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Technical Round Materials-Plastic Technology-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Plastic Technology-Free Download

What are the differences between electrics and hydraulics during set up?

  • The number-one difference we find is that the operator on the hydraulic machine has the tendency to set the ejector positions beyond the mold eject mechanism travel capability. With hydraulics, if the eject plate cannot travel to the set point, the oil ends up being bypassed over a relief valve back into the tank. In comparison, the electric machine motor drive design systems are set to increase the motor torque to achieve the position set point. If the set point is beyond the eject travel capability, then the drive system power will be increased to a point where eventually it will alarm out or mechanical damage can occur. In summary, the electric machine is less forgiving when it comes to setting the positions, but it has higher accuracy and repeatability.
  • Electric machine positions are set to 0.001” while hydraulic machines are typically only down to 0.01”.
  • Electric machine responses are faster, so to replicate the process from the hydraulic machine may require additional profile settings.
  • Most hydraulic machines set the injection pressure in terms of hydraulic pressure. The electric machines, since they have no hydraulic drive trains, measure injection pressure with melt pressure, usually via a load cell. The difference between hydraulic and melt pressures are typically represented by a difference in value of 10:1. Example: 23,000 psi melt pressure is similar to 2,300 hydraulic pressure. This can vary to 8 or 12:1, but 10:1 is a “rule of thumb".

How long can I expect an electric machine to last?

  • Machines put into service over 20 years ago are still in operation. However, like all electronics, availability of spare parts can start to be an issue as older electronic boards become obsolete and more difficult to support. This is also true of hydraulic machines, since all machines today use some type of micro-processor.
  • In general, the machines will last as long if not longer than similar-sized hydraulic machines.

What spares should I have on hand?

Normal items such as grease, screw tip assembly, heater bands and thermocouples.

What are the common maintenance needs?

  • Regular cleaning of the machine and observing for any lubrication issues (lack of).
  • Cleaning or replacing the air filter for the electrical/drive cabinet.
  • Replacement of the grease supply.
  • Listening to the machine for any unusual noise, which might indicate the beginning of a mechanical problem.

Why are the machines cleaner?

The elimination of oil, valves, hoses, etc. requires less housekeeping since leaks are avoided.

Hydraulic systems must have the ability to “breath” when the oil is flowing in and out of their oil reservoirs. This frequently introduces some amount of oil mist through the tank breather into the machine environment, which then adheres to all surfaces.

What are the reasons for cycle savings?

  • Overlapping of operations (ie: clamp and extruder; clamp and injection - pre-injection; eject on fly) is a built-in design capability. This can reduce cycle times over 0.5 seconds.
  • Since Electric IMM machines have no oil, the ability to quickly ramp up to full speed is easily obtainable in comparison to hydraulic systems, which rely on the electric motor, pumps and valves to ramp up. For example, it is common for a hydraulic system to use +10% of the screw stroke to reach full injection speed while the electric machine can typically achieve this in under 0.05 seconds.
  • Hydraulic systems are frequently prone to shock in their systems which can cause mechanical failures. Software delays are programmed into the machine to reduce these shocks, which can then add up into longer response and cycle times.
  • Since the motors are connected directly to the mechanisms of the machines, when the motor is commanded to change speed instantly, the mechanism changes. In comparison, when oil flow is cut off, the mechanical action has inertia, which cannot be stopped without using an “oil braking” system on the opposite side of the hydraulic cylinder piston. Without this, in order to reduce the amount of overshoot caused by the mechanical inertia, the software is tuned so that the velocities are ramped down farther away from the stopping set point. Using the electric machine means that the machine requires less distance to stop and so higher velocity can be held until the last possible moment, resulting in shorter cycles.

Will I have a problem with high pack pressure and times?

Newer electric machine designs and technology today have motors and drives with more power capability than ever before. But while an electric machine being overmatched has become a very infrequent issue (less than 1%), there are still cases where the combination of part design and resin types can cause the injection motor to become overloaded. If there’s some uncertainty about this possibility in a given situation, machinery manufacturers including Milacron frequently have some alternative design combinations to address the issue. If you have a concern, you should share the details up front with your machine manufacturer.

What is the maintenance cost for a typical all-electric machine?

With good maintenance and proper operation, the annual cost has been under $500 per year.

How long do belts last?

Belt technology has advanced over the 30 years of all-electric technology, and today’s belts can be expected to last +10 years. Belt failures are mostly caused by incorrect machine parameter settings that cause excessive stress.

Should you maintain or replace equipment?

Many factors need to be considered, and every customer will have different circumstances in making a decision to either maintain or replace their existing hydraulic machines. These factors can include:

  • Type of products being produced and the necessary precision.
  • Type of customer base you’re going after.
  • What kind of maintenance issues the hydraulic machines are having and the cost associated with keeping them in good working order.
  • Cost of energy.
  • Skill level of the maintenance department.
  • Cost of capital.
  • Hourly machine rates and cycle time improvement opportunities.
  • New construction of facility in the evaluation of utility requirements such as power drop sizes and HVAC considerations.

Why are the machines more repeatable?

  • Hydraulic oil tends to behave differently as temperatures change and also as the oil becomes dirty. Temperature changes result in viscosity and flow variations through the hydraulic system. This is why many machine manufacturers incorporate an oil pre-heat cycle when initially starting the hydraulic pumps to reduce the time necessary to warm the oil to operating temperatures (wasted energy). Also, as the oil temperature migrates into the steel of the valves, pumps, cylinders, etc., it often results in behavior changes from the thermal expansion and tolerance change between components. As oil becomes old, it can begin to break down resulting from heat and moisture. The most common visual change comes from what is known as “varnish” build-up. This brownish build-up can be found on all areas where the oil experiences higher temperatures. Frequently, when removing the spool from the valve body, you can actually see varnish built up on the lands of the spool.
  • Mechanical drives with servo motion control use absolute encoders with capability to detect as low as 0.01mm positioning. This capability, working in conjunction with tight machine tolerances, enables precise and repeatable machine operation.

How much energy can I save?

There are several answers to this, depending on the age and type of technology used in the machine being replaced and the molding cycle conditions. Ultimately, the best way to analyze this is to perform an energy audit.

  • When replacing most machines that were produced using older technology, the energy savings could be over 400%. Early machines used hydraulic and electric motor designs, which are not energy efficient. Machines with inefficient electric motors and fixed (single/multi) pumping systems are primarily those in this category.
  • Newer technology that became available in the 1980s could still see savings in the 200% range. Machines using variable flow/pressure pumping systems with and without separate fixed-pump systems would fall into this category.
  • Today’s technology using electric servo motor controlled pump systems may see 25-50% reductions. Systems using variable frequency motors coupled to fixed pumps also provide savings, but may see performance issues.
  • In cases of long cycle times where a normal electric/pump system is operating without any work produced, you will see greater savings than you would in a scenario in which the motor/pump system is constantly at work, as would be found in a fast cycle resulting in a high resin output (Lbs/hr).

1. What is the important characteristics of plastics?

It can be molded into finished product by application of heat and pressure.

2. What are the advantages of plastics over metals?

  • Low weight
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Insulation properties
  • Electrical properties
  • Cheaper
  • Easy to handle
  • Surface properties
  • Reusable

3. Explain the disadvantages of plastics?

  • Low strength
  • Low heat resistance
  • Poor mechanical properties
  • Difficulty to repair

4. How to classify the plastics?

  • Natural : milk of rubber tree, cellulose
  • Semi synthetic
  • Synthetic

5. Types of plastics based on chemical behavior?

  • Thermo plastics
  • Thermosetting plastics

6. Difference between thermo set and thermo plastics?


  • Can be re softened and reused
  • No chemical changes during heating.
  • In granular form
  • Needle structure
  • Hard but not brittle

Thermo set plastics:

  • Cannot be re softened and reused
  • Chemical changes during heating etc.
  • In powder form
  • Cross linked structure
  • Hard and brittle

7. Give Example of thermoplastics


8. Perspex is the trade name of ---- ?


10. Perspex is the trade name of ---- ?


11. Nylon is the trade name of ---- ?


12. Delrin is the trade name of ---- ?


13. Teflone is the trade name of ……….?


14. What is MFI?

Flow capacity of different grades of thermoplastics are inversely proportional to molecular weight.

15. About ABS?

Shrinkage 0.5%. It is heat resistant, provides good insulation and exhibit electrical properties. Examples are general purpose safety helmets, pipe fittings, television, radio etc.

16. About CA ?

Shrinkage 0.3-0.8%. Its main properties are transparency and surface texture. Examples are Tool handle, goggles, TV screens.

17. About HDPE?

Shrinkage 3-4%. Main features of HDFE are high density, rigidity, strength, hardness and chemical resistance. Examples are milk bottle crates, fish boxes etc.

18. About LDPE?

Shrinkage 0.8-1.5%. It is crystalline and not available in transparent form. Examples are shopping baskets, waste baskets etc.

19. About PA?

Shrinkage 0.7-1.5%. It is tough and high rigid. Examples are light duty gears, sprockets, bearings etc.

20.About PC?

Shrinkage 0.5-0.7%. It is known optical transparency, rigidity and toughness. Examples are goggles, lenses, safety helmets etc.

21.About PP?

Shrinkage 1-3%. It is flammable and degradable in sun light and stable. Examples are air cleaner, garden furniture etc.

22.About PS?

Shrinkage 0.2-0.8%. It is clear, brittle and it can be easily molded. Examples are toys, house hold appliances, electronic housings etc.

23.About PVC?

Shrinkage (FLEXI 1.5-3%,RIGID 0.2-0.4%). It is rigid and not very tough and very low cost. Example - Pipes fittings.

24. Examples for thermosetting materials ?

Alkyds, epoxies, pf, mf, urea, polyester

25. What is fillers and additives?

Adding of small molecules to plastics to get some characteristics (color, flexibility etc.). Fillers are commonly used with thermosetting plastics. Additives are of two types,

  • Physical means such as plasticizer
  • Chemical means--- stabilizer.

26. What are the mold release agents?

1. External with mold surface e.g. Polyvinyl alcohol

2. Internal with resins eg. Silicon oil

27. What are the types of injection molding machines?

  • Plunger injection cylinder
  • Two stage plunger injection cylinder
  • Pre plasticizer two stage screw injection cylinder
  • Reciprocating screw injection cylinder

28. What are the divided sections of screw of injection molding machines ?

  • Feed zone
  • Compression zone
  • Melting zone

29. What do you meant by nozzle ?

Nozzle connected to the end of the barrel through which soften materials inserted in the mold.

30. What are the types of nozzle ?

  • Reverse taper (melt valve)- for PA, ABS etc.
  • Removable tip
  • Standard of general purpose

30. What are the types of nozzle ?

  • Reverse taper (melt valve) - for PA,ABS etc.
  • Removable tip
  • Standard of general purpose

31. Define drooling ?

Leakage of plastic material through the nozzle in between shots.

32. What is injection capacity or short capacity?

Maximum volume material injected by the screw during one cycle of operation.

33. What is plasticizing capacity ?

It is the amount of material that can be processed by the machine per hour. It is expressed in kg/h.

34. What is injection pressure?

It is the maximum pressure by which the material is injected through the nozzle. It is given in kg/cm2.

35. What is Injection rate or Injection velocity ?

It is the maximum rate at which the screw can inject or shoot materials from the barrel during one shot.

36. What do you meant by clamping force?

It is the maximum force that the clamping system can exert on the mold or it is the maximum force by which the mold halves can be closed together. It is given in ton or kilo Newton.

37. What is maximum daylight?

It is the maximum distance that the machine platen can be separated from each other and it can be obtained by adding the maximum mold thickness to the maximum opening stroke.

38. What is a mold ?

It is a custom build tool in which we converts plastic raw material into finished product.

39. What are the main elements of mold ?

The main parts of molds are core and cavity.

40. What are the general types of mold ?

Injection molds, compression molds, transfer molds.

41. What are the types of injection mold ?

  • Two plate mold
  • Three plate mold
  • Hot runner mold
  • Insulated runner mold
  • Hot manifold mold
  • Stacked mold

42. What is two plate mold ?

Mold which consists of core and cavity situated in plates. It is logical type tool where component require large gate. For simple type components there is only one daylight.

43. What is 3 plate mold?

It consists feed plates with core and cavity.

44. What is hot runner mold?

In this, runner kept hot to keep the molten metal into fluid state also called runner less mold. In this, runner contained in a plate of its own runner section of the mold is not opened during molding cycle.

45. Note down the advantages of runner mold ?

  • No molded side products
  • No separating of gate
  • Cycle time can be reduced

46. What is insulated runner mold ?

It is a variation of hot runner mold in this type of molding. The outer surface of the material in the runner acts as a insulator.

47. What is hot manifold mold ?

This is a variation of the heated hot runner and not the runner plate. This is done using electric cartridge.

48. What do you meant by stacked mold?

A stacked mold is a multiple two plate mold with mold placed one over the other. A stacked mold construction doubles the output from a single molding machine and requires the same clamping force.

49. Explain about injection molding?

In this process, the plastic material is injected in to the mold through a sprue bush by means of a screw plunger. This process can be used for both thermosetting and thermoplastic materials.

50. What is compression molding?

In this process, the plastic material is placed in the cavity and use a force for compressing the compound as the mold closes, these molds are generally used for thermosetting materials.

51. What is transfer mold?

In this process, the plastic materials is transferred from a transfer pot and then forced in to the cavity by means of plunger. This method is used for molding thermosetting materials only.

52. Write a short note about blow molding ?

Blow molding is very much like compression molding because the blow mold generally closes on a hollow shape that has been deposited in between the halves of the mold. Air or gas pressure is introduced at the center. This internal pressure causes a flow of the heated material in to intimate contact with the relatively cold mold sections. Here the plastic material solidifies and is subsequently ejected.

54. Explain vacuum molding?

The mold used for this process is similar that of the female half of the compression or blow mold auxiliary equipment on the machine heats the material and drags it over the cavity as indicated by the precise technique chosen.

55.Elaborate about rotational molding?

The machine provides the means of holding the mold and rotating it about two axis at the same time. This rotation causes the powdered material that was loaded in to the mold before it was clamped in to the machine to solidify and cling to the wall of the mold.

56. What is impression ?

Gap between core and cavity is called impression. Impression provides the shape of the component.

57. What do you meant cavity?

Female portion of the mold and it gives external form.

58. What is core ?

Male portion of the mold and it gives internal form.

59. What is sprue bush?

Connecting member between register ring and runner.

60. What is register ring ?

It is used to align the mold with machine platen.

61. What is runner?

Connecting member between gate and sprue bush.

62. What is gate?

Connecting member between impression and runner.

63. How can we calculate the cycle time of mold?

Cycle time Tc=m*3600/P

Where ,Tc =minimum cycle time obtainable

M=mass of the shot

P=plasticizing capacity of the machine with the particular polymer being molded (kg/h)

64. What is parting surface?

The surface where top and bottom half closed together and prevents the loss of plastic material from the impression.

65. What are the types of parting surface?

Flat and non flat

66. Name the types of non flat parting surfaces?

Straight, stepped and angular.

67. What do you meant flash ?

If the parting surfaces are not properly matched, the molding material from the impression will escape through the gap. This escaped melt is called the flash.

68. Why do we provide vent in mold?

Vents are provided in the mold to allow such air to escape freely. The vent is a shallow slot not more than 0.05 mm deep and 3mm wide. If the depth is more, the plastic material can pass through the slot and leave a flash mark.

69. What are the types of runner ?

  • Fully round
  • Rectangular
  • Hexagonal
  • Trapezoidal
  • Modified trapezoidal

70. Explain briefly about sprue gate ?

When the molding is directly fed from a sprue or secondary sprue, the feed section is term as sprue gate.The main disadvantage with this type of gate is that it leaves a large gate mark on the molding. This sprue gate is used only for single impression molds.

71. What is rectangular gate?

This is the general purpose gate and it is a rectangular channel machined in on mold plate to connect the runner to the impression.

72. Write a short note about fan gate?

Fan gate can be considered as the other type of edge gate but it does not have a constant width and depth. The fan shape spreads the flow of the melt as it enters the impression and a more uniform filling is obtained with less flow marks and surface finish.

73. What is tab gate?

This is particular gating technique for feeding solid block types moldings. This is mainly used to avoid undesirable jetting on the molded part.

74. What is overlap gate ?

It can be considered as a variation of basic rectangular edge gate and is used to feed certain type of molding. In this type of gate we have a better control over the flow rate. Main disadvantage is that it leaves big remnant mark after degiating.

75. What is diaphragm gate ?

This gate is used for single impression tubular shaped moldings on two plate molds.

76. What is ring gate?

The function of this gate is identical to that of a diaphragm gate. This type of gate is used for tabular type moldings when more than one impression is required in a simple two mold.

77. What is film gate?

This is a long rectangular type edge gate and it is used for large thin walled components to assist in the production of warpage free products.

78. What is pin gate?

Used for 3 plate mold and under feed mold. Small degating mark will be there.

79. What is round edge gate?

This gate is formed by machining a matching semi circular channel in both mold plates between the runner and impression.

80. What is submerged gate?

Automated degating with less mark also called as sub surface gate or submarine gate.

81. What is winkle gate?

This is a curved variation of the subsurface gate and for that reason it is sometimes called a “curved subsurface gate” or “curved tunnel gate”.

82.What are the types of injection techniques ?

1. Pin injection

2. Sleeve injection

3. Stripper bar injection

4. Blade injection

5. Valve injection

6. Air injection

7. Stripper ring injection

8. Stripper plate injection

83. What is Pin injection ?

This is the most common and simple type of injection. The molding is ejected by the application of a force by ejector pins.

84. What do you meant by sleeve injection ?

In this method, the molding is ejected by means of a hallow ejector pin which is called sleeve.

85. What is stripper bar injection?

This method of injection is suitable for thin wall box type moldings because of the effective injection area obtainable are greater.

86. What is blade injection ?

The main purpose of blade ejector is for the injection of very slender parts such as ribs and other projections which cannot be satisfactorily ejected by the standard type of ejector pin.

87. What is valve injection ?

A valve ejector is basically a large diameter ejector pin. It is used for the injection of large components.

88. What is air injection ?

This is the simplest to install. It is easy to connect to the fixed or moving half. The medium of actuation is compressed air.

89. Explain briefly stripper ring injection?

The stripper ring is a local stripper plate and it is used on molds with one or two impression only. The stripper ring is made to seat in the mold plate.

90. What is stripper plate injection?

This injection technique is used mainly for the injection of circular box type moldings and for moldings with thin wall sections.

91. Name the methods used for actuation of stripper plate?

1. Tie rod actuation

2. Length bolt actuation

3. Chain actuation

4. Direct actuation

92. Define shrinkage ?

When a hot plastic cools inside a mold, it contracts by an amount depending on the material being processed and the final product is smaller than the mold size is called shrinkage.

93. What are the factors which affect the increase in shrinkage ?

  • Increase of material temperature.
  • Increase of mold temperature.
  • Increase in wall thickness.
  • Low injection pressure .

94. What are the factors which effect the decrease in shrinkage ?

  • Low melt and mold temperature
  • High injection pressure
  • Long injection time
  • Presence of filler materials and its content

95. What is undercut molding?

A molding which has a recess or projection is termed as an undercut molding

96. What do you mean external undercut?

Any recess or projection on the outside surface of the component which prevents its removal from cavity is termed an external undercut

97. Name the methods of split actuation?

  • Finger cam actuation
  • Dog leg cam actuation
  • Cam track actuation
  • Spring actuation
  • Hydraulic actuation

98. How can we calculate finger cam length?

Finger cam length =(M/Sin Q) +(2c) l Sin 2Q


M= split movement

Q=angle of finger cam

L=working length

C =clearance

99. Where we use side core and side cavity ?

A side core is a local core which is normally mounted at right angled to the mold axis for forming a hole or recess in the side face of a molding. The side cavity performs a similar function to the side core, in that it permits the molding of components which are not in line of draw. This element allows the components with a projection or projections on one or more of their side faces.

100. Where we use form pin straight action method ?

For the components which has internal undercut on one side of the wall.

101. Where we use form pin straight action method ?

We use form pin straight action method for the components which has internal undercut throughout the wall

102. What is single daylight mold ?

When a basic mold is opened, there is only one space or “daylight “ between the two mold halves. This is called a single daylight mold.

103. Explain about double daylight stripper plate mold ?

A stripper plate mold consists of a fixed plate, a moving mold plate and a stripper plate. There are two day light when opened. This is called double daylight stripper plate mold.

104. What is underfeeding mold?

An underfeeding mold is the one in which the feed system is arranged to feed into the underside of the component.

105. What are the types of injection molding defects ?

Sinkmark, Streaks, Blisters/Bubbles, Weld line, Ejector marks, Cold weld, Jetting, Warpage

106.Define sink mark ?

Sink marks are the localized contractions or the depressions on the surface of the moldings.

107. What is blister or bubbles ?

Hollows created on or in the molded part.

108. What is weld line ?

It is the witness marks of two or more melt flow fronts at their joining zone.

109.What is jetting ?

It is the prominent in-homogeneous snake like strands on the surface of molding.

110.What is warpage ?

Warpage is the deviation of the mold part from its required shape.

111.What is bulk factor?

Bulk factor is defined as the ratio of the volume of the loose powder to the volume of the molded part.

112. What are the types of compression molds?

  • Flash mold
  • Fully positive mold
  • Semi positive mold
  • Landed positive mold

113. Write a short note about performs ?

Performs are small pellets or tablets of molding material that are formed to shape in a special performs mold at room temperature. Curing won't takes place only densification.

114. Name the types of transfer molds ?

  • Pot transfer mold
  • Plunger transfer mold

115. What is die casting?

Pressure die casting is the process in which the molten metal is forced under high pressure into a cavity in a metal disc with in fraction of a second and allowed to solidify.

116. What are the types of die casting ?

  • Hot chamber process
  • Cold chamber process

117.Write the differences between hot chamber and cold chamber processes ?

Hot chamber process

Cold chamber process

The plunger and cylinder are submerged in the molten metal in the holding furnace.

Molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber.

After shot, plunger is forced the molten metal through the nozzle.

After ladling, the plunger advanced to force the metal in to the die.

Since both plunger & goose neck are submerged in the molten metal, it refills automatically when the plunger is withdrawn.

Each time, we have to ladle the molten material in to the chamber.

For casting metals that melt at lower temperature such as zinc and lead.

For casting metals that melts at high temperature such as aluminum, magnesium and brass.

118. What are the types of die casting defects ?

  • Cold defects
  • Hot defects
  • Miscellaneous defects

119. Example for cold defects ?

Lack of fill, cold shut, severe chill, chill, flow lines

120. Examples for hot defects ?

Soldering, cracks, broken part, bent part, heat marks or shrinkage pits.

? Question 1. How Are Plastics Made?

Answer :

Most commercial plastics encountered by consumers consist of building blocks of carbon. Those building blocks are typically derived from petroleum or natural gas, but can be derived from coal or biological sources. The building blocks of small molecules are called monomers. The monomers used are many and can be combined in various combinations to achieve special properties and characteristics.

The nature of the polymer science is such that the monomers must be very pure to make useful plastics. Plastics can be made at very high pressures using gases, in solvents or liquid emulsions, or as melted materials. Each plastic has preferred manufacturing techniques based on its specific chemistry. All successful chemical syntheses are characterized by purification of raw materials, reuse of surplus material, efficient conversion of materials to useful plastic, efficient use of energy, and minimized releases of byproducts to the environment.

? Question 2. Why Are Plastics Used In Packaging?

Answer :

Packaging serves many purposes. The public may think the package lasts only a few minutes during the use of the product, but the real demands are much more extensive. Packaging must deliver the product through a potentially long distribution chain to the consumer such that the product meets all expectations regardless of the history encountered. The package must allow the product to be attractive and must deliver aesthetic appeal and information.

The package must protect the product at low cost and ease of use with minimal environmental impact. And the package must meet the various regulatory requirements set by various governments. With the proper selection of plastic and packaging type, the quality of the product good, ranging from sensitive electronics to fresh foods, can be maintained during shipping, handling and merchandising. Plastics are a versatile family of materials that are suitable for a wide range of packaging applications.

In many cases, plastics offer the best protection while using minimal resources and creating less waste than alternative materials. A study in Germany showed that 400 percent more material by weight would be needed to make packaging if there were no plastics, and the volume of packaging would more than double1. Another European study showed that if plastic packaging did not exist, the annual extra burden required to replace the packaging function would consume an additional 14.2 millions tons of oil (equal to a line of super tanker ships over 14 miles long) and produce an additional 47.3 million tons of CO2 (equal to the annual output of over 12 million automobiles)2. While all packaging continues to be optimized, the basic message of the efficiency of plastic packaging to deliver a product as expected and at low cost is still true.

? Question 3. Why Do We Need Different Kinds Of Plastics?

Answer :

Copper, silver and aluminum are all metals, yet each has unique properties. We do not make a car out of silver or a beer can out of copper because the properties of these metals are not the best choice for final product. Likewise, while plastics are all related, each resin has attributes that make it best suited to a particular application. Plastics make this possible because as a material family they are so versatile.

For instance, six resins account for most of the plastics used in packaging:

  • PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is a clear, tough polymer with exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties. PET’s ability to contain carbon dioxide (carbonation) makes it ideal for use in carbonated soft drink bottles.
  • HDPE (high density polyethylene) is used in milk, juice and water containers in order to take advantage of its excellent protective water retention properties. Its chemical resistance properties also make it well suited for items such as containers for household chemicals and detergents. And HDPE is used for the secondary packaging, such as reusable pallets, that helps deliver products safely and efficiently in the product distribution system.
  • Vinyl (polyvinyl chloride, or PVC) provides excellent clarity, puncture resistance, and cling. As a film, vinyl can breathe just the right amount, making it ideal for packaging fresh meats that require oxygen to ensure a bright red surface while maintaining an acceptable shelf life.
  • LDPE (low density polyethylene) offers clarity and flexibility. It is used to make bottles that require extra flexibility. To take advantage of its strength and toughness in film form, it is used to produce grocery bags and garbage bags, shrink and stretch film, and coating for milk cartons.
  • PP (polypropylene) has high tensile strength, making it ideal for use in caps and lids that have to hold tightly on to threaded openings. Because of its high melting point, polypropylene can be hot-filled with products designed to cool in bottles, including ketchup and syrup. It is also used for products that need to be incubated, such as yogurt.
  • PS (polystyrene), in its crystalline form, is a colorless plastic that can be clear and hard. It can also be foamed to provide exceptional insulation properties. Foamed or expanded polystyrene (EPS) is used for products such as meat trays, egg cartons and coffee cups. EPS is also used for secondary packaging to protect appliances, electronics and other sensitive products during transport.

? Question 4. What About Cfcs Used In Plastics?

Answer :

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) were used in the past to make foamed plastic. In response to concerns about the ozone layer, polystyrene manufacturers voluntarily phased out the use of CFC’s in the late 1980s.

? Question 5. Are Toxic Compounds Used To Make Plastics And If So, Would Not The Plastics Be Toxic?

Answer :

Some of the raw materials used to make plastics are rather non-reactive at room temperature and others are highly reactive. For example, one reactive compound, ethylene, is used to make polyethylene. It can also be used to make waxes, such as paraffin wax used for candles and food additives. While not particularly toxic, gaseous ethylene is an asphyxiant, chemically active, and highly flammable. When converted to a plastic, those characteristics are changed. The plastics made from transformed raw materials do not have the same properties as the raw materials. EPA has concluded "there is an exceedingly low probability that potential exposure to high molecular weight water-insoluble polymers, as a class, will result in unreasonable risk or injury to human health or the environment".3Plastics molecules are very large and do not have the same biological properties as the raw materials used to make them.

? Question 6. Are Toxic Chemicals Included In The Plastic Products We Buy?

Answer :

The simple answer is ‘not intentionally’. The more thorough answer is that toxicity is a complicated subject. Salt, and even water, at too high an intake are toxic to humans. Both are necessary for health and neither is considered toxic. To be a risk, any toxic material must be delivered to sensitive organs in sufficient quantity to create an adverse result. Health risk is not created by mere presence alone.

Plastic products may contain many additives that are included to change appearance, such as colors, or to change performance, such as materials that make stiff plastics more limp and flexible. All additives for food packaging must pass stringent testing to meet FDA requirements for indirect food additives whether the additive actually is ingested or not4. Additives for other than food packaging have other requirements to meet. In general, if an additive becomes identified as problematic, alternatives are found and used. As for the plastic itself, manufacturers recognize it is in their best long-term interest to be sure the plastic as made create negligible risk.

? Question 7. Why Are Plastics Used In Durable Goods?

Answer :

Manufactured items defined with a useful life of more than three years, including automobiles, appliances, computers, etc., are called durable goods. Manufacturers of durable goods choose plastics for many reasons:

  • The automotive industry chooses plastic for its durability, corrosion resistance, ease of coloring and finishing, resiliency, cost, energy efficiency, and light weight. Light weight translates directly into improved fuel usage experience and lowered costs to the consumer. Use of plastics in car bodies, along with improvements in coating technology, contribute to automobiles lasting much longer than vehicles did before the widespread use of plastics in fender liners, quarter panels, and other body parts.
  • Major appliance manufacturers use plastics because of their ease of fabrication, wide range of design potential, and thermal, electrical, and acoustic insulation. Plastics characteristics can significantly reduce production and use energy consumption and greenhouse gas generation. Plastic insulation in refrigerators and freezers helps reduce operations costs to the consumer.
  • The building and construction industry uses vinyl siding for homes because of its appearance, durability, ease of installation, cost, and energy efficiency.
  • Plastics can reduce energy consumption for the auto, appliance, and building and construction industries, providing a substantial saving in production costs.

? Question 8. What Is Plastic Film?

Answer :

Stretchy plastic items such as carrier bags, bubble wrap, vegetable and food bags, cling film, crisp packets, magazine wrappers etc are all types of plastic film. Please refer to this plastic film leaflet which lists items that can and can’t be recycled in the red plastic and cans recycling box.

? Question 9. Why Won’t You Collect Plastic Film For Recycling Anymore?

Answer :

There are limited outlets to sell plastic film and sorting it from plastic bottles, pots, tubs and trays is very costly. Removal of film from our recycling will assist in maximising the council’s income from all material collected thus reducing costs to the council tax payer in these difficult financial times.

? Question 10. Why Have I Not Been Told?

Answer :

The change to Powys’ plastics and cans kerbside collection service has been communicated publically via press releases published in the local newspapers, advertising on the Powys County Council website and campaigns using social media online in the last few weeks. Full details were also included in the literature for the three weekly refuse collection service which were delivered to every household in Powys.

? Question 11. Why Haven’t You Posted A Flyer Through My Door?

Answer :

Powys County Council have not posted a door-to-door flyer campaign to communicate these changes as this incurs a large cost, produces additional paper waste and would be repeating the contents of the flyer sent late last year.

? Question 12. How Much Is Going To Be Saved By Not Collecting Plastic Film?

Answer :

Collecting plastic film means we have to pay third parties to take and sort our plastics before it is sent for recycling. Processing the material including plastic film costs the council up to £300,000 each year depending on the prevailing market conditions. By removing the film we should be able to sell our plastics direct to companies for recycling.

? Question 13. What Should I Do With The Plastic Film Items?

Answer :

The council encourages residents to reuse their plastic bags and save money as these now cost 5p each to purchase. Some supermarkets will also collect used bags for recycling.

Other plastic film items should not be placed in your red plastic and cans recycling box and instead placed in your wheeled bin or purple sacks. These items are not bulky and can be easily squashed to save space within your refuse.

? Question 14. Can I Put Plant Pots In My Red Box?

Answer :

No, unfortunately plastic plant pots are not one of the plastics we are able to take at the kerb side. They should be reused where possible or added to your wheeled bin or purple sacks.

? Question 15. I Currently Collect All My Plastic Containers In A Bag In A Kitchen Bin And Then Put The Bag In My Red Box For Collection. Is This Still Ok?

Answer :

No, it is important that the containers are put in the box loose as the bag itself is classed as contamination. If you use the net provided there shouldn’t be any problems of plastic blowing out of the box.

? Question 16. What Happens If I Put Something In One Of The Recycling Boxes That Shouldn’t Be There?

Answer :

If you do add something to your recycling box that shouldn’t be there, such as a crisp packet (that can’t be recycled), we will leave it behind in the box with a note attached explaining why we haven’t taken it – this way you’ll know what to do with it next time.

? Question 17. Why Hasn’t My Plastic And Cans Recycling Box Been Emptied?

Answer :

From June, boxes containing large amounts of plastic film will not be emptied and left at the kerbside for the householder to remove the plastic film and put the correct items out for collection on their next scheduled collection. A short leaflet detailing what items can and can’t be recycled in the plastic and cans box will be left along with an explanation why we haven’t taken it.

If your box is already full with items that can be recycled, you can take any additional items to be recycled at a community recycling site or household waste recycling centre. You can also request additional boxes. Plastic film items that we no longer collect should be placed in your wheeled bin or purple sacks.

? Question 18. Why Should I Recycle? I’ve Heard It All Ends Up In Landfill?

Answer :

The council sends all of what you put out for recycling each week to recycling facilities. The only material that will ever be disposed of will be contaminants. In 2015/16, Powys recycled nearly 59% of its waste.

? Question 19. So, Will We Be Getting Less Of A Service Than In The Past?

Answer :

We are providing far more collections than we used to.

Back in 2005, the council would collect one type of waste from every household once a week.

In 2016 the council collects:

  • Plastic and cans, paper and card and glass recycling boxes every week
  • Food waste kerbside caddy every week
  • As well as the left over ‘non-recyclable’ rubbish in your wheeled bin or purple sacks every three weeks.

? Question 20. What Happens If I Have Got More Rubbish Than Will Fit Into My Wheeled Bin?

Answer :

When putting it out for collection, the lids of the wheeled bin must always be fully closed. Rubbish that doesn’t fit inside the bin or left on the floor next to it will not be taken.

Most households will have plenty of space in their residual waste bin providing they recycle everything they can every week – paper, card, plastics, cans, glass and food waste.

? Question 21. Why Doesn’t The Council Recycle More Materials At The Kerbside?

Answer :

As an authority, Powys is committed to providing the most efficient and cost-effective service to residents. As part of this, we need to consider which materials offer the best value to collect. Our service allows for the recycling of up to 70% of the waste typically produced by households. While some additional materials, like plastic film, could be recycled, this would cost a lot for a limited benefit and would be uneconomical to do so.

When a product such as crisp packets is made, the manufacturers often use lots of different materials. This makes it very difficult to find processors that can recycle these products efficiently and cost effectively.

The materials collected at the kerbside are limited by the number of compartments on the recycling vehicles. The council collects plastics and cans, paper and card, glass and food waste recycling which are the most frequently produced items by households. A range of materials such as textiles, grass cuttings and large cardboard items can be recycled at community recycling sites. Larger items such as washing machines and furniture, as well as low energy or florescent light bulbs, car tyres can be taken to a household waste recycling centre.

? Question 22. Explain The Term ‘thermoset Polymer’, With Reference To Molecular Structure?

Answer :

Once 'set' these plastics cannot be reheated to soften, shape and mould. The molecules of these plastics are cross linked in three dimensions and this is why they cannot be reshaped or recycled. The bond between the molecules is very strong.

? Question 23. Thermoset Polymers Are Very Useful In The Manufacture Of Electrical Fittings. Name A Thermoset Polymer Used For This Purpose?

Answer :

Urea Formaldehyde (UF).

? Question 24. Describe The Properties Of The Polymer You Have Named Above That Make It Suitable For Electrical Fittings?

Answer :

Urea Formaldehyde has physical properties of high hardness and high toughness, making it suitable for strong, knock-resistant electrical fittings. It is also scratch resistant and a very good electrical insulator, making electrical fittings manufactured from this polymer safe to use.

? Question 25. Explain The Term ‘thermoplastic’, With Reference To Molecular Structure?

Answer :

These plastics can be re-heated and therefore shaped in various ways due being long chain monomers that are not inter- connected. They become mouldable after reheating as they do not undergo significant chemical change. Reheating and shaping can be repeated. The bond between the molecules is weak and become weaker when reheated, allowing reshaping. These types of plastics can be recycled.

? Question 26. Thermoplastics Are Very Useful In The Manufacture Of Mobile Phone Casings. Name A Thermoplastic Used For This Purpose?

Answer :


? Question 27. Describe The Properties Of The Polymer You Have Named Above That Make It Suitable For Mobile Phone Casings?

Answer :

Polycarbonate is a thermoplastic which means it can be shaped and formed through a number of manufacturing processes. It machines well and can be solvent bonded and welded. It is tough and resistant to damage which is an ideal property for a mobile phone. If dropped, a mobile phone with a polycarbonate casing is likely to survive undamaged. It is an insulator, often used to insulate electrical circuits. It is supplied in a range of colours.

? Question 28. Are Plastics Eco-friendly?

Answer :

In General all man-made products, during manufacture, processing and disposal, have an impact on the environment. The issue therefore is, which of these products under consideration, will impose the least burden on the environment, and contribute to what is termed - 'sustainable development'.

? Question 29. How Do We Judge Whether Plastics Are Eco-friendly In Relation To Other Materials?

Answer :

Plastindia Foundation's Enviroplast Committee, developed a model or criteria, which may be used forqualifying materials as eco-friendly. The material or product in question should:

1. Improve the qualify of life, particularly of the economically weaker sections of society.

2. Reduce signaficantly the pollution load on the environment - and water and air in relation to materials that are replaced or substituted.

3. Use the non-renewable energy resources more efficiently.

4. Contribute to the presevation of land, water resources and forests.

5. Lend itself to recycling and/or recovery of a significant part of the inherent energy.

Normally the tendency is to judge a product or item in terms of its waste disposal problem. This islikesaying that an ice-berge is as big as it appears above the surface.

Every process connected with a product, right from the time that basic raw materials are extracted from theearth to the time a product is produced, transported, used and disposed, has some impact on the environment.

A comparative study of products or applications based on measurements of energy-input and the pollution discharged to land, water and air, at every stage, is called a Life Cycle Analysis (L.C.A.) - or more simply 'the cradle to grave' approach.

? Question 30. Are Plastics Responsible For Utilising A Major Share Of The World's Oil Or Hydrocarbon Resources?

Answer :

NO. It is important to recognise that plastics use less than 4% of the world's hydrocarbon resources. Approximately 90% is consumed for transportation, power generation and heating.

In general plastic products require less energy than products made from conventional materials, at comparableuse and performance levels.

? Question 31. Do Plasticss Make-up A Large Part Of The Municipal Solid Waste?

Answer :

NO. A study conducted by the National Environmental Engineering Reasearch Institute, Nagpur for the BMC, putsthe figure at 0.75%.

Even in Europe and U.S.A., with per capita consumption of plastics at over 50 kgs per annum (India is 2.7 kgsper annum), plastic waste makes up 8% of the total muncipal solid waste. The rest is made up of organic materials (33%), paper & board (30%), glass and metals (16%) and others (13%).

Plastics make a significant contribution by reducing the weight and volume of materials that are typically thrownaway. Unfortunately in India, waste is littered, instead of being disposed to facilitate collection and recycling.

? Question 32. Do Plastic Grocery Bags Block Drains During The Rains?

Answer :

Unlikely.Plastic grocery bags are lighter (less dense) than water; hence, they float. This is why they accumulate on the beaches when disposed indiscriminately. In the case of a vertical grill in the drainage system, the water will flowthrough the grill with the plastic bags floating on the surface. In the case of a horizontal grill such as the one found on the roadside, the bags will be displaced by flowing water. By applying this logic, it is difficult to understand how plastic grocery bags are responsible for blocking drains. Perhaps, someone should carefullyobserve and determine what is the real porblem.

? Question 33. Are Plastics Toxic When Used In Contact With Foods And Medicines?

Answer :

NO. Plastics are used world-over because they are safe for packaging of foods, medicines and child care products. A few examples are - milk pouches, edible oil container, ice-cream packs, blister packs for tablets and capsules.I.V.fluids and blood is collected and stored in plastic bags.

While plastics are safe for packaging of food and medicinal products, there are standards in each country,which specify the type of Additives and Pigments, which can be used safely for contact with foods.

? Question 34. Are Plastics Hazardous When Buried In Land-fills?

Answer :

NO. Plastic waste is pre-dominantly eco-neutral or inert. It does not generate toxic leachates which contaminate the soil or ground water resources. On the contrary, those products which do biodegrade with by-products,may result in contaminating ground water resources.

Plastic consumer waste is easily compactible, and occupies less space inland-fills.

The fact that plastic waste is inert and does not biodegrade, makes segregation and recycling a more logical approach to waste managment, for urban areas.

The famous study on excavation of New York's land-fills by the University of Arizona, U.S.A., reveals that fooditems, such as beef-stakes, corn-on-cob, news papers - things which you might expect to biodegrade in a fewyears, are in recognisable form after 30 years. This is because, anaerobic biodegradation (in the absence of airand sun-light) is an extremely slow process. This process also generates methane gas from land-fills - which for its "green-house" effect is worse than carbon dioxide.

? Question 35. Does The Burning Of Plastic Generate Toxic Fumes?

Answer :

NO. To a large extent, post-consumer waste is made up of grocery or polyethylene bags. The chemical structure of polyethylene is made up only by carbon & hydrogen atoms. Anyone, who has done elementary chemistry will know that burning a carbon hydrogen molecular chain will generate carbon-dioxide and water vapour.

A product made from PVC, when burnt in an open fire will emit hydrogen chloride fumes which are pungent. In fact this property has a singnificant advantage in retarding propagation of a flame when used as a sheath in a

power cables. Normally a PVC product or a post consumer pack is extremely rare, in Municipal solid waste.

The toxic fumes which the public wrongly believe are generated from plastics, are the result of burning materials contained in the bag, to get ride of industrial wastes.

? Question 36. Are Plastics Harmful To Plant Growth, When Buried In The Soil?

Answer :

NO. The use of polythylene nursery bags for growing seedlings for plantation crops or for afforestation is an application which is widely previling all over the world. The thin polyethylene bag holding the soil and sapling is slit with a blade and covered by soil. This way the root zone of the young sapling is not disturbed. In the conventional method the sapling had to be uprooted from a bamboo wicker basket, which increased the mortality rate of the young sapling.

Plastics are inert and their presence under the soil has no affect on the soil chemistry or plant growth.

? Question 37. Should We Change Over From Plastic To Paper Bags?

Answer :

A decision should be made after considering these facts.

The wide spread belief that substitution of plastics with paper is more favourable to the environment, is not supported by facts and a L.C.A.

The manufacture of paper bags requires two-and-half times the energy as compared to plastic bags of the same size and for comparable performance.

The manufacture of paper produces singnificantly higher air pollutants. There is a huge disparity in waste water discharge in manufacture or recycling of paper.

As far as biodegradability is concerned, the University of Arizona study shows that newspapers burried in 1952 in land-fills and excavated in 1989, were legible. The same observation was made with telephone directories.

Some will argue that paper comes from trees which is a renewable resource; while plastic is manufactured from oil, which cannot be replaced. The argument against this is, that forests play an important role in protecting our soil bank and maintaining the gaseous balance in our atmosphere, by absorbing carbon dioxide and in turn releasing oxygen. In our hunger for wood, 44 million hectares of forests have been felled since Independence, making this country a land with one of the lowest areas under forest cover (area under forest to total land area). Therefore, as far as India is concerned land is not a renewable resource.

? Question 38. Do Plastics Meet The Criteria Of Resource Conservation; - Do We Get "more For Less" While Using Plastics Packaging?

Answer :

YES, Let us take the example of the humble plastic grocery bag whcih has been denigrated so extensively in the media. A stack of 2000 plastic grocery bags will be seven-and-half INCHES high; a stack of 2000 paper grocery bags will have a height of seven-and-half feet. Imagine what this means in terms of transportation, and the increase in exhaust emissions.

A study conducted by the "German Society for Reasearch in the Packaging Market", shows that if plastics packaging were replaced with other materials, the weight and volume of disposables would increase by a factor of 4 and 2.5 respectively, along with twice the level of energy consumption and double the cost of packaging.

Another good example is the transport of mineral water in light weight PET bottles. A truck can carry 60% more water with 80% less packaging, as compared to glass bottles; this results in fuel savings of almost 40%.

The ratio of product weight packed to the weight of package is the highest for plastics packaging; for example 500 gms of coffee can be packed in a glass jar weighing 500 gms, or a tin plate container weighing 130 gms, or a plastic laminated pouch weighing only 12 gms. Still better, one kg of salt is packed in a pouch weighing 5 gms where the ratio of product weight to package weight is 200:1. These are some examples of getting "more from less" through plastics packaging.

? Question 39. What About The Role Of Plastics In Improving The Qualify Of Life?

Answer :

According to a UNICEF report, in our Country an estimated 2500 children die every day of diarrhoeal diseases, caused by polluted drinking water and lack of sanitation. Those who survive, continue to suffer from water borne diseases and the country loses a staggering 1800 million man hours per year.

The target the country has set for itself, provides one safe source of drinking water per village. Such a difficult task would be impossible to achieve without the use of PVC pipe which is economical, light, easy to transport and install, but more significantly, uses 88% less energy in terms of "oil equivalent" in its production and use, for comparable performance with GI pipes.

The growth of personal products in the rural areas has increased dramatically. The growth of shampoos in bottles is at a level of approx. 2% year-on-year, whereas the growth is around 30% year-on-year for shampoos in flexible packaging and the small pack size, makes a product affordable to much larger section of the community and thereby promotes hygiene and personal care.

? Question 40. Who Should Take Responsibility For The Plastics Environmental Issue?

Answer :

We all share the responsibility for environmental issues. Any issue which concerns and community, has to be resolved with the co-operation of all involved; it is a "shared responsibility". Those involved are Government, Municipalities, the raw material manufacturers, the retailers, and consumers.

Because domestic waste is a mixture of materials of which plastics is only a small component, under 2% by weight, it is the responsibility of government to manage waste and a regulate its disposal.

It is the responsibility of the plastics raw material and packaging manufacturers to come up with the most cost efficient solutions, which will preserve and protect goods, minimise the use of energy and reduce the weight and volume of waste. Food and personal product manufacturers, retailers and consumers need to be aware of the benefits of plastics pacakging and the need to dispose plastics in a manner which leads to increasing emphasis on recycling.

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