure of the quantity of motion of a body. Inertia is the force that doesn’t allow any change to happen in momentum. Gyroscope is the rotating mass that can be moved freely at right angles to its plane of rotation. This utilizes the gyro rotor or gyroscopic inertia to provide the motion unless it is compelled by an external force to change the state. This uses property of rigidity as gyroscope acts as a reference point in space.

What are the laws of gyro-dynamics?

Gyro-dynamics deals with gyroscopic motion that is used for creating aircraft application as it allows inertia and momentum of the body. These laws consist of the two properties of rigidity and precession to provide the visible effects gyro-dynamics. These are as follows:
• If a rotating body is mounted and it is free to move about any axis that passes through the center of mass, then the spin axis that is used will remain fixed in inertial space without displacing any of the frame.
• If a constant torque is applied to any direction such as about an axis, or perpendicular to the axis, then the spin axis will move about an axis that is mutually perpendicular to both the spin and the torque axis.

What is being expressed by Sperry’s rule of precession?

Sperry’s rule of precession describes about the direction in which the precession takes place. This precession is dependent on the direction of rotation for the mass and the axis of the torque that is applied on the material. It provides a guide to the direction of precession that allows easy finding of the direction of the applied torque. This also helps in finding out the direction of the rotation of gyro-wheel. If the torque is applied and is perpendicular to the spin axis then it can be transferred as a force.

What are the elements required to display oscillatory motion?

The elements required to display oscillatory motion are as follows:
Period: this is related to the time and it signifies the time that elapses in between the motion that will repeat itself after some time again. Oscillatory motions allow themselves to be repeated after equal intervals of time and this is called as periodic.
• Cycle: it represents the completion of one period and it also signifies the motion that is completed in one period.
• Frequency: defines the number of cycles completed in unit time.
• Amplitude: defines the distance from one point to another or from highest to lowest point of the motion from the central position.

What are the different lift augmentation devices present?

Lift augmentation devices provides flaps that are moving wing sections that increase wing camber and provide an angel of attack. Flaps have their own use like if an aircraft takes off and land in a short distance then the wings of it should produce sufficient lift at lower speed. Flaps provide a way to slow down the aircraft. There two categories and they are as follows:
• Trailing edge flaps includes different flaps like
• Plain flap that is used to retract the complete section of trailing edge and it is used in downward.
• Split flap gets formed by the hinged lower part of trailing edge and the lowered top surface remains unchanged and it eliminates the airflow that occurs over the top of the surface of the plain flap.
• Leading edge flaps: is used to augment the low speed lift that is swept on the wing aircraft. They help in increase the camber and allow the coupling to operate together with the trailing edge flaps.

What are the steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed?

There are various steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed are as follows:
• Build stiff wings that allow and provide the resistance to torsional diversion beyond the maximum speed of the aircraft.
• Use two sets of ailerons and one outboard pair that can be operated at low speeds.
• Use of one inboard pair that can be used to operate on high speeds, this will have less twisting impact when the ailerons are positioned outboard.
• Use spoilers that can be positioned independently or can be paired with ailerons. These reduce the lift on the down going wing by interrupting the airflow over the top surface.

What are the functions performed by rudder?

The rudder is involved in providing the movement to the ports that gives a lift force to starboard. This will allow the aircraft to turn and uses the ailerons effectively to bank the aircraft by minimum use of rudder. The functions performed by rudder are as follows:
• It is used with different applications that are involved in taking off and landing to keep aircraft straight.
• Providing assistance that is, limited only for the aircraft to turn correctly.
• Used in applications during spin to reduce the roll rate of the aircraft and there are some applications that provides low speeds and high angles to allow the raising of the wings.

What are the criteria need to be followed for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable?

The criteria that are required for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable, is:
• To have a nose-down pitching disturbance that is used to produce the aerodynamics forces to give a nose-up restoring moment.
• This restoring moment that is produced should be large enough to return the aircraft to its original position after the disturbance.
• The requirements are met by using the tail-plain that is horizontal stabilizer used to provide the stability to the aircraft.

? Question 1. What Is Spice? Where Was It Developed?

Answer :

The full form of SPICE is Simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis.This is the widely used analog simulator, which was developed at electronics research lab of California University.

? Question 2. What Are The Three Tactical Elements Of Electronic Warfare?

Answer :

Electronic warfare has three main elements:
ES – Electronic support – This has high passive acquisition intelligence about friend and foe
EA – Electronic attack – that has passive and active denial of RF spectrum
EP – Electronic protection - protects friendly personnel and assets by active and passive techniques.

? Question 3. What Are The Main Areas In Aviation?

Answer :

* Artificial intelligence
* Aircrafts and parts
* Advanced materials, composites and specialty metals
* Computers, electronic components, and systems
* Fighters and attack aircraft
* Government defense policies and goals
* Lasers
* Navigation controls and guidance systems
* Ordinance and Military vehicles
* Computers, electronic components, and systems
* Aviation electronic/Avionics
* Robotics
* Satellites
* Search and detection equipments
* Strategic defensive initiative
* Sensors and instrumentation
* Ships
* Space vehicles and commercialization of space

? Question 4. What Is The Requirement To Become A Professional Engineer (pe) In The Field Of Aerospace?

Answer :

Professional Engineer license is required for people who aspire to go in as officially approved engineer. The design specification is done by self­employed people or working in small business. General aerospace engineers work for government or for big companies and hence few people are not very keen on becoming PE�s. To become a PE one has to pass an exam on fundamentals of engineering which takes alot of hours to gruel and work under a licensed PE for about four years. In addition, they have to grow through a principle and practice of engineering exam, which requires about 8 hours.

? Question 5. Explain The Day­to­day Responsibilities Of Aerospace Engineering

Answer :

Each job profile even in aerospace industry differs from others. Mainly in aerospace, there are two branches or field. One is aeronautical and other is astronautical engineering.

Question 6. Explain The Differences Between Aeronautical Engineering And Astronautical Engineering

Answer :

Aeronautical engineering deals with vehicles which operates in the atmosphere Aeronautical engineering deals with vehicles operating in space.
Aeronautical engineering works on tunnel tests, analyzing flight test data,manned space flights, planning future space missions, spacecraft operations,designing and testing robotic systems, developing new propulsion system,computing optimum flight trajectories, developing communication systems for distance space probes and designing new rockets.
Astronautical engineer includes designing power systems for spacecraft structure, developing communications systems for distant space probes, developing hardware skills for operations in spacecraft, designing and testing robotic systems, developing new propulsion systems and computing optimum flight.

? Question 7. Does The Knowledge Of Mathematics Of Science Is Required To Get Into Aerospace Engineering?

Answer :

The basic understanding of Math is important, as it is not used at all the time during the course of aerospace engineering. One should have a basic understanding of mathematical definitions and knowledge on computers is very important as the computer programs will help in doing simple calculations and verify the results are reasonable. However, on the science front it is very important to have a very good understanding on various subjects like dynamics and mechanics in physics, strong emphasis on chemistry, electromagnetism.
For a good engineer one should know how law of forces makes things happen. In addition, if you are good at physical sciences when opposed to life sciences like biology you will be a fit candidate for aerospace engineering

? Question 8. What Do You Understand By Aerodynamics/performance Analysis?

Answer :

Aerodynamics / performance analysis in military programs include responsibility like analyzing aerodynamics impacts which effects from external modifications, developing mission profiles based on requirements from the customer, performance data of the mission which includes take off and landing details, en route and mission data performance. Analyze the configurations using the dynamics, which are fluid and computational. Additional task may include support for wind tunnel planning for test flight. Documentation, test support, data analysis should be done on regular basis. Co ordination of aerodynamics with multi discipline teams and data should be provided for support flight management system or mission planning software.

? Question 9. What Will Be The Responsibility Of The Spacecraft Operations, Dynamics, And Controls?

Answer :

People working on these areas as aerospace engineers should have familiarity and exposure to NASTRAN and MATLAB with knowledge on space environment and modeling of flexible dynamics. These aerospace engineers will be responsible to work in the areas of structural control, momentum control, line of sight (LOS), spacecraft mission design, control of space boards payloads, operational engineering.

? Question 10. Explain About Stress Analysis?

Answer :

People working on these areas as an aerospace engineer should have familiarity and exposure to NASTRAN and MATLAB with knowledge on space environment and modeling of flexible dynamics. These aerospace engineers will be responsible to conduct stress analysis on metallic and composite structures. NASTRAN, IDEAD, Oracle, and PATRAN proficiency level is required. Their duties also include on aircraft, which are metallic and composite structures. This includes and understanding of control surface stiffness and loop calculations, finite element modeling (FEM), fatigue testing requirement and analysis.

? Question 11. What Is The Testing Done In Aerospace Engineering?

Answer :

The testing of small rocket engines and entails development by researching on aerospace. They are responsible to perform and experiment on laboratory facility, which is dedicated to aerospace. One should be capable of solving problems by applying knowledge by solving problem of the research done. They will be working with technical team of researchers and they should have ability handle projects alone.

? Question 12. How Would You Handle If Your Co-worker Were Not Cooperating With You?

Answer :

Talk to your co­worker directly and explain him that you are having a problem working with him and make him understand the situation, if he is not willing to listen or not co­operating, then direct the issue to chief pilot.

? Question 13. What Would You Do If Your Captain Were Not Following The Instructions Properly?

Answer :

Refer to your plane manual, discuss the same with your client, and ensure you make him understand the procedures and rules. If he does not respond, you will call your concerned aircraft officer at the airport, escalate, and make sure your voice frequency is recorded.

? Question 14. When Can One Deviate From Any Flight Rules And Regulations?

Answer :

Chief Pilot in command can deviate from rules and regulations during emergency period; he can do it to get the plane back to the normalcy or to meet the expected requirement of the emergency.

? Question 15. What If You Loose The Medical Round Or Interview For Your Pilot Position?

Answer :

One should always have a career back up plan, incase if your medical examination results are not positive, you could get into training department for pilots, or you could pursue your interests from your previous experience or education.

? Question 16. What Are The Disadvantages Of Being In Aerospace Industry?

Answer :

The biggest disadvantage is that it is a relatively small field, and the number of companies in the field is getting smaller (lots of mergers between big companies in the news lately). In addition, this used to be a field where America had 90% of the market, but now foreign companies are catching up; this means that American companies are streamlining their organizations in order to be competitive.

? Question 17. What Interests And Abilities Would Help Some One As An Aerospace Engineer?

Answer :

Successful aerospace engineers need lots of curiosity, problem­solving skills,organizational skills, written and oral communication skills, people skills (as in leading and participating in teams) and computer skills. There are no physical requirements; in fact, we have many engineers with disabilities and it is not an issue for their job performance

? Question 18. How Important Are Aeronautical Engineers To Today's Society?

Answer :

Aeronautical Engineers the aircraft people use for business and holidaying would not be in the sky, it cannot be contested that society depends heavily on travel via aircraft.
Aeronautical Engineer will provide the solution to increase overall aircraft efficiency, thereby helping to drive down the levels of emissions current aircraft produce.
Aeronautical Engineers also help put the satellites in to space, the satellites we rely on for weather information, geospatial­mapping data, environmental monitoring, telecommunications, and research.
Therefore, in answer to the question aerospace engineering plays a major role in society, producing and developing a lot of the technology we rely on heavily

? Question 19. How Many Types Of Emergency Landings Are There And Explain?

Answer :

There are three types of emergency landings like:
* Forced landing : This is a situation where Air Craft engine fails and Pilot is forced to land the plane in the nearest airport.
* Precautionary landing : This is used when Pilot faces a problem due to severe weather conditions, or being lost in the air space traffic or due to lack of fuel or expecting an engine trouble.
* Ditching : This is when where Pilot cannot avoid this situation but to just land on water, which is safer than air bound.

? Question 20. How Important Is To Get The Passengers Switch Off The Mobile Phones And Laptops During Land Off. What Could Be The Consequences?

Answer :

It is very important to check if laptop and mobile phones are switched off or not, as the consequences can be, bad�.because interference of aircraft communication devices and electronic devices interfere with each other and there could be chances of not proper landing. Therefore, it is highly recommended electronic and communication devices should be switched off during take off and landing

? Question 21. How Would You Handle The Extreme Pressure During Emergency If You Know That Plane Is Not Safe And It Might Crash Any Time?

Answer :

Few professions demand you to be selfless, and our respective clients would be the most important thing, that is why customer service differs completely in such fields compared to other streams. For example, Doctors, Lawyers, Pilots�these are the professions where employee saving your customer is the up most important thing. Therefore, as a Pilot we should understand our duties and responsibilities and will ensure that whatever panic situation we could be in, we will continue to deliver our duties until the end and ensure passengers are safe all times. Simultaneously I will own the full responsibility of landing the Air Craft safe and in the steady position.

? Question 22. Can You Miss The Clearance Limit And Loose The Commands From The Air Craft Officer?

Answer :

Yes, there is a policy and procedure to be followed for the missing clearance limit problem, so a Pilot can leave and reach a different altitude for sometime within the limit and should come back to the proper clearance limit once things are in control. This time limit is only as per the procedure in the manual.

? Question 23. You Are About To Take Off The Plane In Few Seconds And A Catastrophic Engine Fails, And Your Captain Tells You Not To Take Off And Just Stay In The Centre Line. What Would You Do?

Answer :

Once the take off procedure has started, it is no longer safe to stop the plane from take off. Instead, it is better to continue with the take off and its best handled in the air. All certified aircraft under 25 can run without an engine and there is no problem related to it for take off or to for plane landing. It is actually far better idea to handle the problem in the air than to face the situation on the runway, when plane engine is in high speed.

? Question 24. Without Air Traffic Control, What Is The Minimum Descent Rate You Can Descend The Plane?

Answer :

A Pilot can descend up to 500� bare minimum, without informing the ATC (Air Traffic Controller) and this is only during an exceptional cases. However, it is always better to be in regular touch with the Air Traffic Controller and to keep him informed about the descent rate. This will not have any traffic problems during landing in the runway.

? Question 25. When A Pilot Is Assigned A Speed, How Much Can One Deviate From That Speed?

Answer :

Complying and following the actual speed adjustment policies, a pilot can run and indicate plus or minus 10 knots or 0.02 Mach number of specified speed. It is always better to keep the land air officer in the loop before adjusting the air speed. Exceptions are always there to meet the emergency requirement.

? Question 26. Are You Prepared For Unexpected Turbulence?

Answer :

Yes, given the proper trainingam confident that I will be able to handle the turbulence and will drive the plane in the correct altitude.

? Question 27. Explain What Is The Testing Done In Aerospace Engineering?

Answer :

The testing of small rocket engines and entails development by researching on aerospace. They are responsible to perform and experiment on laboratory facility which is dedicated to aerospace. One should be capable of solving problems by applying knowledge by solving problem of the research done. They will be working with technical team of researchers and they should have ability handle projects alone.

? Question 28. Explain What Will Be The Responsibility Of The Spacecraft Operations,dynamics And Controls?

Answer :

People working on these areas as a aerospace engineers should have familiarity and exposure to NASTRAN and MATLAB with knowledge on space environment and modeling of flexible dynamics. These aerospace engineers will be responsible to work in the areas of structural control, momentum control, line of sight (LOS), spacecraft mission design, control of space boards payloads, operational engineering.

? Question 29. Tell Me What Is The Requirement To Become A Professional Engineer (pe) In The Field Of Aerospace?

Answer :

Professional Engineer license is required for people who aspire to go in as officially approved engineer. The design specification is done by self employed people or working in small business. General aerospace engineers work for government or for big companies and hence few people are not very keen on becoming PE's. To become a PE one has to pass an exam on fundamentals of engineering which takes alot of hours to gruel and work under a licensed PE for about four years. Also they have to grow through a principle and practice of engineering exam which requires about 8 hours.

? Question 30. Explain What Made You Choose Aerospace Engineer Line As Your Career?

Answer :

In aerospace engineering there are lots of interesting topics which include rocketry, aero planes, Lego's. As a school student I started sketching for future aircraft and space craft, military aircraft. I analyzed the importance of space travel, aviation history, and aerospace industry and hence decided to get into this field.

1.What are the characteristics that keep solid and fluid different

When the force is applied tangentially on solid then it experiences a

finite deformation and shear stress that is proportional to the

deformation. Whereas, when the same shear stress is applied on the

surface of fluid then it experiences continuous increasing deformation

where, the shear stress is proportional to the rate of change of

deformationThe fluid dynamic is dividend in three different areas. They are as

follows: Hydrodynamics (flow of liquids), Gas dynamics (flow of gases)

and Aerodynamics (flow of air). Whereas, the state of, solid doesn’t

represent any of the stages

2.What are the objectives of Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics deals with the theory of flow of air and it has many

practical applications in engineering. There are some objectives that

are being used in aerodynamics and these are as follows

It is used to predict the forces, moments and heat transfer from the bodies that is moving through the liquid

It deals with the movement of wings or use of the wind force. This

way it requires the calculations to be done for the aerodynamic heating

of the flight vehicles and the hydrodynamic forces applied on the

surface of the vehicle

It is used to determine the flows that are moving internally through

ducts. This way it makes the calculations and measurement of the flow

properties that is inside the rocket and jet engines.

3.What are the sources involved in aerodynamics?

<p>There are two sources that are involved in the case of aerodynamics

forces and moments that are on the body. These forces are as follows:

Pressure distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface

Shear stress distribution: this is the distribution that is over the body surface

These sources are for the body shapes and it doesn’t matter how complex

they are. The mechanism that is being used to communicate with the

bodies that is moving through a fluid. Both the pressure (p) and shear

stress (?) having the dimension force per unit area. This helps the

movement of the body through the fluid.

4.What are the conditions given for the two flows to be dynamically similar?

<p>To measure the dynamicity of the two flows consider two different

flow fields over two different bodies. This way the conditions that get

generated are as follows:

<ol>

The streamlined pattern shouldn’t be geometrically similar.

The distribution of the volume over change in volume (V/V8),

pressure over change in pressure (p/p8), and time over change in time

(T/T8). These changes take place throughout the flow of the field and

they remain the same against the common non-dimensional coordinates

The force coefficient remains the same.

There is a similarity in both the flows like the solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both flows.

</ol>

5.What are the differences between continuum flow and free molecule flow?

The flow that is moving over the body i.e. in a circular cylinder of

diameter d is the continuum flow, whereas the flow that consists of

individual molecules moving in random motion is the free molecule flow.

The mean free path (?) defines the mean distance between the

collisions of the molecule and if this path (?) is smaller than the

scale of the body measured (d) then the flow of the body is considered

as continuum flow.

The path (?) that is of same order as the body scale then the gas

molecules then the body surface will have an impact of the molecules and

this is known as free molecular flow.

6.What are the differences between inviscid and viscous flow?

Viscous flow is the flow in which the molecule moves in random

fashion and transfers their mass, momentum and energy from one place to

another in fluid. Whereas, an inviscid flow is the flow in which there

is no involvement of friction, thermal conduction or diffusion while the

molecules are moving.

Inviscid flow consists of the limited influence of friction, thermal

conduction and diffusion that is limited to thin region that is limited

to the body surface. Whereas, the viscous flows involve the flows that

dominates the aerodynamics of the blunt bodies like cylinder. In this

the flow expands around front face of cylinder and it separates from the

rear surface of it.

7.What are the differences between incompressible and compressible flows?

Incompressible flows are the flows that have a constant density (?).

Whereas, the compressible flows are those that consists of variable

densities.

The flows that exist are compressible in nature. Whereas, incompressible flows, doesn’t exist in nature or are very rare.

Incompressible flows are used to model aerodynamic problems without

loosing any detrimental accuracy i.e. most problems that exist in

hydrodynamics considers the density (?) = constant. Whereas,

compressible flow is hardly used as a mathematical model to, represent

the hydrodynamics.

High speed flows are and must be treated as compressible, whereas incompressible flows are not considered for high speed flows.

8.What are the different speed types of flows used in identifying Mach number?

<p>There are four types of flows that consist of different speeds and can be identified using Mach number:

<ol>

Subsonic flow where M&lt;1 everywhere, this is a field that is

defined as subsonic if it matches the Mach number that is less than 1 at

every point. These are displayed by smooth streamlines that consists of

no discontinuity in slope. The flow velocity is everywhere less than

the speed of sound and the disturbances are all around the flow field.

Transonic flow, where mixed regions exist and M&lt;1 or M&gt;1, this

is a flow field that defines that the M8 is increased just above the

unity and it is formed in front of the body. These are the mixed

subsonic and supersonic flows that are influenced by both the flows.

Supersonic flow where M&gt;1 everywhere, this type is defined when

Mach number is greater than 1 at every point. They are represented by

the presence of shock waves across which the flow properties and

streamlines changes discontinuously.

Hypersonic flow where the speed is greater than supersonic, this is

defined when the shock waves moves closer to the body surface and the

strength of the shockwave increases leading to higher temperatures

between the shock and body surface.

</ol>

9.What are the major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance?

<p>There are two major sectors involved in aircraft maintenance and

these are handled by certifying technician in the field of support and

maintenance. These are divided into two sectors as:

<strong>Category B1 (mechanical): these are the maintenance

technicians that have good knowledge regarding the working of airframe,

engine, electrical power systems and equipment. It also requires

additional knowledge of aircraft structures and materials.

<strong>Category B2 (avionic): this deals with the

integrated knowledge of aircraft equipments, electrical, instrument and

radar related systems. They undergo proper training to handle the

aircraft equipments and gain practical experience to deal with day to

day activities.

10.What are the operations performed by Category B technicians?

<p>Category B consists of two sectors in the field of maintenance and

they are divided in B1 and B2 with certain roles. The operations

performed by Category B technicians are as follows:

Activities related to scheduled on field inspections for aircraft maintenance.

Activities of complex rectification

Fault diagnosis on aircraft systems and their equipments.

Modification and performing special instruction to monitor and manage the system

Repairing of airframe and other aircrafts

Activities performed like removal of aircraft components and fitting the required parts.

Use of BITE (built-in test equipment) and diagnostic equipments to perform repair tasks.

Supervising and certifying the work of other technicians involved in it.

11.What is the main source of power in aircraft?

<p>The main source of power is the hydraulic motor that is provided by

the scheduled service and involves operations that allow technicians to

solve complex system problems. This setup required certifying the

technician to operate all the system the same way as it is been done

with one system. The hydraulic motor needs to be operated the same way

and maintained in a proper way. The alignment need to in synchronization

with the aircraft auxiliary power unity (APU) before anything is done

with the aircraft positioning. A standard need to, be followed to

maintain the aircrafts and its parts equipped and working.

12.What are the differences in the job performed by line maintenance certifying staff and base maintenance certifying staff?

<p>The difference that exists between the two is that line maintenance

certifying staff has the responsibility to inspect, rectify and perform

the related or associated maintenance activities on the aircraft on the

airfield. Whereas, the base maintenance certifying staff, perform the

maintenance activities away from the live aircraft areas.

The maintenance that is being performed by the line maintenance staff is

restricted to use limited tools, and equipments that are present on the

site to perform the first line diagnostic maintenance. Whereas, Base

maintenance certifying staff is associated with the line maintenance

staff as it requires inspecting and performing complex modification in

the aircraft carriers.

13.What is the role performed by Category C personnel in maintenance of aircraft?

<p>Category C personnel are responsible for maintaining the management

role of controlling the progress of the base maintenance inspections and

seeing the work that is getting performed. These handle the category B

and category A staff and monitor their work. They are responsible for

ensuring the good work that will be carried out by providing the

certification of maintenance. Category C personnel upon the completion

of the maintenance job done by the base maintenance staff provides the

certificate to allow the servicing of the aircraft to proceed. This way

the people working in the staff become eligible to perform and provide

services for flight.

14.What are the safety recommendations required while maintaining aircraft?

<p>The safety recommendations are required while dealing with the

accidents and the inquiry of the aircrafts. The recommendations needed

are as follows:

CAA (Civil aviation authority) examines the applicability of

self-certification of aircraft engineering and verifies the criticality

of the tasks that need to be performed on the system. They also check

the system for further services without doing any functional checks.

Review of the system takes place to interpret the single components of the aircraft that is vital in its design.

Reviewing of the quality assurance system and the reporting methods

take place to encourage more better designs to be provided for the use.

Reviewing the need to, introduce a format of job description and grades that is being provided to the engineers and managers.

Providing a mechanism for an independent assessment to carry out the work audit and operations can be performed smoothly.

15.What are the different stress types present in aircraft operations?

<p>Stress is a result that is caused when a solid e.g. metal bar is

subjected to an external force. Stress is defined as force per unit area

and the basic unit includes MN/m2, N/mm2 and Pa. There are basically

three types of stress:

Tensile stress: it is the stress that is setup when the force tries to pull the material apart.

Compressive stress: it is the stress that is produced by the force that is trying to crush the material.

Shear stress: is the stress that results from the force that tends

to cut through the material i.e. tend to put one material slide over

another one.

16.Why is strain a major factor in aircraft engineering?

<p>Strain is when a material is altered in shape, this happens due to

the fact that the force is acting on the material. The body is strained

internally as well as externally without having any differences of

dimension but it just has the differences at the atomic level. It is the

ratio of change in dimension over the original dimension. It is very

important due to the fact that building an aircraft requires the

knowledge of these factors and the formulas that are associated with it

to successfully implementing the parts together. There are three types

of strain:

Tensile strain

Compressive strain and

Shear strain

17.What are the different types of modulus involved in mechanics?

<p>Modulus of elasticity is given by the Hooke’s law that states that

stress is directly proportional to strain, while the material remains

elastic. The external forces that are acting on the material is just

having the sufficient to stretch the atomic bonds this way the material

can also return back to the original shape. The different types of

modulus are as follows:

Modulus of rigidity: this defines the relationship between the shear stress (t ) and shear strain (? )

Bulk modulus: this defines that if a body volume v is subjected to

an increase in an external pressure then the volume will be changed by

dV, this deformation will be change in volume not in shape.

18.What are the mechanical properties required to know before performing maintenance?

<p>The mechanical properties provide the definition of the behavior of

the material that is being put under the action of external forces. This

is an important aspect to aeronautical engineering that is also used to

gain knowledge for applications developed for aircrafts. This provides

an overall view of the structure of the aircraft and the maintenance

aspect of it. The properties used are as follows:

Strength

Stiffness,

Specific strength and stiffness,

Ductility,

Toughness,

Malleability and elasticity

19.Explain in brief about each property used in mechanics?

<p>The properties of the mechanics are as follows:

<strong>Strength: this is the applied force on a material

that can withstand prior to fracture. It is measured by the proof or

yield stress of a material that is under action.

<strong>Working stress: this is the stress that is being

imposed on a material as a result of the load that is being subjected on

the material. The loads that are given must be in the elastic range.

<strong>Proof stress: defines the tensile stress

<strong>Ultimate tensile stress (UTS): defines of a material that is given by a relationship or its maximum load.

<strong>Specific strength: defines the light and strong of a

material that is used in aircraft making. This is done to maximize the

payload and meeting all the safety requirements.

<strong>Malleability: defines the ability to be rolled into sheets or get a shape under pressure. This includes examples of gold, copper and lead.

<strong>Elasticity: defines the ability of a material to return to its original shape when an external force is removed from the material.

20.What is the purpose of load extension graphs?

<p>Load extension graphs are used to show the result of mechanical test

done on the material to know their certain properties for example

finding out the heat treatment of a material. These graphs shows certain

phases of a material when it is being tested for destruction of the

properties like elastic range, limit of proportionality, etc. The

material needs to obey Hooke’s law. The elastic limit needs to be at or

very near to the limit of proportionality. If the limit is passed the

material ceases to be proportional to the load. If the stress increases

on the material then the waist reduces as the stress = force/area. This

graph represents a curve that shows different stages like elastic stage,

and plastic stage.

21.Why is torsion such an important feature in aircraft engines?

<p>Torsion is used to drive shafts for aircraft engine driven pumps and

motors. They are also involved in having a force behind propeller

shafts, pulley assemblies and rive couplings for machinery. The shear

stress is setup within the shafts and it results from the torsional

loads. The size and the nature of torsional loads and stresses need to

be known while making the design or else premature failure can occur.

The shafts are used as a component to transmit torsional loads and

twisting moments or torque. They can be a cross section or a circular

component as it is more suitable to transmit the torque for pumps and

motors to supply the power to the aircraft system.

22.What is the main function of propulsive thrust?

<p>Propulsive thrust is used in aircraft system, when an aircraft is

traveling through air in straight or level flight then the engine

produces a thrust that is equal to the air resistance or the drag force

on the aircraft. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag then the aircraft

will accelerate and if drag exceeds the engine thrusts then the

aircraft system will slow down. The thrust force that is used for

aircraft propulsion should always come from air or gas pressure. The

forces that are external always act on the engine or propeller. This

propeller can be driven either by a piston or a gas turbine engine. If

there is a use of jet engine then the high velocity exhaust gas is

produced.

23.Why is the study of gyroscopes motion required to learn aircraft applications?

<p>Gyroscopic motion is considered as an important study for aircraft

application for the inertia and momentum of the body that is used in

circular motion. The momentum is the product of the mass of a body and

its velocity. This is a measure of the quantity of motion of a body.

Inertia is the force that doesn’t allow any change to happen in

momentum. Gyroscope is the rotating mass that can be moved freely at

right angles to its plane of rotation. This utilizes the gyro rotor or

gyroscopic inertia to provide the motion unless it is compelled by an

external force to change the state. This uses property of rigidity as

gyroscope acts as a reference point in space.

24.What are the laws of gyro-dynamics?

<p>Gyro-dynamics deals with gyroscopic motion that is used for creating

aircraft application as it allows inertia and momentum of the body.

These laws consist of the two properties of rigidity and precession to

provide the visible effects gyro-dynamics. These are as follows:

If a rotating body is mounted and it is free to move about any axis

that passes through the center of mass, then the spin axis that is used

will remain fixed in inertial space without displacing any of the frame.

If a constant torque is applied to any direction such as about an

axis, or perpendicular to the axis, then the spin axis will move about

an axis that is mutually perpendicular to both the spin and the torque

axis.

25.What is being expressed by Sperry’s rule of precession?

<p>Sperry’s rule of precession describes about the direction in which

the precession takes place. This precession is dependent on the

direction of rotation for the mass and the axis of the torque that is

applied on the material. It provides a guide to the direction of

precession that allows easy finding of the direction of the applied

torque. This also helps in finding out the direction of the rotation of

gyro-wheel. If the torque is applied and is perpendicular to the spin

axis then it can be transferred as a force.

26.What are the elements required to display oscillatory motion?

<p>The elements required to display oscillatory motion are as follows:

<strong>Period: this is related to the time and it

signifies the time that elapses in between the motion that will repeat

itself after some time again. Oscillatory motions allow themselves to be

repeated after equal intervals of time and this is called as periodic.

<strong>Cycle: it represents the completion of one period and it also signifies the motion that is completed in one period.

<strong>Frequency: defines the number of cycles completed in unit time.

<strong>Amplitude: defines the distance from one point to another or from highest to lowest point of the motion from the central position.

27.What are the different lift augmentation devices present?

<p>Lift augmentation devices provides flaps that are moving wing

sections that increase wing camber and provide an angel of attack. Flaps

have their own use like if an aircraft takes off and land in a short

distance then the wings of it should produce sufficient lift at lower

speed. Flaps provide a way to slow down the aircraft. There two

categories and they are as follows:

Trailing edge flaps includes different flaps like

Plain flap that is used to retract the complete section of trailing edge and it is used in downward.

Split flap gets formed by the hinged lower part of trailing edge and

the lowered top surface remains unchanged and it eliminates the airflow

that occurs over the top of the surface of the plain flap.

Leading edge flaps: is used to augment the low speed lift that is

swept on the wing aircraft. They help in increase the camber and allow

the coupling to operate together with the trailing edge flaps.

28.What are the steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed?

<p>There are various steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed are as follows:

Build stiff wings that allow and provide the resistance to torsional diversion beyond the maximum speed of the aircraft.

Use two sets of ailerons and one outboard pair that can be operated at low speeds.

Use of one inboard pair that can be used to operate on high speeds,

this will have less twisting impact when the ailerons are positioned

outboard.

Use spoilers that can be positioned independently or can be paired

with ailerons. These reduce the lift on the down going wing by

interrupting the airflow over the top surface.

29.What are the functions performed by rudder?

<p>The rudder is involved in providing the movement to the ports that

gives a lift force to starboard. This will allow the aircraft to turn

and uses the ailerons effectively to bank the aircraft by minimum use of

rudder. The functions performed by rudder are as follows:

It is used with different applications that are involved in taking off and landing to keep aircraft straight.

Providing assistance that is, limited only for the aircraft to turn correctly.

Used in applications during spin to reduce the roll rate of the

aircraft and there are some applications that provides low speeds and

high angles to allow the raising of the wings.

30.What are the criteria need to be followed for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable?

<p>The criteria that are required for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable, is:

To have a nose-down pitching disturbance that is used to produce the aerodynamics forces to give a nose-up restoring moment.

This restoring moment that is produced should be large enough to

return the aircraft to its original position after the disturbance.

The requirements are met by using the tail-plain that is horizontal stabilizer used to provide the stability to the aircraft.

<p>31. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

32. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

33. What is ram jet?

34. Why you would like to join the aviation industry?

35. Doesn’t simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal

protection system of are usable launch vehicle jeopardize the accuracy

of results?

36. Why insulating tiles on reusable launch vehicles must be isolated from one another?

37. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

38. Why are all shear loads and twisting moments set to zero for the preliminary design phase of TPS?

39. How difficult is to mould and shape graphite epoxies compared with

alloys or ceramic that may be used for thermal protective applications?

40. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle undersurface experiences during its mission?

41. Why the stall of the swept wing tends to occur at the tips first?

42. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

43. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

44. What is ram jet?

45. Why refrigeration is done inside aircraft, and why aircraft body is made of aluminum’s?

46. Does not simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal

protection system of are usable launch vehicles jeopardize the accuracy

of results?

47. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

48. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle under surface experiences during its mission?

49. Explain how you overcame a major obstacle?

50. What are the main areas in Aviation?

51. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

52. What made you choose aerospace engineer line as your career?

53. Explain the day to day responsibilities of Aerospace engineering?

54. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautically engineering?

55. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

56. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics and controls?

57. What is the testing done in aerospace engineering?

58. How would you handle if your co-worker is not co-operating with you?

59. What would you do if your Captain is not following the instructions properly?

60. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

61. When a pilot is assigned a speed, how much can one deviate from that speed?

62. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

63. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency situation

if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

64. How important is to get the passengers switch off the mobile phones

and laptops during land off? What could be the consequences?

65. How many types of emergency landings are there and explain?

66. What are the three tactical elements of electronic warfare?

67. What are the main areas in Aviation?

68. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

69. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautical engineering?

70. Does the knowledge of mathematics of Science is required to get into aerospace engineering?

71. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

72. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics, and controls?

73. What would you do if your Captain were not following the instructions properly?

74. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

75. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

76. You are about to take off the plane in few seconds and a

catastrophic engine fails, and your captain tells you not to take off

and just stay in the center line

77. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

78. What operational benefits do hydraulic actuator/rate controls have over gas charged units?

79. How do I decide which is the best technology to solve my vibration isolation problem?

80. What is isolation efficiency?

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