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How does cloud computing provides on-demand functionality?

Cloud computing is a metaphor used for internet. It provides on-demand access to virtualized IT resources that can be shared by others or subscribed by you. It provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. The pool consists of networks, servers, storage, applications and services.

What is the difference between scalability and elasticity?

Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

What are the different layers of cloud computing?

Cloud computing consists of 3 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows:
1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed etc.
2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides cloud application platform for the developers.
3. Software as a Service (SaaS) provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anything on the system. The application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only.

What resources are provided by infrastructure as a service?

Infrastructure as a Service provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. Infrastructure deals with the complexities of maintaining and deploying of the services provided by this layer. The infrastructure here is the servers, storage and other hardware systems.

How important is platform as a service?

Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is also responsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world.

What does software as a service provide?

Software as Service is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like google is doing, it is providing google docs for the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. It provides the applications to be created on fly without adding or installing any extra software component. It provides built in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents and share it with other people online.

What are the different deployment models?

Cloud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows:
• Private Cloud
Organizations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it. It is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organization or an industry. More organizations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. Virtual private cloud is being used that operate by a hosting company.

• Public Cloud
These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, google, amazon etc. They focus on a few layers like cloud application, infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.

• Hybrid Clouds
It is the combination of public and private cloud. It is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds. It allows organizations to create their own cloud and allow them to give the control over to someone else as well.

What are the different datacenters deployed for this?

Cloud computing is made up of various datacenters put together in a grid form. It consists of different datacenters like:
• Containerized Datacenters
These are the traditional datacenters that allow high level of customization with servers, mainframe and other resources. It requires planning, cooling, networking and power to access and work.

• Low-Density Datacenters
These datacenters are optimized to give high performance. In these datacenters the space constraint is being removed and there is an increased density. It has a drawback that with high density the heat issue also creeps in. These datacenters are very much suitable to develop the cloud infrastructure.

What is the use of API’s in cloud services?

API stands for Application programming interface is very useful in cloud platforms as it allows easy implementation of it on the system. It removes the need to write full fledged programs. It provides the instructions to make the communication between one or more applications. It also allows easy to create application with ease and link the cloud services with other systems.

What are the different modes of software as a service?

Software as a Service provides cloud application platform on which user can create application with the tools provided.

The modes of software as a service are defined as:
1. Simple multi-tenancy: in this each user has its own resources that are different from other users. It is an inefficient mode where the user has to put more time and money to add more infrastructure if the demand rises in less time to deliver.
2. Fine grain multi-tenancy: in this the functionality remains the same that the resources can be shared to many. But it is more efficient as the resources are shared not the data and permission within an application.

What is the security aspects provided with cloud?

Security is one of the major aspects which come with any application and service used by the user. Companies or organizations remain much more concerned with the security provided with the cloud.

There are many levels of security which has to be provided within cloud environment such as:
• Identity management: it authorizes the application service or hardware component to be used by authorized users.
• Access control: permissions has to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of other users who are entering the in the cloud environment.
• Authorization and authentication: provision should be made to allow the authorized and authenticated people only to access and change the applications and data.

What is the difference between traditional datacenters and cloud?

Cloud computing uses the concept of datacenter as it is the datacenter is based on the tradition one so the difference between them are as follows:
- Cost of the traditional datacenter is higher, due to heating issues and other hardware/software related issues but this is not the case with the cloud computing infrastructure.
- It gets scaled when the demand increases. Most of the cost is being spent on the maintenance being performed on the datacenters, whereas cloud platform requires minimum maintenance and not very expert hand to handle them.

What are the three cost factors involves in cloud data center?

Cloud data center doesn’t require experts to operate it, but it requires skilled people to see the maintenance, maintain the workloads and to keep the track of the traffic. The labor cost is 6% of the total cost to operate the cloud data center. Power distribution and cooling of the datacenter cost 20% of the total cost. Computing cost is at the end and is the highest as it is where lots of resources and installation has to be done. It costs the maximum left percentage.

How the cloud services are measured?

Cloud computing provides the services to the organizations so they can run their applications and install them on the cloud. Virtualization is used to deploy the cloud computing models as it provides a hidden layer between the user and the physical layer of the system. The cloud services are measured in terms of use. Pay as much as you use that can be on the basis of hours or months or years. Cloud services allow users to pay for only what they use and according to the demand the charges or the prices gets increased.

What are the optimizing strategies used in cloud?

To optimize the cost and other resources there is a concept of three-data-center which provides backups in cases of disaster recovery and allows you to keep all the data intact in the case of any failure within the system. System management can be done more efficiently by carrying out pre-emptive tasks on the services and the processes which are running for the job. Security can be more advanced to allow only the limited users to access the services.

What are different data types used in cloud computing?

Cloud computing is going all together for a different look as it now includes different data types like emails, contracts, images, blogs, etc. The amount of data increasing day by day and cloud computing is requiring new and efficient data types to store them. For example if you want to save video then you need a data type to save that. Latency requirements are increasing as the demand is increasing. Companies are going for lower latency for many applications.

What are the security laws which take care of the data in the cloud?

The security laws which are implements to secure data in the cloud are as follows:
Input validation: controls the input data which is being to any system.
Processing: control that the data is being processed correctly and completely in an application.
File: control the data being manipulated in any type of file.
Output reconciliation: control the data that has to be reconciled from input to output.
Backup and recovery: control the security breaches logs and the problems which has occurred while creating the back.

How to secure your data for transport in cloud?

Cloud computing provides very good and easy to use feature to an organization, but at the same time it brings lots of question that how secure is the data, which has to be transported from one place to another in cloud. So, to make sure it remains secure when it moves from point A to point B in cloud, check that there is no data leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you sending.

What do you understand from VPN?

VPN stands for virtual private network; it is a private cloud which manages the security of the data during the transport in the cloud environment. VPN allows an organization to make a public network as private network and use it to transfer files and other resources on a network.

What does a VPN consists of?

VPN is known as virtual private network and it consists of two important things:
1. Firewall: it acts as a barrier between the public network and any private network. It filters the messages that are getting exchanged between the networks. It also protects from any malicious activity being done on the network.
2. Encryption: it is used to protect the sensitive data from professional hackers and other spammers who are usually remain active to get the data. With a message always there will be a key with which you can match the key provided to you.

Name few platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing

There are many platforms available for cloud computing but to model the large scale distributed computing the platforms are as follows:
1. MapReduce: is software that is being built by Google to support distributed computing. It is a framework that works on large set of data. It utilizes the cloud resources and distributes the data to several other computers known as clusters. It has the capability to deal with both structured and non-structured data.
2. Apache Hadoop: is an open source distributed computing platform. It is being written in Java. It creates a pool of computer each with hadoop file system. It then clusters the data elements and applies the hash algorithms that are similar. Then it creates copy of the files that already exist.

What are some examples of large cloud providers and their databases?

Cloud computing has many providers and it is supported on the large scale. The providers with their databases are as follows:
• Google bigtable: it is a hybrid cloud that consists of a big table that is spilt into tables and rows. MapReduce is used for modifying and generating the data.
• Amazon SimpleDB: is a webservice that is used for indexing and querying the data. It allows the storing, processing and creating query on the data set within the cloud platform. It has a system that automatically indexes the data.
• Cloud based SQL: is introduced by Microsoft and it is based on SQL database. it provides data storage by the usage of relational model in the cloud. The data can be accessed from the cloud using the client application.

What are some open source cloud computing platform databases?

Cloud computing platform has various databases that are in support. The open source databases that are developed to support it is as follows:
1. MongoDB: is an open source database system which is schema free and document oriented database. It is written in C++ and provides tables and high storage space.
2. CouchDB: is an open source database system based on Apache server and used to store the data efficiently
3. LucidDB: is the database made in Java/C++ for data warehousing. It provides features and functionalities to maintain data warehouse.

What essential things a user should know before going for cloud computing platform?

A user should know some parameters by which he can go for the cloud computing services. The parameters are as follows:
1. User should know the data integrity in cloud computing. It is a measure to ensure integrity like the data is accurate, complete and reasonable.
2. Compliance: user should make sure that proper rules and regulations are followed while implementing the structure.
3. Loss of data: user should know about the provisions that are provided in case of loss of data so that backup and recovery can be possible.
4. Business continuity plans: user should think about does the cloud services provide him uninterrupted data resources.
5. Uptime: user should know about the uptime the cloud computing platform provides and how helpful it is for the business.
6. Data storage costs: user should find out about the cost which you have to pay before you go for cloud computing.

What are system integrators?

Systems integrators are the important part of cloud computing platform. It provides the strategy of the complicated process used to design a cloud platform. It includes well defined architecture to find the resources and the characteristics which have to be included for cloud computing. Integrators plan the users cloud strategy implementation. Integrators have knowledge about data center creation and also allow more accurate private and hybrid cloud creation.

What is the requirement of virtualization platforms in implementing cloud?

Virtualization is the basis of the cloud computing and there are many platforms that are available like VMware is a technology that provides the provision to create private cloud and provide a bridge to connect external cloud with private cloud.
There are three key features that have to be identified to make a private cloud that is:
- Cloud operating system.
- Manage the Service level policies
- Virtualization keeps the user level and the backend level concepts different from each other so that a seamless environment can be created between both.

What is the use of eucalyptus in cloud computing environment?

Eucalyptus stands for “Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking
Your Programs to Useful Systems” and provides an open source software infrastructure to implement clusters in cloud computing platform. It is used to build private, public and hybrid clouds. It can also produce your own datacenter into a private cloud and allow you to extend the functionality to many other organizations. Eucalyptus provides APIs to be used with the web services to cope up with the demand of resources used in the private clouds.

Explain different layers which define cloud architecture

Cloud computing architecture consists of many layers which help it to be more organized and can be managed from one place.
The layers are as follows:
1. Cloud controller or CLC is the top most level in the hirerachy which is used to manage the virtualized resources like servers, network and storage with the user APIs.
2. Walrus is used for the storage and act as a storage controller to manage the demands of the users. It maintains a scalable approach to control the virtual machine images and user data.
3. Cluster Controller or CC is used to control all the virtual machines for executions the virtual machines are stored on the nodes and manages the virtual networking between Virtual machines and external users.
4. Storage Controller or SC provides a storage area in block form that are dynamically attached by Virtual machines.
5. Node Controller or NC is at the lowest level and provides the functionality of a hypervisor that controls the VMs activities, which includes execution, management and termination of many instances.

How user will gain from utility computing?

Utility computing allow the user to pay per use means whatever they are using only for that they have to pay. It is a plug in that needs to be managed by the organizations on deciding what type of services has to be deployed from the cloud. Utility computing allows the user to think and implement the services according to them. Most organizations go for hybrid strategy that combines internal delivered services that are hosted or outsourced services.

Is there any difference in cloud computing and computing for mobiles?

Mobile cloud computing uses the same concept but it just adds a device of mobile. Cloud computing comes in action when a task or a data get kept on the internet rather then individual devices. It provides users on demand access to the data which they have to retrieve. Applications run on the remote server, and then given to the user to be able to, store and manage it from the mobile platform.

1. What is Cloud and Cloud Computing?

Answer:
Cloud : A cloud is a term comprised of hardware, storage, services, and interfaces which helps in providing computing as a service from a remote location it has three kinds of users:
•End Users
•Cloud Service Provider

Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is a defined as on-demand delivery of computing power, database storage, applications, and other IT resources through a cloud services platform via the internet so that cloud delivers service worldwide.

2. What are the different service models for cloud computing?

Answer:
There are different kinds of cloud service model below are three major models, a different business using some or all of these models as per the requirement:

1.Software as a Service (Saas) :
SaaS model provides a software application and programs a service to the end user, all application and program are managed cloud-based.

2.Platform as a Service (PaaS) :
PaaS model provides an environment, platform, and operating system layer via the internet to a developer so that they can develop application and services.

3.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) :
IaaS is fundamental service of the cloud computing, it provides infrastructure to access the computing resources in a virtualized environment on the internet.

3. What are the different deployment models?

Answer:
Cloud computing supports several deployment models, each has its own services and operation to a cloud environment. A larger organization uses private cloud where small businesses utilize the public cloud, below are some of the deployment models:

1.Private Cloud :
It is provided for a single organization having multiple business units. Private cloud is owned, managed and operated by the organization. It may reside in on or off premises.Organizations opt for private cloud for sensitive and critical information as it provides security, reliability, service and it has the ability to scale.

2.Community Cloud :
It is provided to be accessible by a group of an organization as it shares infrastructure between several organization which belongs to a particular community, i.e. bank and trading firm. It can be managed and operated by the company, a third-party, or a combination. It may reside either on-premises or in a remote data center and it can be hosted internally or externally.

3.Public Cloud :
Public cloud infrastructure is open for use by the public. It is more secure than accessing information via the internet. It is managed and operated by a government organization or business and it exists on the cloud provider.
The public cloud provides functions like collaboration, CRM, Storage and social networking.

4.Hybrid Cloud :
It is a combination of two or more different cloud deployment model that remains unique entities and they are bound t?g?th?r b? ?t?nd?rdiz?d or proprietary t??hn?l?g? th?t ?n?bl?? data ?nd application ??rt?bilit? (?.g. ?l?ud bursting for load balancing between clouds).

4.What are some security measures provided by a cloud?

Answer : Security in the cloud is the major concerned for the organization as data should be stored in encrypted form. There are many levels of security within cloud environment such as:

1.Identity Management :
Identity management control access information, computing resources, application and services to be used by an authorized user only.

2. Access Control :
As data can be accessed by anywhere in cloud permission need to provide to the user to control the access to other users to enter into a cloud.

3. Authorization and Authentication :
As data is in cloud provision is made to allocate access to certain individuals (authorized user) only to change the application and data.

5. How can a company benefit from cloud computing?

Answer : There are many advantages of cloud computing for any organization below are some of the benefits of cloud computing

•Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users
•More secure data backup
•Data storage (Relational, No-SQL, Block Storage)
•Increased productivity
•Sandboxing and virtualization capabilities
•Increased productivity
•Cost Effectiveness
•Better for growth and scalability
•Take advantage of powerful server capabilities without a hardware investment.
•Software as a Service. (SaaS)

6.Name the platforms which are used for large-scale cloud computing.

Answer : Cloud provides many platforms for cloud computing but as the emergence of the big data cloud needed large-scale distributed computing the platform are as follows:
1. Apache Hadoop: Apache Hadoop is an open source technology, it uses Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) for storage and distributed processing of very large datasets multi-node computer cluster which are built using commodity hardware with high scalability. Hadoop provides services like data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations.

2. MapReduce is a framework used for processing of large-scale data generated in structure, unstructured or semi-structured format. MapReduce uses cloud sources and commodity hardware to process data and by replicating same data three (default replication factor = 3) times it provides fault tolerance and scalability at a software level.

7. Why API’s are used in cloud services?

Answer:
API’s is an acronym for Application Programming Interface and it is used in a cloud for:
• User doesn’t need to write a complete program as it provides inbuilt programming interface.
• The suggestion and instruction will pop up to make a connection between one or more application.
• Application can be programmed and developed easily with access to a link for cloud services of other systems.

8. Name some of the cloud computing platform databases?

Answer:
• Mongo DB
• Couch DB
• LucidDB
• DynamoDB-Amazon

9. Name some basic characteristic of cloud computing?

Answer:
Below are some of the essential characteristic of cloud computing:
• On-demand self-service with a provision of storage, computing etc.
• Broad network access can be used in the thin or thick client platform
• Support rapid elasticity so that it can grow and shrink as per requirement
• Measured Services with pay as you go pricing model.

10.Name the data centers in cloud computing?

Answer:
1. Containerized data center
2. Low-density data center

1. What types of data are used in cloud computing?

This may sound as a simple question, but in order to answer it, an IT professional has to show he or she is up to date with the latest trend in cloud computing. In fact, there are three types of data necessary to work with the cloud to save and store various data files. First of all, you want the candidate to talk about unstructured data. Unstructured data is data that has an unknown or unclassified structure. You can classify as unstructured data all those file types such as images, video, text and search engine results. After unstructured data, a cloud computing expert should talk about structured data. This type data is processed, accessed, and stored in a fixed format. An example of structured data is contained in database management systems. Finally, we find semi-structured data, which is a mix of structured and unstructured data. A good example of this type of data is XML format.

2. Can name some of the most important cloud platform databases?

Cloud computing is a technology that is rapidly evolving in terms of speed, scalability, and efficiency. This is happening especially thanks to open source software that are becoming an integral part of the cloud.Just to name a few, your candidate should be familiar with MongoDB, CouchDB, and LucidDB. The first one, MongoDB, is written in C++, it offers high storage capabilities. Also, this database system is schema free and document-oriented. CouchDB, on the other hand, is based on Apache server and is very efficient and reliable at its job (which is storing data).Finally, we find LucidDB, employed for data warehousing, and it is written in Java/C++.

3. What is our advantage as a company adopting cloud computing facilities?

This can be a crucial question, as it implies the core question whether or not your company will get any advantage from building an in-house cloud computing department. Also, it gives you a clear view of how much your candidate understands the importance and benefits found in cloud computing. The reasons to build a cloud computing division within your company are many, and your prospect should be able to name those reported below. – Thanks to cloud computing, your data backup and data storage will be safe- Your IT department will be able to boost your server capabilities without the need to invest on hardware.- Your software will be able to work on any operating system- You will be able to use your cloud computing as a software as a service (SaaS) without the need to include a third party company- As you opt for building a new IT capability within your company you will increase productivity and cut costs.- You will be able to grow and scale your business.

4. Can you talk about platforms that are used for large-scale cloud computing?

With this question, your candidate will have to show his deep knowledge about platforms for data storage and processing, as well as scalability. Two main platforms are Apache Hadoop and MapReduce. Apache Hadoop is an open software platform built specifically for distributed storage and distributed processing of very large datasets. Hadoop is aimed to provide for data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations. Introduced by Google, MapReduce marks the new frontier for analysis of large-scale data with this platform. MapReduce provides the user with the ability to process a huge number of datasets using cloud sources and commodity hardware. It provides fault tolerance and transparent scalability at the software level.

5. Name the different service models provided by cloud computing.

Again, this question will test the cloud computing expert’s knowledge of the different types of service offered by cloud computing. There are three different types of service: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). The first one, Infrastructure as a Service, is a hardware facility provided by a third party, which also manages it. Platform as a Service consists of the operating system layer and it is operated by another company as well.Software as a Service regards all applications and programs hosted in the cloud.

6. How can cloud computing help our company?

This is an important question especially for mid-size to big companies that are more interesting in building a private cloud than a small business that may opt for the public cloud. Besides private cloud and public cloud, there are also community cloud and hybrid cloud infrastructures. A company may build a private cloud to be used exclusively for its internal needs, it can be supervised by the company itself or a by another enterprise, or both. Its physical position may be where the company is located or may be positioned in a remote data center.A community cloud infrastructure is aimed to provide its services to a limited community of users that have a shared interest in their businesses. What about the public cloud? As the name says, the public cloud is thought to be used by the public. It can be operated by a third organization and its location is situated where the data center of the cloud provider is.When merging two or more cloud infrastructure you create a hybrid cloud, even though the different clouds keep their distinct attributes. They are called hybrid because they share the proprietary tech that enables data and app portability.

7. Why should a company opt for utility computing?

This is a complex question that requires a complex answer: thanks to utility computing the end user will only have to pay for the service on a per use basis. The user will have the ability to increase the number of services he’s using to satisfy his needs. This approach to cloud computing can be very remunerative for those businesses that plan to scale and grow their product.

8. When transferring data to the cloud, what is the best way to make this operation safe?

By adopting a secure key, you can make sure there will not be any data leaks, whether they’re malicious or not, from the cloud storage. This action will make intercepting your data impossible when it moves into the cloud.

1. Compare Cloud and On-premise Computing?

Criteria

Cloud

On-premise

Initial cost

Low

High

Maintenance & Support

Hassle-free

Needs attention

Upgrade

Automatic

Manual

Scalability

Excellent

Good

Pay as you go

Yes

No

2. What is a Cloud?

A cloud is a collaboration of networks, hardware, services, storage, and interfaces that helps in delivering computing as a service. It has three users:

  1. End users
  2. Business management users
  3. Cloud service provider

3. What is Cloud Computing?

It is advance stage technology implemented so that the cloud provides the services globally as per the user requirements. It provides a method to access several servers worldwide.

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4. What are the benefits of cloud computing?

The main benefits of cloud computing are:

  • Data backup and storage of data.
  • Powerful server capabilities.
  • Incremented productivity.
  • Cost effective and time saving.

5. Mention the Layers of PaaS Architecture.

Cloud Controller

  • Automatically creates Virtual machines and controllers.
  • Deploys Applications
  • Connects to services
  • Automatically scales Ups and Downs.

Storage Services

  • Object
  • NoSQL
  • Relational
  • Block Storage

Applications store in storage services

  • Simple to scale applications
  • Easier recovery from failure

6. What are the Cloud Service Models?

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
Platform as a service (PaaS)
Software as a service (SaaS)

7. What are the components of Windows Azure?

Windows Azure platform services

  • The Cloud
  • SQL Azure
  • App Fabric: Allows fabric cloud

8. What are the differences occurred in Distributed operations?

FC : Master-Slave operations
Nova : Parallel process and its shared database.

9. Which agent is equivalent of Nova Compute?

Azure Agent

10. Mention the Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing.

Use of fault domains:

  • Two virtual machines are in single fault domain if a single hardware can bring down both the virtual machines.
  • Azure automatically distributes instances of a role across fault domains.

Use of Upgrade Domains:

  • When new version of software is rolled out, then only one up gradation of domain is done at a time.
  • Ensures that some instance of the service is always available.
  • Availability of the applications in the multiple instances

Storage and Network Availability:

  • Copies of data are stored in different domains.
  • Mechanism to guard against DoS and DDoS attacks.

11. Give the best example for open source Cloud Computing.

OpenStack

12. Explain the Common storage of PaaS Architecture.

Cloud Controller:

  • Automatically creates the virtual machines and containers.
  • Deploys applications
  • Connects to services
  • Automatically scales ups and downs

Storage Services:

  • Object
  • NoSQL
  • Relational
  • Block Storage

Applications store state in storage services:

  • Simple to scale applications
  • Easier recovery from failure.

13. Why Hybrid Clouds are so important?

Cloud Bursting:
Access capacity or specialized software are available in public cloud and not in private cloud.
Examples: Virtual Amazon and Dynamo

Leverage best of both worlds:
VCloud:

  • It is VM Ware cloud
  • It is Expensive
  • Enterprise quality

Openstack:

  • It has commodity servers and storage.
  • It is less reliable.
  • We can run Web servers on OpenStack.
  • Database is built on VCloud.

14. List the platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing.

The platforms that are used for large scale cloud computing are

  • Apache Hadoop
  • MapReduce

15. Mention the different types of models used for deployment in Cloud Computing.

The different deployment models in cloud computing are

  • Private Cloud
  • Public Cloud
  • Community Cloud
  • Hybrid Cloud

16. Explain the Security management in terms of Cloud Computing.

  • The Identity management access provides the authorization of application services.
  • Access control permission is given to the users to have complete controlling access of another user who is entering into the cloud environment.
  • Authentication and Authorization provides access to only the authorized and authenticated users only to access the data and applications.

17. Which are the Layers that the scope of Cloud Computing?

The different layers used by cloud architecture are as follows:

  • CLC or also known as Cloud Controller
  • Walrus
  • Cluster Controller
  • Storage Controller(SC)
  • Node Controller(NC)

18. Explain what is the full form and usage of “EUCALYPTUS” in cloud computing.

“EUCALYPTUS” full form stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems”.
“Eucalyptus” is an open source software infrastructure in cloud computing, which enables us to implement clusters in cloud computing platform. It is mainly used to build public, hybrid and private clouds. It has the capabilities to produce your own data center into a private cloud and provides to use its all functionality for various other organizations.

19. Mention the name of some large cloud providers and databases.

  • Google Big table
  • Amazon Simple Database
  • Cloud based SQL(Sequential Query Language)

20. Explain the difference between cloud and traditional datacenters.

  • The expenditure of the traditional data center is expensive due to heating and hardware/software issues
  • Cloud being scaled when there is an increase in demand. Mostly the expenditure is on the maintenance of the data centers, while this issues are not faced in cloud computing.

21. What are the uses of API’s in cloud services?

  • API’s (Application Programming Interface are used to eliminate the necessity to write the complete programs.
  • The instructions are provided to make communication between one or more applications.
  • Creation of applications is made easy and access for the link of cloud services with other systems.

22. Mention the different datacenters deployment of cloud computing.

Cloud computing consists of different datacenters such as :

  • Containerized datacenters – Containerized datacenters are the packages that contain consistent set of servers, network components and storage delivered to large warehouse kind of facilities. Here each deployment is relatively unique.
  • Low-density datacenters – Containerized datacentres promote heavy density which in turn causes much heat and significant engineering troubles. Low density datacentres are the solution to this problem. Here the equipment is established far apart so that it cools down the generated heat.

23. List down the three basic functioning clouds in cloud computing.

  • Professional cloud
  • Personal cloud
  • Performance cloud

24. What are the characteristics of cloud architecture that differs from traditional cloud architecture?

The characteristics are:

  • The hardware requirement is being provided as per the demand created for cloud architecture.
  • Cloud architecture is capable of scaling the resource on demand created.
  • Cloud architecture is capable of managing and handling dynamic workloads without any point of failures.

25. What are the building blocks in cloud architecture?

  • Reference architecture
  • Technical architecture
  • Deployment operation architecture
  • Reference architecture
  • Technical architecture
  • Deployment operation architecture

26. Explain AWS.

AWS stands for Amazon Web Service which is a collection of remote computing services also known as cloud computing. This technology of cloud computing is also known as IaaS or Infrastructure as a Service.

27. Mention the key components of AWS.

The key components of AWS are as follows:

  • Route 53: A DNS (Domain Name SERVER) web based service platform.
  • Simple E-mail Service: Sending of E-mail is done by using RESTFUL API call or via regular SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
  • Identity and Access Management: Improvised security and Identity management is provided for AWS account.
  • Simple Storage Device or (S3): It is a huge storage medium, widely used for AWS services.
  • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): Allows on-demand computing resources for hosting applications and essentially useful for unpredictable workloads
  • Elastic Block Store (EBS): Storage volumes which is being attached to EC2 and allows the data lifespan of a single EC2
  • Cloud Watch: It is used to monitor AWS resources and it allows administrators to view and collect keys required. Access is provided so that one can set a notification alarm in case of trouble.

28. Explain how can I vertically scale an Amazon instance.

This is one of the essential features of AWS and cloud virtualization. SpinUp a newly developed large instance where we pause that instance and detach the root Ebs volume from the server and discard. Later stop your live instance, detach its root volume connected. Note down the unique device ID and attach the same root volume to the new server. And restart it again. This results in vertically scaled Amazon instance.

29. Explain the security usage in Amazon Web Services model.

  • AWS supports security groups.
  • Access is provided to create a security group for a jump box with ssh access only for port 22 open. Later a web server group and database group are created. The web server group provides 80 and 443 from around the world, but only port 22 are vital among the jump box group. Database group allows port 3306 from the web server group and port 22 from the jump box group. Addition of any machines to the web server group can store in the database. No one can directly ssh to any of your boxes.

30. What are reasons that made Amazon so big?

  • Backup storage of EBS volumes is maintained by inserting the snapshot facility via API call or via a GUI interface like elasticfox.
  • Performance is improved by using Linux software raid and striping across four volumes.

31. What is an AMI? How do we implement it?

  • AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image. It is basically a copy of the root file system.
  • Provides the data required to launch an instance, which means a copy of running an AMI server in the cloud. It’s easy to launch an instance from many different AMIs.
  • Hardware servers that commodities bios which exactly point the master boot record of the first block on a disk. A disk image is created which can easily fit anywhere physically on a disk .Where Linux can boot from an arbitrary location on the EBS storage network.

1) What are the advantages of using cloud computing?

The advantages of using cloud computing are

a) Data backup and storage of data

b) Powerful server capabilities

c) SaaS ( Software as a service)

d) Information technology sandboxing capabilities

e) Increase in productivity

f) Cost effective & Time saving

2) Mention platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing?

The platforms that are used for large scale cloud computing are

a) Apache Hadoop

b) MapReduce

3) Explain different models for deployment in cloud computing?


The different deployment models in cloud computing are

a) Private Cloud

b) Public Cloud

c) Community Cloud

d) Hybrid Cloud

4) What is the difference in cloud computing and computing for mobiles?

Mobile computing uses the same concept as cloud computing. Cloud computing becomes active with the data with the help of internet rather than individual device. It provides users with the data which they have to retrieve on demand. In mobile, the applications runs on the remote server and gives user the access for storage and manage.

5) How user can gain from utility computing?

Utility computing allows the user to pay only for what they are using. It is a plug-in managed by an organization which decides what type of services has to be deployed from the cloud.

Most organizations prefer hybrid strategy.

6) For a transport in cloud how you can secure your data?

To secure your data while transporting them from one place to another, check that there is no leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you are sending.

7) What are the security aspects provided with cloud?

a) Identity management: It authorizes the application services

b) Access control: permission has to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of another user who is entering into the cloud environment.

c) Authentication and Authorization: Allows only the authorized and authenticated user only to access the data and applications

8) List out different layers which define cloud architecture?

The different layers used by cloud architecture are

a) CLC or Cloud Controller

b) Walrus

c) Cluster Controller

d) SC or Storage Controller

e) NC or Node Controller

9) What are system integrators in Cloud Computing?

In Cloud Computing, systems integrator provides the strategy of the complicated process used to design a cloud platform. Integrator allows to create more accurate hybrid and private cloud network, as integrators have all the knowledge about the data center creation.

10) What is “ EUCALYPTUS” stands for?

“ EUCALYPTUS” stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture For Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems”

11) Explain what is the use of “EUCALYPTUS” in cloud computing?

“Eucalyptus” is an open source software infrastructure in cloud computing, which is used to implement clusters in cloud computing platform. It is used to build public, hybrid and private clouds. It has the ability to produce your own data center into a private cloud and allows you to use its functionality to many other organizations.

12) What is the requirement of virtualization platform in implementing cloud?

The requirement of virtualization platform in implementing cloud is to


a) Manage the service level policies

b) Cloud Operating System

c) Virtualization platforms helps to keep the backend level and user level concepts different from each other

13) Before going for cloud computing platform what are the essential things to be taken in concern by users?

a) Compliance

b) Loss of data

c) Data storage

d) Business continuity

e) Uptime

f) Data integrity in cloud computing

14) Mention some open source cloud computing platform databases?

The open source cloud computing platform databases are

a) MongoDB

b) CouchDB

c) LucidDB

15) What are the security laws which are implemented to secure data in a cloud ?

The security laws which are implemented to secure data in cloud are

a) Processing: Control the data that is being processed correctly and completely in an application

b) File: It manages and control the data being manipulated in any of the file

c) Output reconciliation: It controls the data which has to be reconciled from input to output

d) Input Validation: Control the input data

e) Security and Backup: It provides security and backup it also controls the security breaches logs

16) Mention the name of some large cloud providers and databases?

a) Google bigtable

b) Amazon simpleDB

c) Cloud based SQL

17) Explain the difference between cloud and traditional datacenters?

a) The cost of the traditional data center is higher due to heating and hardware/software issues

b) Cloud gets scaled when the demand increases. Majority of the expenses are spent on the maintenance of the data centers, while that is not the case with cloud computing

18) Explain what are the different modes of software as a service (SaaS)?

a) Simple multi-tenancy : In this each user has independent resources and are different from other users, it is an efficient mode.

b) Fine grain multi-tenancy: In this type, the resources can be shared by many but the functionality remains the same.

19) What is the use of API’s in cloud services?

API’s ( Application Programming Interface) is very useful in cloud platforms

a) It eliminates the need to write the fully fledged programs

b) It provides the instructions to make communication between one or more applications

c) It allows easy creation of applications and link the cloud services with other systems

20) What are the different data centers deployed for cloud computing?

Cloud computing consists of different datacenters like

a) Containerized Datacenters

b) Low Density Datacenters

21) In cloud computing what are the different layers?

The different layers of cloud computing are:

a) SaaS: Software as a Service (SaaS), it provides users access directly to the cloud application without installing anything on the system.

b) IaaS: Infrastructure as a service, it provides the infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed etc.

c) PaaS: Platform as a service, it provides cloud application platform for the developers

22) How important is the platform as a service?

Platform as a service or PAAS is an important layer in cloud computing. It provides application platform for providers. It is responsible for providing complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer and makes it work like a single server.

23) What is a cloud service?

Cloud service is used to build cloud applications using the server in a network through internet. It provides the facility of using the cloud application without installing it on the computer. It also reduces the maintenance and support of the application which are developed using cloud service.

24) List down the three basic clouds in cloud computing?

a) Professional cloud

b) Personal cloud

c) Performance cloud

25) As a infrastructure as a service what are the resources that are provided by it?

IAAS ( Infrastructure As A Service) provides virtual and physical resources that are used to build a cloud. It deals with the complexities of deploying and maintaining of the services provided by this layer. Here the infrastructure is the servers, storage and other hardware systems.

26) What are the business benefits involved in cloud architecture?

The benefits involved in cloud architecture is

a) Zero infrastructure investment

b) Just in time infrastructure

c) More efficient resource utilization

27) What are the characteristics of cloud architecture that separates it from traditional one?

The characteristics that makes cloud architecture above traditional architecture is

a) According to the demand cloud architecture provides the hardware requirement

b) Cloud architecture is capable of scaling the resource on demand

c) Cloud architecture is capable of managing and handling dynamic workloads without failure

28) Mention what is the difference between elasticity and scalability in cloud computing?

Scalability is a characteristics of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. Whereas, elasticity, is being one of the characteristics that highlights the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity.

29) Mention the services that are provided by Window Azure Operating System?

Window Azure provides three core services which are given as

a) Compute

b) Storage

c) Management

30) In cloud architecture what are the different components that are required?

a) Cloud Ingress

b) Processor Speed

c) Cloud storage services

d) Cloud provided services

e) Intra-cloud communications

31) In cloud architecture what are the different phases involved?

a) Launch Phase

b) Monitor Phase

c) Shutdown Phase

d) Cleanup Phase

32) List down the basic characteristics of cloud computing?

a) Elasticity and Scalability

b) Self-service provisioning and automatic de-provisioning

c) Standardized interfaces

d) Billing self service based usage model

33) In cloud architecture what are the building blocks?

a) Reference architecture

b) Technical architecture

c) Deployment operation architecture

34) Mention in what ways cloud architecture provide automation and performance transparency?

To provide the performance transparency and automation there are many tools used by cloud architecture. It allows to manage the cloud architecture and monitor reports. It also allows them to share the application using the cloud architecture. Automation is the key component of cloud architecture which helps to improve the degree of quality.

35) In cloud computing explain the role of performance cloud?

Performance cloud is useful in transferring maximum amount of data instantly. It is used by the professionals who work on high performance computing research.

36) Explain hybrid and community cloud?

Hybrid cloud: It consists of multiple service providers. It is a combination of public and private cloud features. It is used by the company when they require both private and public clouds both.

Community Cloud: This model is quite expensive and is used when the organizations having common goals and requirements, and are ready to share the benefits of the cloud service.

37) In cloud what are the optimizing strategies?

To overcome the maintenance cost and to optimize the resources ,there is a concept of three data center in cloud which provides recovery and back-up in case of disaster or system failure and keeps all the data safe and intact.

38) What is Amazon SQS?

To communicate between different connectors Amazon SQS message is used, between various components of AMAZON, it acts as a communicator.

39) How buffer is used to Amazon web services?

  1. In order to make system more efficient against the burst of traffic or load, buffer is used. It synchronizes different component . The component always receives and processes the request in an unbalanced way. The balance between different components are managed by buffer, and makes them work at the same speed to provide faster services. Explain each of the three types of data used in cloud computing?

As cloud computing has grown, the data types have changed. There are particular data types needed to save and store various data files.

  • Unstructured data that has an unknown or unclassified structure is called unstructured data. Diverse data sources containing a combination of file types like images, videos, and text such as search engine results can be considered unstructured data.
  • Structured data is processed, accessed, and stored in a fixed format. Data from relational database management systems is structured data.
  • Semi-structured data this is a combination of structured and unstructured data. An example of this type of data is found in XML format.
  1. What are some of the open source cloud platform databases?

Open source software is pervasive today. As the world moves to the cloud, speed, scalability, and efficiency are critical. Because of this, open source software is an important part of the cloud.

MongoDB: This database system is schema free, document-oriented database. Written in C++, it provides table and high storage capabilities.

CouchDB: This database is based on Apache server and is known to store data very efficiently

LucidDB: This database, written in Java/C++ is used for data warehousing.

  1. How can our company benefit from cloud computing?

You want to know that your prospect has a clear understanding of the advantages of cloud computing

  • More secure data backup and data storage
  • Take advantage of powerful server capabilities without hardware investment
  • Platform and OS agnostic
  • Software as a service (SaaS)
  • Sandboxing and virtualization capabilities
  • Increased productivity
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Better positioning for growth and scale
  1. Mention platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing?

Apache Hadoop – Apache Hadoop is an open source software platform for distributed storage and distributed processing of very large data sets on computer clusters built from commodity hardware. Hadoop services provide for data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations.

MapReduce – Google revolutionized analysis of large-scale data with this platform. It enables the processing of massive numbers of datasets using cloud sources and commodity hardware. It provides fault tolerance and transparent scalability at the software level.

  1. Describe the different service models for cloud computing?

Infrastructure as a Service or IaaS: The infrastructure or hardware is provided by a third-party and managed by them.

Platform as a Service or PaaS: in addition to infrastructure, the operating system layer is also provided by a third-party and managed by them.

Software as a Service or SaaS: All applications and programs are cloud-based and managed by a third-party.

  1. What are the various deployment options for cloud computing?

As you know, each deployment model will fit some business models better than will others. Larger organizations most often benefit from a private cloud, where small businesses will likely utilize the public cloud.

Private cloud infrastructure is exclusive to a single organization comprised of multiple business units. It can be managed and operated by the company, a third-party, or a combination. It may reside either on premises or in a remote data center.

Community cloud infrastructure is exclusively used by a specific community of users from businesses that have a shared concern. It can be managed and operated by the company, a third-party, or a combination. It may reside either on premises or in a remote data center.

Public cloud infrastructure is open for use by the public. It can be managed or operated by a business or organization: alone or in combination. It exists in the data center of the cloud provider.

Hybrid cloud infrastructure is a combination of two (or more) distinct cloud infrastructures, but which remain unique entities. They are, however, bound by standard or proprietary tech which enables data and app portability.

  1. How can a company benefit from utility computing?

Utility computing will allow the end user to pay for the service on a per use basis. This is great for businesses using the model for scale and growth. Utility computing will allow the user to implement services according to their needs. Many organizations utilize a hybrid strategy combining internal delivery services: hosted or outsourced.

  1. For transporting data in the cloud, how you can you best secure data?

First, make certain that your data cannot be intercepted as it moves into the cloud, making sure that there are no data leaks —malicious or not, from its cloud storage. This can be accomplished by utilizing a secure key.

  1. What are some security measures regarding the cloud?

Companies have to remain concerned with security in the cloud. There are several levels of security which must be provided within the cloud environment:

  • Identity management authorizes the application, service, and hardware component to be used only by authorized users.
  • Access control provides permissions to the user so that they can control access of others who are accessing the cloud data.
  • Authorization and authentication allocate access to certain individuals and change apps and data.
  1. What are the five different layers of cloud architecture used in AWS?

Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud architecture consists of many layers that help with organization and management from a remote location. These layers are:

  1. CLC or Cloud Controller is the top level in the hierarchy. It is used to manage the virtualized environment and the resources such as servers, network, and the storage containing APIs.
  2. Walrus acts as a storage controller, managing the demands of users. Using a scalable approach, it controls the virtual machine’s images and its user data.
  3. CC or Cluster Controller controls all of the virtual machines (VM) for executions. Each VM is stored on nodes and they manage the networking between VMs and the external users.
  4. SC or Storage Controller is a storage area in block form that is attached by VMs.
  5. NC or Node Controller is the lowest level of the architecture and provides functionality as a hypervisor which controls the VMs activity. It includes execution, termination, and management of processes.
  6. What does “EUCALYPTUS” stand for and what does it mean in cloud computing?

EUCALYPTUS stands for E-elastic U-utility C-computing A-architecture L-linking Y-your P-programs T-to U-useful S-systems“Eucalyptus” is an open source software infrastructure used in AWS.

Eucalyptus, in cloud computing , is an open source software used to implement clusters in computing platforms. It’s used to create public, community, hybrid, and private clouds. With it, users can transform their own data centers into the private cloud and use its functionality with many other applications.

  1. Before migration to a cloud computing platform what are the essential considerations?
  • Compliance issues
  • Protection from loss of data
  • Data storage types
  • Business continuity
  • Uptime – reduction of downtime
  • Maintaining data integrity in the cloud
  • Ensuring availability and access
  1. What are some features implemented to ensure data security in the cloud?

Processing control – make sure that the data is being processed correctly in an application

File access – manage and control data manipulation in any of the files

Output reconciliation to control the data that has to be reconciled from the form of input to output

Input validation to control the values of input data

Security and backup to provide security and backup. This also involves the controls for logs of security breaches.

? Question 1. What Is Cloud Computing?

Answer :

The cloud computing is the computing which is completely based on the Internet. It can also be defined as the next stage in the evolution of the Internet. The cloud computing uses the cloud (Internet) that provides the way to deliver the services whenever and wherever the user of the cloud needs. Companies use the cloud computing to fulfill the needs of their customers, partners, and providers. The cloud computing includes vendors, partners, and business leaders as the three major contributors. The vendors are the one who provide applications and their related technology, infrastructure, hardware, and integration.

The partners are those who offer cloud services demand and provide support service to the customers. The business leaders are the ones who use or evaluate the cloud service provided by the partners. The cloud computing enables the companies to treat their resources as a pool and not as independent resources.

? Question 2. What Is A Cloud?

Answer :

A cloud is a combination of hardware, networks, storage, services, and interfaces that helps in delivering computing as a service. It has broadly three users which are end user, business management user, and cloud service provider. The end user is the one who uses the services provided by the cloud. The business management user in the cloud takes the responsibility of the data and the services provided by the cloud. The cloud service provider is the one who takes care or is responsible for the maintenance of the IT assets of the cloud. The cloud acts as a common center for its users to fulfill their computing needs.

? Question 3. What Are The Basic Characteristics Of Cloud Computing?

Answer :

The four basic characteristics of cloud computing are given as follows:
• Elasticity and scalability.
• Self-service provisioning and automatic de-provisioning.
• Standardized interfaces.
• Billing self-service based usage model.

? Question 4. What Is A Cloud Service?

Answer :

A cloud service is a service that is used to build cloud applications. This service provides the facility of using the cloud application without installing it on the computer. It reduces the maintenance and support of the application as compared to those applications that are not developed using the cloud service. The different kinds of users can use the application from the cloud service, which may be public or private application.

? Question 5. What Are Main Features Of Cloud Services?

Answer :

Some important features of the cloud service are given as follows:
• Accessing and managing the commercial software.
• Centralizing the activities of management of software in the Web environment.
• Developing applications that are capable of managing several clients.
• Centralizing the updating feature of software that eliminates the need of downloading the upgrades.

? Question 6. How Many Types Of Deployment Models Are Used In Cloud?

Answer :

There are 4 types of deployment models used in cloud:
1. Public cloud
2. Private cloud
3. Community cloud
4. Hybrid cloud

? Question 7. Why Does An Organization Need To Manage The Workloads?

Answer :

The workload can be defined as an independent service or a set of code that can be executed. It can be everything from a data-intensive workload to storage or a transaction processing workload and does not rely upon the outside elements. The workload can be considered as a small or complete application.

The organization manages workloads because of the following reasons:
• To know how their applications are running.
• To know what functions they are performing.
• To know the charges of the individual department according to the use of the service.

? Question 8. Which Services Are Provided By Window Azure Operating System?

Answer :

Windows Azure provides three core services which are given as follows:
• Compute
• Storage
• Management

? Question 9. Explain Hybrid And Community Cloud.

Answer :

The hybrid cloud consists of multiple service providers. This model integrates various cloud services for Hybrid Web hosting. It is basically a combination of private and public cloud features. It is used by the company when a company has requirements for both the private and public clouds. Consider an example when an organization wants to implement the SaaS (Software as a Service) application throughout the company. The implementation requires security that can be provided by the private cloud used inside the firewall. The additional security can be provided by the VPN on requirement. Now, the organization has both the private and public cloud features.

The community cloud provides a number of benefits, such as privacy and security. This model, which is quite expensive, is used when the organizations having common goals and requirements are ready to share the benefits of the cloud service.

? Question 10. Give A Brief Introduction Of Windows Azure Operating System.

Answer :

The Windows Azure operating system is used for running cloud services on the Windows Azure platform, as it includes necessary features for hosting your services in the cloud. It also provides runtime environment that consists of Web server, computational services, basic storage, queues, management services, and load balancers. The operating system provides development. Fabric for development and testing of services before their deployment on the Windows Azure in the cloud.

? Question 11. What Are The Advantages Of Cloud Services?

Answer :

Some of the advantages of cloud service are given as follows:
• Helps in the utilization of investment in the corporate sector; and therefore, is cost saving.
• Helps in the developing scalable and robust applications. Previously, the scaling took months, but now, scaling takes less time.
• Helps in saving time in terms of deployment and maintenance.

? Question 12. What Are The Concerns Prevailing Around Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Security of data is the topmost concern in the consumers minds.

? Question 13. How Can These Concerns Be Addressed?

Answer :

By offering a more expensive - private cloud - solution, a customer's data is isolated from the public. Virtual private clouds can also be implemented. Lastly, a poorest measure against security is client-partitioning in a public cloud.

? Question 14. Mention The Basic Components Of A Server Computer In Cloud Computing?

Answer :

The components used in less expensive client computers matches with the hardware components of server computer in cloud computing. Although server computers are usually built from higher-grade components than client computers. Basic components include Motherboard, Memory, Processor, Network connection, Hard drives, Video, Power supply etc.

? Question 15. Comment On The Security Of Cloud Computing?

Answer :

It is a sub domain of networks, computers and information security in a larger aspect. Cloud computing security is referred to as cloud computing. It is designed in such a way that it acts as to safeguard the policies and technologies of organizations. Controls are deployed to protect applications, company’s data and frame work of security protocols.

? Question 16. Mention About The Top Cloud Applications Now A Days?

Answer :

Top cloud computing applications include google docs which are very fast and secure. There is also mobile version of google docs so you can access to your data from smart phone. Pixlr and Phoenix, jaycut also are the applications used for cloud computing.

? Question 17. Comment On Cloud Computing Revolution?

Answer :

Its essential to understand that the cloud computing revolution is not just about doing old things in new ways, also it is not just more cheap and green but also more collaborative intelligent and better available. The opportunity for Information technology department is to achieve new things and to make new things possible by cloud computing.

? Question 18. Comment On Its Cost?

Answer :

Low power pc’s can cut energy bills by upto 75%. This way it affects cost a lot.

? Question 19. What Can Be Done Using Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Cloud applications are very speedy and without buying and installing softwares we can use it. Application building in this is five times faster and it can deploy an application any time and any where and also it makes applications instantly collaborative and mobile.

? Question 20. How Would You Save Your Applications, Softwares And Drivers For A Long Term Without Using Any Magnetic Disk?

Answer :

I do not have to worry about my computer hardware at home because all my applications, files, games will be present somewhere on the Internet with cloud computing. The necessity is very fast connection.

? Question 21. Explain Benefits Of Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Money saving, increase in productivity about 50% ,IT support is 40% and time saving about 30%,less power and less space.

? Question 22. Explain The Importance Of Cloud Computing In It?

Answer :

A cloud computing addresses the explosive growth of internet-connected devices, and complements the increasing presence of technology in today’s world. Cloud computing provides a superior user experience, is massively scalable, and is characterized by the internet-driven economics.

? Question 23. Why Cloud Is Necessary?

Answer :

Amongst those who are already using the cloud, 94 % said the infrastructure was an important part of their decision but there is not one universal cloud infrastructure which suits every environment.

? Question 24. Name The Three Basic Clouds In Cloud Computing?

Answer :

The three basic clouds which we generally come across in cloud computing are Professional cloud, Performance clouds and Personal cloud.

? Question 25. Explain The Role Of Performance Cloud In Cloud Computing?

Answer :

It is an immerging type of cloud which can transfer maximum amount of data instantly. Basically it is used by Professional computer garners which play the games online and works on high performance computing research.

? Question 26. Why Professional Clouds Are Required In Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Professional clouds are used in Cloud computing because professional clouds are used for Emails, CRM solutions and web sites etc.

? Question 27. Describe Cloud Computing As Concisely And Simply As Possible In Layman Language?

Answer :

The purest form of cloud computing is pay-as-you-go Info Tech, online and on demand as per needed. The Info Technology capabilities provided as a service to businesses includes the single software applications and the software suites.

? Question 28. Cloud Computing Can Save Money ? Explain.

Answer :

We don’t need to buy the cloud and that is the biggest benefit for bottom line-conscious business offices and Information technology departments. As any other common utility, we just pay for what we use and when we use we turn it off. It always costs less to take advantage of existing infrastructure rather than building our own from scratch and that too especially for short term projects.

? Question 29. Explain The Benefits Of Cloud Computing?

Answer :

There are numerous benefits of cloud computing including data backup and storage of data, powerful server capabilities, software asa service known as (SaaS), Information technology sandboxing capabilities etc.

? Question 30. Tell Your Opinion About Adoption Of Cloud By Operators Around The World?

Answer :

Many operators use it today while cloud may not be seeing the traction of some forms of technology, like 4G.

? Question 31. How Does Cloud Computing Provides On-demand Functionality?

Answer :

Cloud computing is a metaphor used for internet. It provides on-demand access to virtualized IT resources that can be shared by others or subscribed by you. It provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. The pool consists of networks, servers, storage, applications and services.

? Question 32. What Is The Difference Between Scalability And Elasticity?

Answer :

Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

? Question 33. What Are The Different Layers Of Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Cloud computing consists of 3 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows:

  1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed etc.
  2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides cloud application platform for the developers.
  3. Software as a Service (SaaS) provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anything on the system. The application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only.

? Question 34. What Resources Are Provided By Infrastructure As A Service?

Answer :

Infrastructure as a Service provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. Infrastructure deals with the complexities of maintaining and deploying of the services provided by this layer. The infrastructure here is the servers, storage and other hardware systems.

? Question 35. How Important Is Platform As A Service?

Answer :

Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is also responsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world.

? Question 36. What Does Software As A Service Provide?

Answer :

Software as Service is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like google is doing, it is providing google docs for the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. It provides the applications to be created on fly without adding or installing any extra software component. It provides built in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents and share it with other people online.

? Question 37. What Are The Different Deployment Models?

Answer :

Cloud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows:

  • Private Cloud

Organizations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it. It is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organization or an industry. More organizations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. Virtual private cloud is being used that operate by a hosting company.

  • Public Cloud

These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, google, amazon etc. They focus on a few layers like cloud application, infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.

  • Hybrid Clouds

It is the combination of public and private cloud. It is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds. It allows organizations to create their own cloud and allow them to give the control over to someone else as well.

? Question 38. What Are The Different Datacenters Deployed For This?

Answer :

Cloud computing is made up of various datacenters put together in a grid form. It consists of different datacenters like:

Containerized Datacenters
These are the traditional datacenters that allow high level of customization with servers, mainframe and other resources. It requires planning, cooling, networking and power to access and work.
Low-Density Datacenters
These datacenters are optimized to give high performance. In these datacenters the space constraint is being removed and there is an increased density. It has a drawback that with high density the heat issue also creeps in. These datacenters are very much suitable to develop the cloud infrastructure.

? Question 39. What Is The Use Of Api's In Cloud Services?

Answer :

API stands for Application programming interface is very useful in cloud platforms as it allows easy implementation of it on the system. It removes the need to write full fledged programs. It provides the instructions to make the communication between one or more applications. It also allows easy to create application with ease and link the cloud services with other systems.

? Question 40. What Are The Different Modes Of Software As A Service?

Answer :

Software as a Service provides cloud application platform on which user can create application with the tools provided. The modes of software as a service are defined as:

  1. Simple multi-tenancy : in this each user has its own resources that are different from other users. It is an inefficient mode where the user has to put more time and money to add more infrastructure if the demand rises in less time to deliver.
  2. Fine grain multi-tenancy: in this the functionality remains the same that the resources can be shared to many. But it is more efficient as the resources are shared not the data and permission within an application.

? Question 41. What Is The Security Aspects Provided With Cloud?

Answer :

Security is one of the major aspects which come with any application and service used by the user. Companies or organizations remain much more concerned with the security provided with the cloud. There are many levels of security which has to be provided within cloud environment such as:

  • Identity management: it authorizes the application service or hardware component to be used by authorized users.
  • Access control: permissions has to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of other users who are entering the in the cloud environment.
  • Authorization and authentication: provision should be made to allow the authorized and authenticated people only to access and change the applications and data.

? Question 42. What Is The Difference Between Traditional Datacenters And Cloud?

Answer :

Cloud computing uses the concept of datacenter as it is the datacenter is based on the tradition one so the difference between them are as follows:

  • Cost of the traditional datacenter is higher, due to heating issues and other hardware/software related issues but this is not the case with the cloud computing infrastructure.
  • It gets scaled when the demand increases. Most of the cost is being spent on the maintenance being performed on the datacenters, whereas cloud platform requires minimum maintenance and not very expert hand to handle them.

? Question 43. What Are The Three Cost Factors Involves In Cloud Data Center?

Answer :

Cloud data center doesn’t require experts to operate it, but it requires skilled people to see the maintenance, maintain the workloads and to keep the track of the traffic. The labor cost is 6% of the total cost to operate the cloud data center. Power distribution and cooling of the datacenter cost 20% of the total cost. Computing cost is at the end and is the highest as it is where lots of resources and installation has to be done. It costs the maximum left percentage.

? Question 44. How The Cloud Services Are Measured?

Answer :

Cloud computing provides the services to the organizations so they can run their applications and install them on the cloud. Virtualization is used to deploy the cloud computing models as it provides a hidden layer between the user and the physical layer of the system. The cloud services are measured in terms of use. Pay as much as you use that can be on the basis of hours or months or years. Cloud services allow users to pay for only what they use and according to the demand the charges or the prices gets increased.

? Question 45. What Are The Optimizing Strategies Used In Cloud?

Answer :

To optimize the cost and other resources there is a concept of three-data-center which provides backups in cases of disaster recovery and allows you to keep all the data intact in the case of any failure within the system. System management can be done more efficiently by carrying out pre-emptive tasks on the services and the processes which are running for the job. Security can be more advanced to allow only the limited users to access the services.

? Question 46. What Are Different Data Types Used In Cloud Computing?

Answer :

Cloud computing is going all together for a different look as it now includes different data types like emails, contracts, images, blogs, etc. The amount of data increasing day by day and cloud computing is requiring new and efficient data types to store them. For example if you want to save video then you need a data type to save that. Latency requirements are increasing as the demand is increasing. Companies are going for lower latency for many applications.

? Question 47. What Are The Security Laws Which Take Care Of The Data In The Cloud?

Answer :

The security laws which are implements to secure data in the cloud are as follows:

  • Input validation: controls the input data which is being to any system.
  • Processing: control that the data is being processed correctly and completely in an application.
  • File: control the data being manipulated in any type of file.
  • Output reconciliation: control the data that has to be reconciled from input to output.
  • Backup and recovery: control the security breaches logs and the problems which has occurred while creating the back.

? Question 48. How To Secure Your Data For Transport In Cloud?

Answer :

Cloud computing provides very good and easy to use feature to an organization, but at the same time it brings lots of question that how secure is the data, which has to be transported from one place to another in cloud. So, to make sure it remains secure when it moves from point A to point B in cloud, check that there is no data leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you sending.

? Question 49. What Do You Understand From Vpn?

Answer :

VPN stands for virtual private network ; it is a private cloud which manages the security of the data during the transport in the cloud environment. VPN allows an organization to make a public network as private network and use it to transfer files and other resources on a network.

? Question 50. What Does A Vpn Consists Of?

Answer :

VPN is known as virtual private network and it consists of two important things:

  1. Firewall: it acts as a barrier between the public network and any private network. It filters the messages that are getting exchanged between the networks. It also protects from any malicious activity being done on the network.
  2. Encryption: it is used to protect the sensitive data from professional hackers and other spammers who are usually remain active to get the data. With a message always there will be a key with which you can match the key provided to you.

? Question 51. Name Few Platforms Which Are Used For Large Scale Cloud Computing?

Answer :

There are many platforms available for cloud computing but to model the large scale distributed computing the platforms are as follows:

  1. MapReduce: is software that is being built by Google to support distributed computing. It is a framework that works on large set of data. It utilizes the cloud resources and distributes the data to several other computers known as clusters. It has the capability to deal with both structured and non-structured data.
  2. Apache Hadoop: is an open source distributed computing platform. It is being written in Java. It creates a pool of computer each with hadoop file system. It then clusters the data elements and applies the hash algorithms that are similar. Then it creates copy of the files that already exist.

? Question 52. What Are Some Examples Of Large Cloud Providers And Their Databases?

Answer :

Cloud computing has many providers and it is supported on the large scale. The providers with their databases are as follows:

  • Google bigtable: it is a hybrid cloud that consists of a big table that is spilt into tables and rows. MapReduce is used for modifying and generating the data.
  • Amazon SimpleDB: is a webservice that is used for indexing and querying the data. It allows the storing, processing and creating query on the data set within the cloud platform. It has a system that automatically indexes the data.
  • Cloud based SQL: is introduced by Microsoft and it is based on SQL database. it provides data storage by the usage of relational model in the cloud. The data can be accessed from the cloud using the client application.

? Question 53. What Are Some Open Source Cloud Computing Platform Databases?

Answer :

Cloud computing platform has various databases that are in support. The open source databases that are developed to support it is as follows:

  1. MongoDB: is an open source database system which is schema free and document oriented database. It is written in C++ and provides tables and high storage space.
  2. CouchDB: is an open source database system based on Apache server and used to store the data efficiently.
  3. LucidDB: is the database made in Java/C++ for data warehousing. It provides features and functionalities to maintain data warehouse.

? Question 54. What Essential Things A User Should Know Before Going For Cloud Computing Platform?

Answer :

A user should know some parameters by which he can go for the cloud computing services. The parameters are as follows:

  1. User should know the data integrity in cloud computing. It is a measure to ensure integrity like the data is accurate, complete and reasonable.
  2. Compliance: user should make sure that proper rules and regulations are followed while implementing the structure.
  3. Loss of data: user should know about the provisions that are provided in case of loss of data so that backup and recovery can be possible.
  4. Business continuity plans: user should think about does the cloud services provide him uninterrupted data resources.
  5. Uptime: user should know about the uptime the cloud computing platform provides and how helpful it is for the business.
  6. Data storage costs: user should find out about the cost which you have to pay before you go for cloud computing.

? Question 55. What Are System Integrators?

Answer :

Systems integrators are the important part of cloud computing platform. It provides the strategy of the complicated process used to design a cloud platform. It includes well defined architecture to find the resources and the characteristics which have to be included for cloud computing. Integrators plan the users cloud strategy implementation. Integrators have knowledge about data center creation and also allow more accurate private and hybrid cloud creation.

? Question 56. What Is The Requirement Of Virtualization Platforms In Implementing Cloud?

Answer :

Virtualization is the basis of the cloud computing and there are many platforms that are available like VMware is a technology that provides the provision to create private cloud and provide a bridge to connect external cloud with private cloud. There are three key features that have to be identified to make a private cloud that is:

  • Cloud operating system.
  • Manage the Service level policies.
  • Virtualization keeps the user level and the backend level concepts different from each other so that a seamless environment can be created between both.

? Question 57. What Is The Use Of Eucalyptus In Cloud Computing Environment?

Answer :

Eucalyptus stands for “Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems” and provides an open source software infrastructure to implement clusters in cloud computing platform. It is used to build private, public and hybrid clouds. It can also produce your own datacenter into a private cloud and allow you to extend the functionality to many other organizations. Eucalyptus provides APIs to be used with the web services to cope up with the demand of resources used in the private clouds.

? Question 58. Explain Different Layers Which Define Cloud Architecture?

Answer :

Cloud computing architecture consists of many layers which help it to be more organized and can be managed from one place. The layers are as follows:

  1. Cloud controller or CLC is the top most level in the hierarchy which is used to manage the virtualized resources like servers, network and storage with the user APIs.
  2. Walrus is used for the storage and act as a storage controller to manage the demands of the users. It maintains a scalable approach to control the virtual machine images and user data.
  3. Cluster Controller or CC is used to control all the virtual machines for executions the virtual machines are stored on the nodes and manages the virtual networking between Virtual machines and external users.
  4. Storage Controller or SC provides a storage area in block form that are dynamically attached by Virtual machines.
  5. Node Controller or NC is at the lowest level and provides the functionality of a hypervisor that controls the VMs activities, which includes execution, management and termination of many instances.

? Question 59. How User Will Gain From Utility Computing?

Answer :

Utility computing allow the user to pay per use means whatever they are using only for that they have to pay. It is a plug in that needs to be managed by the organizations on deciding what type of services has to be deployed from the cloud. Utility computing allows the user to think and implement the services according to them. Most organizations go for hybrid strategy that combines internal delivered services that are hosted or outsourced services.

? Question 60. Is There Any Difference In Cloud Computing And Computing For Mobiles?

Answer :

Mobile cloud computing uses the same concept but it just adds a device of mobile. Cloud computing comes in action when a task or a data get kept on the internet rather then individual devices. It provides users on demand access to the data which they have to retrieve. Applications run on the remote server, and then given to the user to be able to, store and manage it from the mobile platform.

40) Mention what is Hypervisor in cloud computing and their types?

Hypervisor is a Virtual Machine Monitor which manages resources for virtual machines. There are mainly two types of hypervisors

Type 1: The guest Vm runs directly over the host hardware, eg Xen, VmWare ESXI

Type 2: The guest Vm runs over hardware through a host OS, eg Kvm, oracle virtualbox

What is Hypervisor in Cloud Computing and its types?

The hypervisor is a virtual machine monitor (VMM) that manages resources for virtual machines. The name hypervisor is suggested as it is a supervisory tool for the virtual machines.

There are mainly two types of hypervisors :
• Type-1: the guest Vm runs directly over the host hardware, e.g Xen, Hyper-V, VmWare ESXi
• Type-2: the guest Vm runs over hardware through a host OS, e.g Kvm, Oracle virtualbox

Are Type-1 Hypervisors better in performance than Type-2 Hypervisors and Why?

Yes the Type-1 Hypervisors are better in performance as compared to Type-2 hypervisors because Type-1 hypervisors does not run through a host OS, they utilize all resources directly from Host hardware. In cloud implementation Type-1 hypervisors are used rather than Type-2 because Cloud servers need to run multiple OS images and it should be noted that if OS images are run on host a OS as in case of Type-2, the resources will get wasted.

What are the characteristics on which a Cloud Computing Model should be selected for implementing and managing workload?

Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

What do you understand by CaaS?

CaaS is a terminology given in telecom industry as Communication as a Service. The Voice-over-Ip (VoIP) follows a same delivery model. CaaS can offer the enterprise user features such as desktop call control, presence, unified messaging, and desktop faxing. In addition to the enterprise features, CaaS also has a set of services for contact center automation that includes IVR, ACD, call recording, multimedia routing (e-mail and text chat), and screen pop integration.

What is the minimal requirement to implement an IAAS Cloud?

The minimal requirement to implement are basically three things:

• OS to support hypervisor or a hypervisor.
- Preferably open-source software like Linux and Xen hypervisor

• Networking topology and implementation.
- Public Network or Private network with Level 3 Switch

• Selection of cloud model as per requirement or business.
- SaaS, Software as a Service
- PaaS, Platform as a Service
- CaaS, Communication as a Service

How is the Cloud Computing different from primitive Client-Server Architecture?

The primitive Client-Server architecture is a one-to-one communication between only two physical machines namely Client machine and Server machine (datacenter). Whereas the cloud computing, infrastructure is similar at the client side but varies at server-side. The server-side contains a main Cloud Controller that forwards the request to its worker machines known as Nodes. These nodes are a grid computing machines that dedicate all its resources to process application. These nodes are maintained in clusters. So a cloud computing infrastructure is quite complicated on server side that processes all the requests from clients and send the result back.

Why should one prefer public cloud over private cloud?

The cloud technology is the best example of sustainable technology that utilizes all the computing resources. If a person needs to setup a quick business and wants to host its website, he need not require to setup a full-fledged private cloud. Rather he should go for public cloud hosting that provides different pay-per-use subscriptions, which could actually result in being economical. There are numbers of vendors that provide such services like godaddy.com etc.

Is it cost effective to implement a private cloud rather than a public cloud and why?

It depends on the type of business that demands a cloud setup. Suppose if the subscription on a public cloud for an application that is to be deployed on OS images is proving to be more costly then to buy some new datacenters and maintain them. Then obviously the a private cloud has to be setup instead of a public cloud. This public clouds follow utility billing methodology as electricity bill for example.

Does network topology play an important role in deciding the success of a Cloud Infrastructure?

The network topology plays a vital role in selecting a cloud model and success of that model

Public Cloud
These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, google, amazon etc. They focus on a few layers like cloud application, infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.

Private Cloud
Organizations choose to build their private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it.

Hybrid Clouds
It is the combination of public and private cloud. It is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds.

Is Cloud Computing an application?

The Cloud Computing is not an application but it is a methodology that deploys application in a custom fashion on a server. It can be also learned as an advance model of client-server architecture that is highly flexible, scalable and configurable. This architecture leverages high performance out of machines with quite an ease of management.

What is the use of defining cloud architecture?

Cloud architecture is a software application that uses on demand services and access pool of resources from the cloud. Cloud architecture act as a platform on which the applications are built. It provides the complete computing infrastructure and provides the resources only when it is required. It is used to elastically scale up or down the resources according to the job that is being performed.

How does cloud architecture overcome the difficulties faced by traditional architecture?

Cloud architecture provide large pool of dynamic resources that can be accessed any time whenever there is a requirement, which is not being given by the traditional architecture. In traditional architecture it is not possible to dynamically associate a machine with the rising demand of infrastructure and the services. Cloud architecture provides scalable properties to meet the high demand of infrastructure and provide on-demand access to the user.

What are the three differences that separate out cloud architecture from the tradition one?

The three differences that make cloud architecture in demand are:
1. Cloud architecture provides the hardware requirement according to the demand. It can run the processes when there is a requirement for it.
2. Cloud architecture is capable of scaling the resources on demand. As, the demand rises it can provide infrastructure and the services to the users.
3. Cloud architecture can manage and handle dynamic workloads without failure. It can recover a machine from failure and always keep the load to a particular machine to minimum.

What are the advantages of cloud architecture?

- Cloud architecture uses simple APIs to provide easily accessible services to the user through the internet medium.
- It provides scale on demand feature to increase the industrial strength.
- It provides the transparency between the machines so that users don’t have to worry about their data. Users can just perform the functionality without even knowing the complex logics implemented in cloud architecture.
- It provides highest optimization and utilization in the cloud platform

What is the business benefits involved in cloud architecture?

1. Zero infrastructure investment:
Cloud architecture provide user to build large scale system with full hardware, machines, routers, backup and other components. So, it reduces the startup cost of the business.

2. Just-in-time Infrastructure: It is very important to scale the infrastructure as the demand rises. This can be done by taking cloud architecture and developing the application in the cloud with dynamic capacity management.

3. More efficient resource utilization: Cloud architecture provides users to use their hardware and resource more efficiently and utilize it in a better way. This can be done only by applications request and relinquish resources only when it is needed (on-demand).

What are the examples of cloud architectures on which application can run?

There are lot of examples that uses cloud architecture for their applications like:
1. Processing Pipelines: uses like document processing pipelines that convert documents of any form into raw searchable text.
Image processing pipelines – create thumbnails or low resolution image
Video transcoding pipelines – convert video from one form to another online
Indexing – create an index of web crawl data
Data mining – perform search over millions of records

2. Batch Processing Systems
Systems that uses log management or generate reports.
Automated Unit Testing and Deployment Testing

3. Websites
Instant Websites – websites for conferences or events
Promotion websites

What are the different components required by cloud architecture?

There are 5 major components of cloud architecture.
1. Cloud Ingress: provides a mean to communicate with the outside world.
This can be done with the help of communication methods such as:
- Queue based communications
- HTTP communications
- REST/SOAP
- Service Bus

2. Processor Speed: processor speed is the major section on which the whole cloud architecture is based. It provides on demand resources that can be dynamically allocated to the user. It saves lots of cost and has many benefits of virtualization.

3. Cloud storage services: cloud services provide means to store data to user’s applications. It is used to provide services for different types of storages like: table data, files.

4. Cloud provided services:
Additional services are provided by the cloud, like data services, payment processing services, and search or web functionality services.

5. Intra-Cloud communications: it provides a way to communicate with other systems that are using cloud architecture. Providers usually provide services so that one user can communicate easily with another user by being on cloud.

What are the different phases involves in cloud architecture?

There are four phases that basically gets involved in the cloud architecture:
1. Launch phase: it launches the basic services and makes the system ready for communication and for application building
2. Monitor phase: it monitors the services that is being launched and then manages them so that on demand the user will be able to get what he wants.
3. Shutdown phase: it shutdown the services that are not required first and after all the services gets shutdown, and then it closes the system services.
4. Cleanup phase: it clean up the left out processes and services that is being either broken or didn’t get shutdown correctly.

What is the relationship between SOA and cloud architecture?

Service oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural style that supports service oriented methodology that is being added in the cloud architecture as a mandatory component. Cloud architecture support the use of on-demand access to resources and it provides lots of other facilities that are being found in SOA as well. SOA makes these requirements optional to use. But, to get the full functionality and more performance based efficiency there is a requirement for the mixture of SOA and cloud architecture.

How does the Quality of service is being maintained in the cloud architecture?

Cloud architecture mainly focuses on quality of service. It is a layer that manages and secures the transmission of the resources that is being acquired by on-demand access. Quality of service is being maintained such that it increases the performance, automated management, and support services. Cloud architecture provides easy to use methods and proper ways to ensure the quality of service. It is represented by a common cloud management platform that delivers many cloud services based on the same foundation.

What are the different roles defined by cloud architecture?

Cloud architecture defines three roles:
- Cloud service consumer: it is used to provide different services to the consumer on demand.
- Cloud service provider: here provider provides the services to meet the requirements of the user by monitoring the traffic and demands that are coming.
- Cloud service Creator: here creator is used to create the services and provide the infrastructure to the user to use and give the access to the resources.

The roles that are being defined can be performed by one person or it can be performed by many people together. There can be more roles defined depending on the cloud architecture and the complexity with which it will scale.

What are the major building blocks of cloud architecture?

The major building blocks of cloud architecture are:
1. Reference architecture: it is used for documentation, communication, designing and defining various types of models
2. Technical Architecture: defines the structured stack, structure the cloud services and its components, show the relationship that exist between different components, management and security
3. Deployment Operation Architecture: it is used to operate and monitor the processes and the services.

What are the different cloud service models in cloud architecture?

There are 4 types of cloud service models available in cloud architecture:
1. Infrastructure as a service:
It provides the consumer with hardware, storage, network and other resources on rent. Through this consumer can deploy and run software using dedicated software. This includes the operating system and the applications that are associated with it.

2. Platform as a service: it provides the user to deploy their software and application on the cloud infrastructure using the tools that are available with the operating system.

3. Software as a service: it provides the users the ability to run its application on the cloud infrastructure and can access it from any client device using any interface like web browser.

4. Business Process as a service: it provides any business process that is delivered through cloud service model using the internet and accesses the resources through the web portal.

What is the difference between vertical scale up and Horizontal scale out?

- Vertical scale up provides more resources to a single computational unit, whereas horizontal scale out provides additional computational unit and run them in parallel.
- Vertical scale up provides a provision to move a workload to other system that doesn’t have workload, whereas horizontal scale out split the workload among various computational units.
- Vertical scale up doesn’t have a database partitioning concept, whereas horizontal scale out provides the database partitioning.

How does cloud architecture provide performance transparency and automation?

There are lots of tools that are being used by the cloud architecture to provide the performance transparency and automation. The tools allow the user to monitor report and manage the cloud architecture. It also allows them to share the applications using the cloud architecture. Automation is the key component of cloud architecture as it provides the services to increase the degree of the quality. It brings the capacity on demand and allows the requirements of the user to be met.

What are the different components used in AWS?

The components that are used in AWS are:
1. Amazon S3: it is used to retrieve input data sets that are involved in making a cloud architecture and also used to store the output data sets that is the result of the input.
2. Amazon SQS: it is used for buffering requests that is received by the controller of the Amazon. It is the component that is used for communication between different controllers.
3. Amazon SimpleDB: it is used to store intermediate status log and the tasks that are performed by the user/
4. Amazon EC2: it is used to run a large distributed processing on the Hadoop cluster. It provides automatic parallelization and job scheduling.

What are the uses of Amazon web services?

Amazon web services consist of a component called as Amazon S3 that acts as a input as well used as an output data store. It is used in checking the input and according to that gives the output. The input consists of the web that is stored on Amazon S3 as object and it is update frequently to make the changes in the whole architecture. It is required due to the on demand growing of the data set and to provide persistent storage.

How to use Amazon SQS?

Amazon SQS is a message passing mechanism that is used for communication between different connectors that are connected with each other. It also acts as a communicator between various components of Amazon. It keeps all the different functional components together. This functionality helps different components to be loosely coupled, and provide an architecture that is more failure resilient system.

How buffer is used in Amazon web services?

Buffer is used to make the system more resilient to burst of traffic or load by synchronizing different component. The components always receive and process the requests in unbalanced way. Buffer keeps the balance between different components and makes them work at the same speed to provide faster services.

What is the need of the feature isolation in Amazon web services?

Isolation provides a way to hide the architecture and gives an easy and convenient way to the user to use the services without any difficulty. When a message is passed between two controllers then a queue is maintained to keep the message. No controller calls any other controller directly. The communication takes place between the controllers by storing their messages in a queue. It is a service that provides a uniform way to transfer the messages between different application components. This way all the controllers are kept isolated from each other.

What is the function of a Amazon controller?

The functions that are involved with an Amazon controller are:
- Controllers are used to control the flow in which the messages between the other system components has to be passed.
- It controls the overall structure of the Amazon and all to retrieve the message, process the message, execute a function and store the message in other queue that are completely isolated from other controllers.
- It manages and monitors the messages passed between the systems.

What is the function of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud?

Amazon Elastic compute cloud is also known as Amazon EC2 is an Amazon web service that provides scalable resources and makes the computing easier for developers.
The main functions of Amazon EC2 are:
- It provides easy configurable options and allow user to configure the capacity.
- It provides the complete control of computing resources and let the user run the computing environment according to his requirements.
- It provides a fast way to run the instances and quickly book the system hence reducing the overall time.
- It provides scalability to the resources and changes its environment according to the requirement of the user.
- It provides varieties of tools to the developers to build failure resilient applications.

What are the different types of instances used in Amazon EC2?The instances that can be used in Amazon EC2 are:
1. Standard instances: it provides small instances, large instances, extra large instances that give various configuration options from low range to very high range like Computing power unit, memory, processor, etc.
2. Micro Instances
It provides small consistent resources like CPU, memory and computing unit.
It provides the resources to the applications that consume less amount of computing unit.
3. High memory instances
It provides large memory sizes for high end application and it includes memory caching applications as well.

What are cluster compute instances?

The cluster compute instances consist of the high CPU with network performance and are suited with high end applications. It provides network bound application and provide extra large computing resources like 23 GB memory, 33.5 EC2 compute units. It provide general purpose graphics unit to allow user with high end configuration. It also provide highly parallelized processing application that user can use and modify the server accordingly.

How to use SimpleDB with Amazon?

Every architecture rely on a database that is easy to maintain and gets easily configured Amazon uses the database by the name SimpleDB. This is the database that is used for cloud architecture to track the statuses of the components. The component of the system are asynchronous and discrete, it requires capturing the state of the system so that in any failure the user can easily revert back to its normal configuration. SimpleDB is schema-less database and there is no need to define the structure before the creation of any data. Every controller in the database defines their own structure and link the data to a job.

How does component services used for Amazon SimpleDB?

Component services allow the controllers to independently store the states of the virtual machines and the database that is in use. It creates asynchronous highly available services. It stores active requests according to the unique ID that are associated with each system. It stores the status of the entire database that is having different states for different components in a log database file.

How to upload files in Amazon S3?

Amazon S3 provides uploading of large files and retrieve small offsets for end-to-end transfer data rates. The large file gets stored into small files that are smaller in size. Amazon S3 stores multiple of files together in a bundle or in a compressed form for example in .gzip or .gz format and then convert them into Amazon S3 objects. The files get uploaded on the Amazon server by the use of FTP or another protocol and then retrieved through the HTTP GET request. The request includes the defined parameters like URL, offset (byte-range) and size (length).

What is the use of multi-threaded fetching in Amazon S3?

- Multi-threading fetching in Amazon S3 is used to fetch the objects concurrently using the multiple threads and map the task so that fetching can be made simpler.
- It is not a good practice to increase the threading for a particular object as every node on the server has some bandwidth constraints.
- It provides user the ease with which they can upload the files and upload the threads in parallel.
- It provides high speed of data transfer and easy maintenance of the sever as well.

What is the difference between on demand and reserved instances?

- On demand instance allow user to pay for the computing capacity according to their use every hour, whereas reserved instances provide user to pay for every instance which they use and they want to reserve.

- On demand instance provide user a free working environment in which there is no need for too much of planning related to complexities, whereas reserved instances provide user with discounts on the hourly charge of an instance and provide a easy way to manage the instances as well.

- On demand instance provide maintenance of hardware and transforms fixed cost into much smaller variable costs, whereas reserved instance provide easy way to balance the pay package.

What are the provisions provided by Amazon Virtual Private cloud?

Amazon private cloud provides a provision to create a private and isolated networking infrastructure to give easily the Amazon web services.
- Virtual network topologies define the traditional data-center approach to control and mange the files from one place.
- It provides complete control over IP address range, creation of sub-nets and configuring the network gateways and route tables.
- It provides easy to customize network configuration like creation of public sub-net to access the Internet easily.
- It allow to create multiple security layers and provide network control list by which you can control the access to Amazon EC2 instances.

What do you understand by MapReduce?

MapReduce is a software framework that was created by Google. It`s prime focus was to aid in distributed computing, specifically large sets of data on a group of many computers. The frameworks took its inspiration from the map and reduce functions from functional programming.

Explain how mapreduce works.

The processing can occur on data which are in a file system (unstructured ) or in a database ( structured ).
The mapreduce framework primarily works on two steps:
1. Map step
2. Reduce step

Map step: During this step the master node accepts an input (problem) and splits it into smaller problems. Now the node distributes the small sub problems to the worker node so that they can solve the problem.

Reduce step: Once the sub problem is solved by the worker node, the node returns a solution to the master node which accepts all the solutions of the worker node and re-compiles them into a solution. This solution is for the input that was provided to the master node.

What is an input reader in reference to mapreduce?

The input reader as the name suggests primarily has two functions:
1. Reading the Input
2. Splitting it into sub-parts

The input reader accepts a user entered problem and then it divides/splits the problem into parts which then each are assigned a map function. Also an input reader will always read data from a stable storage source only to avoid problems.

Define the purpose of the Partition function in mapreduce framework

In mapreduce framework each map function generates key values. The partition function accepts these key values and in return provides the index for a reduce. Generally the key is hashed and a modulo is done to the number of reducers.

Explain combiners.

Combiners codes are used to increase the efficiency of a mapreduce process. They basically help by reducing the amount of data that needs to be shifted across to reducers. As a safe practice the mapreduce jobs should never depend upon combiners execution.

Explain what you understand by speculative execution

Mapreduce works on the basis of large number of computers connected via a network also known as node. In a large network there is always a possibility that a system may not perform as quickly as others. This results in a task being delayed. By speculative execution this can be avoided as multiple instances of the same map are run on different systems.

When do reducers play their role in a mapreduce task?

The reducers in a mapreduce job do not begin before all the map jobs are completed. Once all the map jobs are completed the reducers begin copying the intermediate key-value pairs from the mappers. Overall reducers start working as soon as the mappers are ready with key-value pairs.

How is mapreduce related to cloud computing?

The mapreduce framework contains most of the key architecture principles of cloud computing such as:
- Scale: The framework is able to expand itself in direct proportion to the number of machines available.
- Reliable: The framework is able to compensate for a lost node and restart the task on a different node.
- Affordable: A user can start small and over time can add more hardware.

Due to the above features the mapreduce framework has become the platform of choice for the development of cloud applications.

How does fault tolerance work in mapreduce?

In a mapreduce job the master pings each worker periodically. In case a worker does not respond to that system then the system is marked as failed. Even completed tasks are rescheduled because the output was stored in a in a local disk of a worker which failed. Hence mapreduce is able to handle large-scale failures easily by simply restarting a task. The master node always saves itself at checkpoints and in case of any failure it simply restarts from that checkpoint.

In mapreduce what is a scarce system resource? Explain?

A scarce resource is one which is available in limited quantities for the system. In mapreduce the network band-with is a scarce resource. It is conserved by making use of local disks and memory in cluster to store data during tasks. The function uses the location of the input files into account and aims to schedule a task on a system which has the input files.

What are the various input and output types supported by mapreduce?

Mapreduce framework provides a user with many different output and input types.
Ex. Each line is a key/value pair. The key is the offset of the line from the beginning of the file and the value are contents of the line. It is up-to the will of the user. Also a user can add functionality at his will to support new input and output types.

Explain task granularity

In mapreduce the map phase if subdivided into M pieces and the reduce phase into R pieces. Each worker is assigned a group of tasks this improves dynamic load balancing and also speeds up the recovery of a worker in case of failures.

With the help of two examples name the map and reduce function purpose

Distributed grep: A line is emitted by the map function if it matches a pattern. The reduce function is an identity function that copies supplied intermediate data for output.

Term-vector per host: In this the map function emits a hostname, vector pair for every document (input). The reduce function adds all the term vectors pairs generated and discards any infrequent terms.

Explain the general mapreduce algorithm:


The mapreduce algorithm has 4 main phases:
1. Map,
2. Combine,
3. Shuttle and sort
4. Phase output

Mappers simply execute on unsorted key/values pairs.They create the intermediate keys. Once these keys are ready the combiners pair the key/value pairs with the right key. The shuttle/sort is done by the framework their role being to group data and transfer it. Once completed, it will proceed for the output via the phase output process.

Write a short note on the disadvantages of Mapreduce

Some of the shortcomings of mapreduce are:
- One-input two-phase data flow is rigid i.e. it does not allow for multiple step processing of records.
- Being based on a procedural programming model this framework requires code for simple operations.
- The map and reduce functions being opaque does not allow for optimization easily.

What components have been released by ubuntu for their for their cloud strategy?

Ubuntu till date has released three components, they are named as :
- Ubuntu Server Edition on Amazon EC2 (IaaS)
- Ubuntu enterprise cloud powered by Eucalyptus (IaaS)
- UbuntuOne(SaaS)

The first two components are targeted for the infrastructure layer of the computer stack. And UbuntuOne is meant for the software layer also known as Software as a service (SaaS).

List out a few of the uses of the private cloud concept.

The private cloud concept has a variety of usage scenarios. Some of them are :
- It enables an organization to rapidly develop and also prototype cloudware applications. Also this can be done behind a firewall enabling the creation/development of privacy sensitive applications such as classified data handling.
- Being an elastic platform it enables the use of high performance applications whose load can be fluctuating. The system is based on aggregated peak loads of different applications at a single point of time.
- By using private cloud concept the organization can assign a pool of hardware inside the firewall henceforth enabling it to be assigned to the users by a common gui to speed up the process.

What does private cloud offer in building an infrastructure?

Private cloud offers complete set of development tools and easy to configure panel where you can customize and deploy prototype applications.
- It keeps the private sensitive application separate and hidden from the world.
- It provides the provision to create high performance applications and include the concept of elasticity.
- It uses a firewall and keeps all the resources in a pool that separates them with other resources that are made public.

What are elements included in ubuntu cloud architecture?

The elements that are included in ubuntu cloud architecture are:
1. Cloud controller: it is the main controller that controls the communication between two nodes and allows the system to communicate with each other.
2. Walrus Storage controller: It controls the storage of the data and resource at one place for easy access.
3. Elastic block storage controller: it uses the elasticity concept and allow the resources to scale up as the demand rises. This block consists of dynamic resources.
4. Cluster controller: it controls the cloud clusters which are made up of mady nodes and contains the configuration of all the nodes from a single point.
5. Node controller: it consists of the hardware resources that is being provided to the web or to the user through cluster controller.

What is the function of Walrus storage controller?

Walrus storage controller uses SOAP API that are compatible with its architecture.

Its main function is:
- To store the machine images that can be used by the cloud controller
- To access and store the data from anywhere.
- It provides file level storage system and doesn’t provide the locking of a file. It doesn’t allow concurrent file to change the status of a single file that is getting modified by the user.
- It saves the state of the images.

What are the tasks performed by Node controller?

Node controller consists of the hardware settings and configuration for the image machines. It performs the tasks that are requested by cluster controller and reply to the queries.
It performs the following tasks:
1. Verify and authenticate the user request.
2. Allow user to download the image from the cache and use it.
3. Create a virtual network interface for easy communication between machines.
4. Start an instance of a virtual machine that can be accessed by the user.

What was the requirement of the initial addition of node controller?

The initial addition of Node Controller required a password to exchange the cryptographic keys from the lower controller to the upper one. After the password is exchanged, all operations rely on the trust provided by these keys in the communications between the controllers.

How does networking play an important role in security?

To prevent eavesdropping of network traffic from a machine run by one user to the machines run by other users, networking plays an important role in security. Following networking modes are available at set-up time, depending on the level of security:
- SYSTEM Mode
- STATIC Mode
- MANAGED Mode
- MANAGED-NOVLAN Mode

What are the different types of actors involved in Authentication and Authorization?

There are two types of actors that are required for authentication and authorization:
- User or administrator of the system who has the rights to start and stop the instances of the system.
- Components of the systems that are required to be present to fully utilize the requests.
- The authentication on ubuntu cloud is being performed by X509 certificate that consists of cryptographic keys for authentication and secure communications between all the actors.

What are the steps involved in authenticating and authorizing the user?

To authenticate and authorize the user there are two steps involved:
1. User should have access to the cloud controller account and access to its user interface.
2. Administrative rights to the user to create their own policies.
The registered users get a access key that gives the certificate and the query information to the user which can be used to authorize the user’s status.
The authentication will vary for each user to access the cloud and its service. To authenticate the user a password will be given to access the web console and retrieve their certificate and query key. Cloud controller verifies the authentication only at the first time but the authorization is verified at each level.

What are the three levels of Machine instance isolation?

The three levels that are included in instance isolation:
1. Networking isolation: it keeps the overall security of the ubuntu cloud system and keeps the network isolated from the user sight so that there will be less security issues.
2. OS isolation: it keeps the user away from the operating system changes. It provides Mandatory Access control (MAC) system that includes default scripts to provide the isolation from the user to the Operating system.
3. Hypervisor based machine isolation: it doesn’t allow the user to know what kind of hypervisor is used to provide the services which users have asked for. It provides intrinsic properties to hide its existence from the users of the cloud.

What are the features included in Ubuntu enterprise cloud?

Ubuntu enterprise cloud includes many features that are not being provided with the other cloud platforms:
- It is EC2 compatible cloud platform that is built on ubuntu server.
- It provides complete built in cloud solution to manage the on-demand functionality.
- It provides the features of on-demand access and increases the EC2 functionality.
- It provides privacy policies and isolation from the hardware devices.
- It provides an easy way to scale the public providers and avoid lock-in whenever possible.

How to identify Ethernet interfaces in ubuntu cloud?

Ethernet interfaces are the part of the networking and it is automatically identified by the system using different naming conventions. It is represented by ethX, where X= any numeric value. The default interface of the system is named as eth0 and it will go on after this. To identify the Ethernet interface the command that is used:

ifconfig -a | grep eth
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet
HWaddr 00:15:c5:4a:16:5aThe command will show all the interfaces that are associated with the system.

What are the limitations/demerits of ubuntu cloud?

Cloud computing ahs a few disadvantages, some of them are:
- Security and privacy: The data in ubuntu cloud have many instances with a third party which many users may not prefer. Cloud servers store sensitive information which must be protected at all costs. There is a vulnerability of unauthorized access.
- Loss of control (dependency): In cloud computing the cloud service providers play a major role more maintenance and fixing of the cloud. Being a third party an organization has less control over it. And once a cloud is established migrating to another CSP is not an easy task.
- Costs: Although in the long run cloud computing is cheap but being a new technology the improvements and research involved makes it quite expensive. To incorporate this technology many changes may be require including the development of software.
- Integration and knowledge: As most of the functions are provided by a CSP getting to understand the system from an organizational point of view is tough. Also integration with existing systems is hard to achieve.

How IP addressing is managed in ubuntu cloud?

The IP addressing is an essential part of networking and to establish an ubuntu cloud it has to be configured correctly and the default gateway has to be mentioned for communication with other network or same network. To configure the IP addressing the command that can be used is ip, ifconfig and route. These are the commands that allow the configuration of the networking.
To set the configuration use the following command:

sudo ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0

Through this IP address can be set and configured temporarily to save it permanently ifconfig file has to be modified.

How does cloud computing provides on-demand functionality?

Cloud computing is a metaphor used for internet. It provides on-demand access to virtualized IT resources that can be shareor subscribed by you. It provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. The pool connetworks, servers, storage, applications and services.

What is the difference between scalability and elasticity?

Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportioof resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffielasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of large amount of rescapacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resour

What are the different layers of cloud computing?

Cloud computing consists of 3 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows:

1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed etc

2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

provides cloud application platform for the developers.

3. Software as a Service (SaaS)

provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anythingsystem. The application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only.

What resources are provided by infrastructure as a service?

Infrastructure as a Service provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. Infrastructure deals with thcomplexities of maintaining and deploying of the services provided by this layer. The infrastructure here is the servers, storaghardware systems.

How important is platform as a service?

Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resourcomputers, storage and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is aresponsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hiddeoutside world.

What does software as a service provide?

Software as Service is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like google is doing, it is providingfor the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. It provides the applications to be created on fly withoutinstalling any extra software component. It provides built in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents awith other people online.

What are the different deployment models?

Cloud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows:

- Private Cloud

Organizations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and thesecure to do it. It is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organiindustry. More organizations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. Virtual private cloud is being used that ohosting company.

- Public Cloud

These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, google, amazon eton a few layers like cloud application, infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.

Question 1: What is Cloud Computing?

Answer

Cloud computing is internet-based computing whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity grid.

Cloud computing is a culmination of numerous attempts at large-scale computing with seamless access to virtually limitless resources.

Cloud Computing = Software as a Service + Platform as a Service + Infrastructure as a Service.



A number of characteristics define cloud data, applications services, and infrastructure:

  • Remotely hosted: Services or data are hosted on a remote infrastructure.
  • Ubiquitous: Services or data are available from anywhere.
  • Commodified: The result is a utility computing model similar to traditional utilities, like gas and electricity; you pay for what you need!

Cloud computing can be categorized into three parts:

  1. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  3. Software as a Service (SaaS)

Question 2: What are the components of Cloud Computing?

Answer

Components in a cloud refer to the platforms, like front end, back end, and cloud-based delivery and the network used. All together it forms an architecture for cloud computing. With the main components like SAAS, PAAS and IAAS there are 11 more major categories in cloud computing that are:

  • Storage-as-a-Service: This is the component where we can use or request storage. It is also called disk space on demand.
  • Database-as-a-Service: This component acts as a live database from remote.
  • Information-as-a-Service: Information that can be accessed remotely from anywhere is called Information-as-a-Service.
  • Process-as-a-Service: This component combines various resources such as data and services. This happens either hosted within the same cloud computing resource or remote.
  • Application-as-a-Service: Application-as-a-Service (also known as SAAS) is the complete application built ready for use by the client.
  • Platform-as-a-Service: This is the component where the app is being developed and the database is being created, implemented, stored and tested.
  • Integration-as-a-Service: Integration-as-a-Service deals with the components of an application that has been built but must be integrated with other applications.
  • Security-as-a-Service: This is the main component many customers require. There are three-dimensional securities found in cloud platforms.
  • Management-as-a-service: This is a component that is mainly useful for management of the clouds, like resource utilization, virtualization and server up and down time management.
  • Testing-as-a-Service: Testing-as-a-Service refers to the testing of the applications that are hosted remotely.
  • Infrastructure-as-a-Service: This is called as nearly as possible the taking of all the hardware, software, servers and networking that is completely virtual.

Question 3: What is the Service Model in Cloud Computing?

Answer

This is the service model on which you will host your application(s), for example IaaS, PaaS or SaaS. Each of these service models requires various levels of support and responsibilities once a system is deployed to the platform. To resolve the future challenges that you might encounter you need to understand the models carefully. Other than the service model, the second, you need to decide whether you want a Private or On-Premise cloud, or you want your application to be deployed on a Public Cloud.

Every service model offers you some kind of resource required to operate the most web-enabled systems imaginable.

Question 4: What are the kind of cloud storage and why is cloud computing is so popular?

Answer

Data is centrally stored in the cloud and available across the internet. There are various storage options available or we can classify them broadly in the following three categories:

Public Cloud

In this model a service provider makes resources, such as application and storage, available to the general public over the internet. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.

Private Cloud

A private cloud provides more control over the company's data and under the control of the company's IT department.

Hybrid Cloud

A hybrid cloud is a combination of public cloud storage and private cloud storage, where some critical data resides in the enterprise's private cloud and other data is stored and accessible from a public cloud storage provider.



Benefits of a cloud:

  • Lower costs, “Pay as you use”
  • Software updates
  • Backups
  • Data hosted centrally
  • Scalability
  • Fail over
  • Monitoring services
  • Data storage

There are many reasons why cloud computing is so widely popular:

  • Reduction of costs
  • Universal access
  • Software updates
  • Scalability
  • Flexibility

Question 5: What is the Windows Azure Platform?

Answer

The Windows Azure Platform lays the foundation for running applications and keeping data on the cloud. It contains computer services, storage services and the fabric. Windows Azure affords a wide range of capabilities in the form of computing services to run applications, storage services and creating a framework that supports several applications, as well as host services and manage them centrally. This platform readily stipulates an internet infrastructure for deploying distributed applications and services since we can develop a cloud service in Visual Studio .NET and deploy it into the Azure cloud right from on-premise tools. The Azure platform is a group of three cloud technologies as in the following:


Question 6: What is Windows Azure and explain its services?

Answer

Windows Azure is created by Microsoft, it is a cloud computing infrastructure and platform. It is designed for working on the global network of Microsoft. It is for building, managing and deploying services and applications. Windows Azure supports various programming languages, tools, and frameworks. It can be included in both Microsoft specific and third party systems and software. It provides an infrastructure of services and platforms as services. It is also an open and flexible cloud platform that makes it easy to work on the global network. It helps us to quickly create, manage and deploy applications on the global network.

Features of Windows Azure

Windows Azure runs and stores the data on Microsoft datacenters. There are many features that are specified here:

  1. Websites allows the developers to build the sites using ASP.NET, PHP, etc and deploy these websites using FTP, Git etc.
  2. SQL Database, formally known as Azure database creates, extends and scales the application into the cloud using Microsoft SQL Server.
  3. This is Microsoft's platform as a service that supports the Multi-tier applications and automated deployment.

Windows Azure Services

There are various types of services that are provided by Windows Azure:

  • Web Sites
  • Cloud services
  • Virtual Machine
  • Data Management

    SQL Database.
    Tables.
  • Business Analytics

    SQL Reporting.
    Data Marketplace.

Question 7: What are the roles available in Windows Azure?

Answer

Roles are an important concept in Windows Azure and learning them is the base for further programming. There are mainly three roles in Windows Azure.

  • Web Role
  • Worker Role
  • VM Role

Web Role:

It provides a web front-end solution. This is similar to an ASP.NET application. While under hosting Azure provides IIS and required services.

Worker Role:

It provides a background service solution. This can be thought as a windows service application. We can use this role to run background operations like database management tasks, report generation, etc. It can run lengthy operations.

According to MSDN, the Web Role can be considered as a Worker role loaded with IIS. Similarly the worker role can be used to host other application platforms.

VM Role (Virtual Machine Role):

The Web Role and Worker Role are executed on virtual machines. The Virtual Machine Roles provides the user the ability to customize the virtual machine on which the web and worker roles are running. The VM role runs a virtual hard disk (VHD) image which can be created and uploaded by the user. Through the VM role the customers can run scheduled tasks and other windows services.

Question 8: What is Windows Azure Portal and also explain the Azure Fabric?

Answer

Windows Azure Portal:To run an application, a developer accesses the Windows Azure portal through her Web browser, signing in with a Windows Live ID. She then chooses whether to create a hosting account for running applications, a storage account for storing data, or both.

Once the developer has a hosting account, the developer can use a Windows Azure portal to submit applications to Windows Azure.

When the user sends a request to an application hosted on Azure (that can be passed by protocols like HTTP, HTTPS or TCP), the request will be received from the load balancer. The Load balancer balances the load across all the instances of the role (Web, Worker, and VM).

Azure Fabric:

The Azure fabric is the main core concept over here. It provides a service called the Azure Fabric Controller. It is called as OS for the Azure. Because it handles/manages:

  1. All roles (computing) and resources.
  2. Deployment and activating services.
  3. Health monitoring for all services.
  4. Allocating, releasing of resources.
  5. Provisioning VM, terminating etc.
  6. Updating patches for installed OS on VM automatically.

So there would be better to have two instances of roles and also no need to worry about software updates for user.

Question 9: What are the three main components of Windows Azure Platform?

Answer

Windows Azure provides platform and infrastructure by providing a scalable and cost-effective computing, storage, and networking resources on demand.


Windows Azure has three main components in Azure: Compute, Storage and Fabric.

1. Windows Azure Compute

Windows Azure provides a hosting environment for managed code. It provides computation service through roles. Windows azure supports 3 types of roles:

  • Web roles used for web application programming and supported by IIS7.
  • Worker roles used for background processing of web roles.
  • Virtual Machine (VM) roles used for migrating windows server applications to Windows azure in an easy way.

2. Windows Azure Storage

Windows azure provides storage in cloud. It provides 4 types of storage services:

  • Queues for messaging between web roles and worker roles.
  • Tables for storing structural data.
  • BLOBs (Binary Large Objects) to store text, files or large data.
  • Windows Azure Drives (VHD) to mount a page blob. These can be uploaded and downloaded via blobs.

3. Windows Azure AppFabric

AppFabric provides infrastructure services for developing, deploying and managing Windows azure application. It provides 5 services:

  • Service bus
  • Access
  • Caching
  • Integration
  • Composite
  • Question 10: What are the differences between a public cloud and a private cloud?

    Answer

    Private clouds are those that are built exclusively for an individual enterprise. They allow the firm to host applications in the cloud, while addressing concerns regarding data security and control that is often lacking in a public cloud environment. It is also known as an internal or enterprise cloud and resides on the company's intranet or hosted data center where all of your data is protected behind a firewall.

    Public Cloud
  • Pay for whatever resource you need at whatever time period.
  • These are provided commercially.
  • Supports heavy workloads without disturbing any functionality.
  • It is very cheap for the consumers, since the hardware, application and other costs are handled by the providers.
  • There is no wasted resource because consumers are charged for what they use.
  • Scalability is always met here.

Private Cloud

  • It is owned by a specific private group for their own use of employed, partners and their own customers.
  • Highly controlled and not accessible by anyone other than allowed.
  • Security, governance and compliance is highly automated.
  • Similarly, the features are like a Public Cloud irrespective of security and maintenance.
  • The cost is very high.

Question 11: What do you understand about Hybrid Cloud? Explain in detail.

Answer

A hybrid cloud is a mixture of internal and external cloud services, a combination of a private cloud combined with the use of public cloud services. This type of cloud is most suitable when you want to keep the confidential data at your premise (private cloud) and consume the other services from a public cloud.

Pros of Hybrid Cloud

  • Scalability:

    Usually the Private Cloud services will have a lesser scalability due to its security, cost and compliance whereas the Public Cloud has a high scalability and moving non-sensitive data from the private to the public will free up resources in the data centers in the Private Cloud and that increases a very high scalability for a Hybrid Cloud.
  • Cost effective:

    Similarly the Public Cloud is very cost effective rather than Private Cloud and here the Hybrid Cloud provides cost effectiveness with the data and other sensitive operations secured.
  • Security:

    Since there is a Private Cloud used; the data and sensitive operations are secured highly in the Hybrid Cloud.
  • Flexibility:

    We can easilyove out m the non-sensitive data and manage large scalability using a Public Cloud service along with the Private Cloud. So with the availability of a large scalability using Public Cloud and security using Private Cloud an enterprise has a vast opportunity in developing for new needs.

Cons of Hybrid Cloud

  • Infrastructure dependency
  • Networking
  • Security compliance

Question 12: What is Diagnostics in Windows Azure?

Answer

Windows Azure diagnostics provides facility to store diagnostics data. Some diagnostics data is stored in a table, while some is stored in a blob. For collecting diagnostics data, we must initialize the Windows Azure diagnostic monitor. The Windows Azure diagnostic monitor runs in Windows Azure and in the computer's emulator and collects diagnostic data for a role instance.

Following diagnostics data is stored in table storage:

Data Source

Table name in Azure Storage

Detail

Windows Azure Logs

WADLogsTable

These are the application logs dumped from the application.

Windows Azure Diagnostics Infrastructure Logs

WADDiagnosticInfrastructureLogsTable

These are the logs about running of diagnostics service.

Windows Event logs

WADWindowsEventLogsTable

These are the logs generated on the instance where logs are running.

Performance counters

WADPerformanceCountersTable

These are the performance matrices like memory utilization, processor utilization, response time etc.

Following diagnostics data is stored in blob storage:

Data Source

Container name in azure storage

Detail

IIS Logs

wad-iis-logfiles

These are the IIS logs generated by role instances.

Failed Request Logs

wad-iis-failedreqlogfiles

These are the IIS failed requests logs generated by role instances.

Crash Dumps

wad-crash-dumps

These are the logs generated on the application crash.

Question 13: What is Azure Queues?

Answer

The main reason for using queues is to provide loose connectivity among various components. For example, we have two components of an application to exchange data. Here one of them is on-premise and one exists in the cloud. Here if we use a web service to exchange data we have the following issues:

  • Both components should be online simultaneously; if one partner is down, then the communication will not work.
  • It’s difficult to scale up if more work is present.

In Azure Queues you have a queue as mediator that connects the two components, so when the receiver is down, the sender can still insert messages into the queue, once a receiver comes online it can receive message from that queue. And for scale up we just need to add more receivers and your queue is processed in parallel.

The following are the drawbacks of using a queue:

  • Queues has some charges, however these are minimal.
  • Your queue is doing mediator work here. If your queue is down, devices will not able to communicate with each other.

Question 13: What is the difference between Windows Azure Queues and Windows Azure Service Bus Queues?

Answer

Windows Azure Queues:

Windows Azure Queue Storage is a service for storing a large number of messages that can be accessed from anywhere using HTTP or HTTPS. A single message can be up to 64KB in size. So, a queue may contain millions of messages. It is basically a part of Windows Azure Storage and enabled with a REST based architecture.

Service Bus Queues:

  • Service Bus queues support brokered messaging communication.
  • Queues provide First In, First Out (FIFO) message delivery, in other words messages are received and processed by the receivers in the order they were added to the queue.
  • Each message is received and processed by only one message receiver.

Question 14: How can you create a Queue in storage account?

Answer

Queue is a one type of Azure Storage, where you can store your data as storage. Blobs are stored in container, Entity in table and Message in Queue.

Following are the key concepts in queue.

  • FIFO implementation
  • Messages are added to end of the Queue and processed from the front
  • Queues provides a good way of Front end and Back end decoupling

In the real world example the user can queue a job through the web role (front end) and the job can be processed by a worker role (back end). This gives an opportunity to decouple the web role and worker role.

  1. Place a new label control on the aspx page and add the following code in the page load event.
  2. protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
  3. {
  4. StorageCredentialsAccountAndKey accountAndKey = newStorageCredentialsAccountAndKey("account", "key");
  5. CloudStorageAccount account = new CloudStorageAccount(accountAndKey, true);
  6. CloudQueueClient client = account.CreateCloudQueueClient();
  7. CloudQueue queue = client.GetQueueReference("workitems");
  8. queue.CreateIfNotExist();
  9. CloudQueueMessage message = new CloudQueueMessage("Test Work Item");
  10. queue.AddMessage(message);
  11. // Populate the messages
  12. message = queue.GetMessage();
  13. if (message != null) Label1.Text = "Message in Queue: " + message.AsString;
  14. }

Question 15: What is a Storage keys?

Answer

Storage keys or Access Keys are used as an authentication mode for accessing the storage services account to manipulate information based on our requirements. In Windows Azure we have an option to provide a Primary Access Key and a Secondary Access Key, even though we will use a single access key to authenticate our application to the storage. The main reason to provide the secondary access key is to avoid downtime to the application. If we need to change the application access key by regenerating the access key it takes quite some time to take effect; this provides a downtime.

To avoid this type of situation, a secondary access key is provided so that if the primary needs to be changed or regenerated we can map the secondary temporarily to the storage and regenerate the primary. Let us see step by step of how to get the Access Keys using Windows Azure Management Portal.


Question 16: What is the concept of the table in Windows Azure?

Answer

Table is a one type of Azure Storage, where you can store your data as storage. Blobs are stored in container and Entity in table.

Following are the key concepts in table.

  • Tables allow structure data storage
  • There can be 0..n tables in a storage account
  • Table store data as a collection of entities
  • Entity have a primary key and properties as key value pair

Question 17: How to send messages to a Queue and how to receive messages from a Queue?

Answer

Send Messages to a Queue

The code below demonstrates how to create a QueueClient object for the "TestQueue" queue created above using the CreateFromConnectionString API call:

  1. string connectionString =
  2. CloudConfigurationManager.GetSetting("Microsoft.ServiceBus.ConnectionString");
  3. QueueClient Client =
  4. QueueClient.CreateFromConnectionString(connectionString, "TestQueue");
  5. Client.Send(new BrokeredMessage());

Messages sent to (and received from) Service Bus queues are instances of the BrokeredMessage class.BrokeredMessage objects have a set of standard properties (such as Label and TimeToLive), a dictionary that is used to hold custom application specific properties, and a body of arbitrary application data. An application can set the body of the message by passing any serializable object into the constructor of the BrokeredMessage, and the appropriate DataContractSerializer will then be used to serialize the object. Alternatively, a System.IO.Stream can be provided.

Receive Messages from a Queue

The easiest way to receive messages from a queue is to use aQueueClient object. These objects can work in two different modes: ReceiveAndDelete and PeekLock.

When using the ReceiveAndDelete mode, reception is a single-shot operation; that is, when the Service Bus receives a read request for a message in a queue, it marks the message as consumed, and returns it to the application.

The ReceiveAndDelete mode is the simplest model and works best for scenarios in which an application can tolerate not processing a message in the event of a failure. To understand this, consider a scenario in which the consumer issues the receive request and then crashes before processing it. Because the Service Bus will have marked the message as being consumed, when the application restarts and begins consuming messages again, it will have missed the message that was consumed prior to the crash.

This example creates an infinite loop and processes messages as they arrive in the "TestQueue":

  1. Client.Receive();
  2. // Continuously process messages sent to the "TestQueue"
  3. while (true)
  4. {
  5. BrokeredMessage message = Client.Receive();
  6. if (message != null)
  7. {
  8. try
  9. {
  10. Console.WriteLine("Body: " + message.GetBody < string > ());
  11. Console.WriteLine("MessageID: " + message.MessageId);
  12. Console.WriteLine("Test Property: " + message.Properties["TestProperty"]);
  13. // Remove message from queue
  14. message.Complete();
  15. }
  16. catch (Exception)
  17. {
  18. // Indicate a problem, unlock message in queue
  19. message.Abandon();
  20. }
  21. }
  22. }

Question 18: What are the Storages in Windows Azure?

Answer

Windows Azure data storage enables users to store, access, analyze and protect their data while making it available from anywhere and at any time. Windows Azure provides various services from storing data in SQL databases in the cloud for analysis and reporting to meet the needs of your business. Windows Azure ensures data security with high throughput of application data in the cloud. Windows Azure typically offers the following three types of storage in the cloud atmosphere.

  • BLOB: BLOBs offer a mechanism for storing large amounts of text or binary data, such as images, audio and visual files. It can scale up to 200 terabytes and can be accessed using REST APIs. We can move BLOB data as a single volume between private and public clouds using Windows Azure Drive.
  • Table: Tables represent storage locations across machines for data that reside in the form of entities and properties on the cloud. Tables store large amounts of unstructured data that can be accessed either using REST APIs from within a service running in Windows Azure or directly over the Internet using HTTP/HTTPS.
  • Queue: The sole objective of a Queue is to enable communication between Web and Worker Role instances. They aid in storing messages that may be accessed by a client. Web Role instances can initiate user requests that need to be processed in the background. On the other side a Worker Role observers the queue to process the request and respond back via queue to the Web Role instance.

Question 19: What is Federation inSQL Azure?

Answer

Federation is introduced in SQL Azure for scalability. Federation helps both administrators and developers to scale data. It helps administrators by making repartitioning and redistributing of data easier. It helps developers in the routing layer and sharding of data. It helps in routing without application downtime.

Federation does basic scaling of objects in a SQL Azure Database. Federations are the partioned data. There can be multiple Federations within a database. And each Federation represents a different distribution scheme.

We create a Federation with a different distribution scheme and requirement. Student and Grades tables of a School Database may have a different distribution requirement so they are put into different Federations.

Each Federation object scales out data to many system managed nodes. A Federation object contains:




Question 20: What is SQL Azure Database?

Answer

SQL Azure database is simply a way to get connected in Cloud Services where we can store our database into Cloud. Microsoft SQL Services and Microsoft SQL Data Services are now known as Microsoft SQL Azure and SQL Azure Database. Microsoft Azure is the best way to use PAAS (Platform as a Service) where we can host multiple databases on the same Account.



Microsoft SQL Azure has the same feature of SQL Server, i.e. high availability, scalability and security in the core.

Microsoft Azure SQL Database have a feature, it automatically creates backups of every active database. Every hour a backup is taken and geo-replicated to enable the 1 hour recovery point objective (RPO) for Geo-Restore. Additionally, transaction log backups are taken every 5 minutes to enable Point in Time Restore.


Question 21: What are SQL Azure firewall rules?

Answer

SQL Azure firewall rules are provided to protect the data and to prevent access restrictions to the SQL Azure database. Firewall grants access to the originating IP's from which we are trying to access the database. In order to configure the firewall we need to configure a range of acceptable IP addresses upon which we try to connect to the SQL Azure server using the Management Portal or with the SQL Server Management Studio. Let us see the step by step process of adding and deleting rules as per our IP configurations.

All access to SQL azure is blocked by firewall.

By default Database created in SQL Azure is blocked by firewall for security reasons. Any attempt from external access or access from any azure application is blocked by firewall.




Question 22: What is Windows Azure Traffic Manager? What are its benefits?

Answer

Traffic Manager Name is itself self-explanatory. It allows users to control the distribution of user traffic of deployed Azure cloud services, Azure websites or any other endpoint. In this the distribution of traffic includes Azure cloud services, Azure web sites and other endpoints. There are 3 different load balancing methods provided by Azure. The Traffic Manager works by applying an intelligent routing policy engine to the Domain Name Service (DNS) queries on your domain names and maps the DNS routes to the appropriate instances of your applications.

Benefits of Azure Traffic Manager

  • Increase Performance: Can increase performance of your application that includes faster page loading and better user experience. This applies to the serving of users with the hosted service closest to them.
  • High Availability: You can use the Traffic Manager to improve application availability by enabling automatic customer traffic fail-over scenarios in the event of issues with one of your application instances.
  • No Downtime Required for Upgrade / Maintenance: Once you have configured the Traffic Manager you don't need downtime for application maintenance, patch purgation or complete new package deployment.
  • Easy to configure (Quick Setup): It's very easy to configure Azure Traffic Manager on Widows Azure portal. If you have already hosted your application on Windows Azure (a cloud service, Azure website) you can easily configure this Traffic Manager with a simple procedure (setting routing policy).

Question 22: What are the data synchronize services in Azure?

Answer

Sync Services is provided by Microsoft Azure where you can keep a SQL Azure database synchronized with another database. You can take a backup of a database from one region to another region. There is a simple procedure you need to follow to configure this service. If not a complete database then you can at least keep selected tables or selected rows of tables synchronized.

This service provides the following two ways to synchronize:

  1. Synchronize a SQL Azure database from one SQL Azure server to another SQL Azure server.
  2. Synchronize a SQL Azure Database from an Azure Server to a Local Server database.

Question 23: How can you manage SQL Azure security?

Answer

SQL Azure also has a security management system very similar to the SQL on-premises versions. It basically consists of the following:

  1. Logins: Server level.
  2. Users: Database level, mapped to server logins.
  3. Schemas: Database level, authorized/owned by a user or another schema.
  4. Roles: Database level, authorized/owned by a user or another role.
  5. Permissions: Database level, permission like SELECT, DELETE, ALTER and so on for objects/schemas granted to users/roles.

When you create a server in SQL Azure, it asks you to create a login at the same time. That login acts as the administrative login that has access to all the databases in that server. However, you might want to create other logins with less privilege. As of now, the SQL Azure portal doesn't have any UI to create these extra logins. So you'll need to resort to running T-SQL statements.

Note: All of the following procedures are done using the administrative login mentioned above.

Creating Logins

Login to the master database and run the following T-SQL statement.

  1. CREATE LOGIN MyServerLogin WITH password='My#Password123'

This statement creates a login ID in the server. This a a normal login ID that doesn't have access to any of the databases in that server. So if you try to login to the Azure server with this account (either from SQL Server Management Studio 2008 R2 - SSMS or from Azure Portal) you would get an error saying this user doesn't have access to the master database. So the next step is to map this login to the required databases, not necessarily to the master db.


Question 24: What are the different types of databases in SQL Azure?

Answer

In the SQL Azure there are two types of databases:

  • Web Edition
  • Business Edition

The Web Edition Relational Database includes:

  • Up to 5 GB of a T-SQL based relational database*
  • Self-managed DB, auto high availability and fault tolerance
  • Supported by existing tools like Visual Studio, SSMS, SSIS, BCP
  • Best suited for Web application, Departmental custom applications.

Business Edition DB includes:

  • Up to 50 GB of T-SQL based relational database*
  • Self-managed DB, auto high availability and fault tolerance
  • Additional features in the future like auto-partition, CLR, fanouts etc
  • Supported by existing tools like Visual Studio, SSMS, SSIS, BCP
  • Best suited for Saas ISV applications, custom Web application, Departmental applications.



Question 25: What is TFS build system in Azure?

Answer

A Build is nothing but the output of a solution. In the case of Azure projects, you generally get the file with a .cspkg extension that means a Cloud Service Package is used for the deployment of your cloud services.

Build Servers

In layman's terms a build server acts as the machine where you put your deployment packages.

To use Team Foundation Build, you must have at least one build machine. This machine can be a physical machine or a virtual machine.

Build Controllers

Build Controllers are the element in the build system that accepts the build requests from any project inside the team project collection. Each build controller is dedicated to a single-team project collection. So there is a one-to-one relationship between a team project collection and a build controller.

Build Agents

Build agents are elements in the build system that does more processor-intensive work.

Build Definitions

A Build definition is nothing but the process that the build controller using to deploy your packages to a target site. Using Team Explorer you should be able to create a new build definition where you will need to associate the build controller and define process as well as trigger a point for the definition.

Once the build definition is in place, you will be able to queue new builds using it.

Typical Build System Topology


Question 26: What is the difference between IaaS and PaaS in Cloud?

Answer

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):
is in effect much like building a set of services and virtual machines and networks in a Cloud as the user would On-Premises.

Platform as a Service ( PaaS): A Platform is a cloud that gives the user various frameworks, tools and services on the cloud and the user are building the application in the cloud leveraging these various tools, services and components within the application.

IaaS

PaaS

Granularity of Control of Virtual Machines

The user can remote into virtual machine running in the cloud using IDP. The user has the same level of control as the user would with a virtual machine on-premises. This means the user can get into the registry, install custom software the user want to install on that virtual machine.

The PaaS provider takes care of running the application. It means that the user doesn't get access to registry and neither can the user install custom software necessarily in that application or in the location where it runs.

PaaS providers provide the infrastructure and the platforms.

Control over the environment configuration

The user can choose a certain number of virtual cores, virtual CPUs, RAM, networking set up, how many different networks, virtual VPNs, separate subnets, extensions to on-premises networks and load-balancing across multiple VMs.

PaaS can be thought of as the next step of IaaS where the configurations is also done for the user by the provider.

Maintenance

The user is responsible for the O/S, patching, firewall management, security, data, runtime, applications, middleware and everything that's running inside of the VM because the user is responsible for that virtual machine. The only difference is the location of the VM; instead of on-premise it is in the cloud. The user still gets to do all the configurations but the user is relieved of doing the physical hardware things.

The provider is responsible for application/services on PaaS. The user is just managing the various services.

Scalability

The user is responsible for scalability.

Scalability is the responsibility of the PaaS provider.

Pricing

Subscription Model.

Subscription Model, but it includes the cost of hardware for the installation of PaaS.

Both IaaS and PaaS help organizations to minimize operational costs and increase their productivity as they get faster time to market and require no up-front investments.


Question 27: What is the Azure App Service? What are the advantages of App Service over Mobile Service?

Answer

Azure App Service is a fully managed Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering for professional developers that brings a rich set of capabilities to web, mobile and integration scenarios. Mobile Apps in Azure App Service offer a highly scalable, globally available mobile application development platform for Enterprise Developers and System Integrators that brings a rich set of capabilities to mobile developers.

Advantages of App Service:

  • Simpler, easier and more cost effective offering for apps that include both web and mobile clients.
  • New host features including Web Jobs, custom CNames, better monitoring.
  • Turnkey integration with Office 365, Dynamics CRM, Salesforce, and other vital SaaS APIs.
  • Support for Java and PHP backend code, in addition to Node.js and .NET.
  • Turnkey integration with Traffic Manager.
  • Connectivity to your on-premise resources and VPNs using VNet in addition to Hybrid Connections.
  • Monitoring and troubleshooting for your app using NewRelic or AppInsights, as well as alerts.
  • Richer spectrum of the underlying compute resources, e.g. VM sizes.
  • Built-in auto scale, load balancing, and performance monitoring.
  • Built-in staging, backup, roll-back, and testing-in-production capabilities.

Question 28: How can you demonstrate between Azure mobile service and Web API?

Answer :

Web API: Web API is used only for that client who uses HTTP enabled services. There is a problem with Web API, if you want to create a Web API service, then you need knowledge of ASP.NET solution and you need to be familiar with .Net.

There are more benefits of Web API over Node.js. Web API uses HTTP request and process them using the HTTP verbs. Actually, Web API is fully REST service. As per my thinking Web API is better approach to create APIs.

Azure Mobile Services: Windows Azure Mobile Service is a tool that can integrated with the Windows Azure cloud. This tool will help you to connect a cloud backend to your Windows 8 application. The goal of the Windows Azure Mobile Service is to make Windows Azure the obvious choice for the Windows 8 Metro style application developer. Currently we can only use the Windows Azure Mobile Service in Metro style applications but in the near future the mobile service can also work with iOS, Android and Windows Phone.

Mobile services can only be run on demand or you can schedule the service when it will start and when it will stop.

To use Windows Azure Mobile Services, you need to use any Source Control where you can take the backup.

Question 29: What is Google Cloud Platform?

Answer

Google Cloud Platform
is a new way to use cloud computing platform in real time. It is developed by Google and offers every developer the chance to host their Web API’s and Cloud Storage and many more things on the same supporting infrastructure that is used by Google itself internally in their products, such as Google Search, Google Play Store, Gmail and YouTube. Also for every product by Google, Google Cloud Platform provides developer products to build application and a range of programs from simple websites to complex applications. Google use Load Balancer technique that allows distributing cloud data into multiple data centers all over the world. With the help of Google Cloud BigQuery we can execute billions of queries per second.

Google Cloud Platform is specially designed for enterprise solutions from Google for Work and provides a set of modular cloud-based services with a host of development tools, test, and deploy applications on Google's highly-scalable and reliable infrastructure for your web, mobile and backend solutions. For example:

  • Hosting and computing

o App Engine.
o Compute Engine.

  • Cloud storage

o Cloud Storage.
o Cloud Store.
o Cloud SQL

  • BigData

o BigQuery

  • Services

o Cloud Endpoints.
o Translate API.
o Prediction API.

Question 30: What is the VM (Role) and VM (Pass)?

Answer

VM Role: VM role is a kind of role in the Azure platform which helps to maintain service packs, patches, updates and applications already installed, to Windows Azure automatically.

We can use a VM Role in the case of:

  1. Long-Running Setup: If the application requires a long-running setup.
  2. Error-Prone Application: Application in which you expect more errors/risks while installing it.

VM (IaaS): These are literally VMs as we understood then from the On-Premise running in the Azure Microsoft Data Center.

Advantages of VM over VM role:

  1. VM is durable.
  2. IaaS VMs is that you can take just about any on-premises application, whether it makes changes to the local file system or not (even if the OS is one of the supported Linux distributions) and deploy it to the cloud for a few cents per hour.

Disadvantages:

  1. Provisioning time will be increased.
  2. Automatic OS/software updates will be there in the (IaaS) VM.

Question 31: What is Virtual Machine in Azure?

Answer

Google Cloud Platform Compute Engine is Google's Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), which is used to run large-scale workloads on virtual machines hosted on Google's infrastructure. It is used by Google itself for their end user products, such as Google search, YouTube and for all products of Google. Allows you to choose a VM with a specific requirement of hardware configurations with a list of server operating systems and now it also allow Windows Server.

Azure Virtual Machines could be your choice if you want frequent modifications and changes in your web server environment. It provides you rich set of features; however, correctly configuring, securing and maintaining VMs require much more time and more IT expertise compared to Azure Cloud Services and Azure Websites. You will need to make more effort on frequent maintenance and update patches to manage the VM environment.

Question 32: How to create a Virtual Machine in Azure?

Answer

Here are following steps to create a Virtual Machine in Cloud:

Step 1: Log in to your Azure management portal.

Step 2: Click New.

Step 3: Select "Compute" -> "Virtual Machine" -> "From Gallery".

Step 4: Select the Operating System that you would like to install on the VM. In this scenario we will install a Ubuntu server 13.04 because then it will be easy for me to continue with the later posts on creating a PHP app on our new VM.

Step 5: The next window will ask you about user details, VM RAM and number of cores and a name for the VM. Fill them in as you wish. I will use a password instead of a SSH key.

Step 6: Next window ask you about cloud configuration (DNS Setting) and Storage account and Region. Except for region leave the rest as it is unless you know what you are doing.

Step 7: Now we will need to create end points for us to access the VM. For now let's keep SSH access only.

Step 8: Then the VM will be created and will be running after a few minutes. You can see it in your Azure portal.


Question 33: What is Autoscaling in Azure?

Answer

Autoscaling Application Blocks can automatically scale the Windows Azure application based on the rules defined specifically for the application.

The Autoscaling Application Block supports two autoscaling mechanisms:

  1. Instance Autoscaling, where the block changes the number of role instances based on constraint and reactive rules.
  2. Throttling, where the application modifies its own behavior to change its resource utilization based on a set of reactive rules. For example switching off non-essential features, or gracefully degrading its UI.

So, there are two types of rules:

  1. Constraint rules: Constraint rules set the upper and lower bounds on the number of instances. For example, in the evening between 6:00 and 8:00, you need a minimum of 3 instances and a maximum of 7 instances, then use the constraint rule.
  2. Reactive rules: Reactive rules enable the number of role instances to change in response to unpredictable changes in demand. For example, if the workload increases then increase the number of role instances by 1. The reactive rules can use a variety of techniques like performance counters, or the Windows Azure queue length to monitor and control the application's workload. A reactive rule makes changes to the number of role instances only if a constraint rule applies at the same time. It is easy to create a default constraint rule that always applies.

Question 34: What is AWS Cloud Formation?

Answer

AWS Cloud Formation is a cloud builder service that helps you model and set up your Amazon Web Services resources so that you can spend less time managing those resources and more time focusing on your applications that run in AWS. For this you need to create a template that describes all the AWS resources that you want, like Amazon EC2 instances that you want, Amazon VPC and subnet details and so on. AWS CloudFormation takes care of provisioning and configuring those resources for you. You don't need to individually create and configure AWS resources and figure out what's dependent on what, AWS CloudFormation handles all of that.

AWS CloudFormation is available at no additional charge. You will be billed only the normal rates for the AWS resources like EC2, RDS, LB and so on that AWS CloudFormation creates and your application and resources use.

Question 35: What is profiling in Azure?

Answer

Profiling is nothing but a process of measuring the performance analysis of an application. It is usually done to ensure that the application is stable enough and can sustain heavy traffic.

Visual Studio provides us various tools to do it by gathering the performance data from the application that also helps in the troubleshooting issues.

Once the profiling wizard is run, it establishes the performance session and collects the sampling data, then generates report files that can be opened and analyzed in Visual Studio.

The profiling reports can help us to:

  • Determine the longest running methods within the application.
  • Measure the execution time of each method in the call stack.
  • Evaluate memory allocation.
  • Analyze concurrency issues (usually for multi-threaded code).

Question 36: How can you connect an Azure Hosted website to FTP?

Answer

Here are some steps:

  • Stop: Stopping the virtual server.
  • Restart: It will restart the server if something gone wrong.
  • Mange Domains: If upgrade from free account to basic or standard account you can manage your domains here.
  • Delete: It will delete entire website.
  • WebMatrix: To link website to WebMatrix.

If you click on website you will be taken in dashboard where different operations are available,

  • Monitor: Graphical representation of request, cuptime, data in, data out.
  • Configure: Change the language setting version used.
  • WebJobs: Automatic task that are scheduled will be discussed in upcoming articles.
  • Scaling: More than one instance of website can be created to balance load.

Linked Resources:

This will show how the resources are attached. You will see the cleardb database if you click on it will redirect you to cleardb website and you will be automatically logged into account created by azure for you. You can view performance and other configurations of your database.

Connecting FTP

If we want to view files of our WordPress in order to change configuration setting, upload content or to make backup.

For this we have to set some deployment credentials in Microsoft Azure so that Azure verifies that we are authorized to make changes.

For this go to Management portal select website. Dashboard of app will be opened. If not, click on setup deployment credentials.

Question 37: What is Cmdlet in Azure?

Answer

A cmdlet is a lightweight command that is used in the Microsoft PowerShell environment. The Windows PowerShell runtime invokes these cmdlets within the context of automation scripts that are provided at the command line. The Windows PowerShell runtime also invokes them programmatically through Windows PowerShell APIs.

A cmdlet is a compiled piece of .NET code. Cmdlets handle object input and output as well as usually playing nice and well with the (object-based) pipeline. Cmdlets have no direct representation in the file system, as they are not programs or similar. They exist solely within PowerShell. You can use the Get-Command Cmdlet to query all available Cmdlets, functions, etc.

How to Start with Windows Azure Automation using Cmdlets:

  • Go to Microsoft Azure home page.
  • Click the Downloads link on the page (See at the very bottom of the page)
  • Click the link for Command Line Tools
  • The installation can take several minutes because there is a dependency on the Microsoft Azure SDK, which has its own set of dependencies.

Question 38: What is Azure Explorer?

Answer

Azure Explorer is a free Microsoft Azure storage tool; in this we can manage all our Microsoft Azure blobs at a common place or one place. Azure Storage Explorer is a useful GUI tool for inspecting and altering the data.

In Azure Explorer, we have “Azure Storage Account”, and in the Azure Storage Account, we can manage more than one Blob Container, in Blob Container we can create page blob as well as new folders to store our files.

Step 1: For the installation of Azure Explorer we need go to its download link, After going to above link, you will see the following window. Click “ DOWNLOAD AZURE EXPLORER”.

Question 39: What is Service Fabric in Azure?

Answer

Azure Service Fabric is a next-generation middleware cloud platform to build scalable, reliable, and managed enterprise applications. Microsoft is already using Service Fabric powers in many of its products, including Azure SQL Database, Azure DocumentDB, Cortana, and Power BI.

  • Develop massively scalable applications that are self-healing.
  • Develop with a "datacenter on your machine" approach. The local development environment is the same code that runs in the Azure datacenters.
  • Develop applications composed of microservices, executables, and other application frameworks of your choice, such as ASP.NET, Node.js, etc.
  • Develop stateless and stateful (micro)services and make these highly reliable.
  • Simplify the design of your application by using stateful (micro)services in place of caches and queues.
  • Deploy applications in seconds.
  • Deploy to Azure or to on-premises clouds running Windows Server with zero code changes. Write once and then deploy to any Service Fabric cluster.
  • Deploy applications at higher density than virtual machines, deploying hundreds or thousands of applications per machine.
  • Deploy different versions of the same application side by side, each independently upgradable.
  • Manage the lifecycle of your stateful applications without any downtime, including breaking and nonbreaking upgrades.

Question 40: What is Windows Azure Scheduler?

Answer

Windows Azure Scheduler allow you to invoke actions – such as calling HTTP/S endpoints or posting a message to a storage queue on any schedule. With Scheduler, you create jobs in the cloud that reliably call services both inside and outside of Windows Azure and run those jobs on demand, on a regularly recurring schedule, or designate them for a future date.

Scheduling is the history details of your apps in the cloud; it gives information of the particular application, means its status, its start time and its end time.


Question 41: What is Blob Storage in Azure?

Answer

Windows Azure Blob Storage can store hundreds of terabytes data in one account. As you know you can create multiple blob storage accounts, so definitely you can store multiple hundreds of terabytes data with Windows Azure Blob Storage.

We don’t require taking tension about the backup of the data which is stored on blob storage. It is because it automatically takes the backed up data. You can increase your storage as per requirement and you need to pay only which you have used and what you have used.

One more thing, that you don’t need to take headache about how to manage your data, your VM or any other things; actually Windows Azure manages everything automatically.

You can use Blob Storage as REST API and can use with any language like Java, .NET, etc. Actually technology doesn’t matter with blob storage. It means all kinds of client can be accessible to this storage.

Question 42: Why do you go with Microsoft Windows Azure?

Answer

There are many regions that people want to go with Microsoft Windows Azure:

  • Flexibility: Windows Azure supports wide range of Operating System that makes it reachable to wide range of customers. It also supports different kinds of programming language like PHP, .NET, JAVA, etc. You can use different kinds of frameworks and tools for building your Apps. So, basically it provides us flexibility to choose existing one which will help us to create variety of applications with Windows Azure.
  • Extendable: Windows Azure easily integrates with your existing environment using largest network with secure private connectivity. It also provides database, storage which is extendable on demand. Windows Azure can run with your data center.
  • Scalable: You can scale up and down your services as per your demand. Services, storage and performance also will be same if you scale up or down. So, small client can take benefit of Windows Azure and their services.
  • Protection: Everyone is worried about their data. They need protection for their data, nobody can rely on some vendor for their data. Windows Azure has launched Azure Government for believing you that your data is secure with Windows Azure. It commits for securing, protecting and privacy of your data.
  • Trusted: Today Windows Azure is used by top clients worldwide. They are using Windows Azure Services for a long time and they believe in it.

Question 43: What is Azure Mobile Service?

Answer

Microsoft Azure Mobile Service gives you the power to create a cloud service mobile application. This will make your work more flexible and gives your application more portability in an efficient way. This is a short introduction of Azure Mobile service. You will get to know, how to create and integrate new mobile service in your new or existing application. So let’s get crack in Azure Mobile Service with Universal Windows Platform.


Question 44: What is the difference between Table, Queue, and Blob storage?

Answer

To use Azure Storage, you just need to have an Azure Storage Account. Using this account you can access the service of the Azure Storage. Actually Azure Storage provides two types of the storage account.

  1. Standard Storage Account: It is for Blob, Table, and Queue Storage.
  2. Premium Storage Account: It is for Azure Virtual Machine Disks Only.

BLOB STORAGE: It can store any type of data; data can be a document file, media file, exe or dll, images, text file or any other data file. So, basically it is used for storing the objects. So, as the definition says, we can store large amount of the unstructured data into the blob storage.

TABLE STORAGE: It is like a table inside the SQL Server. So, it is used to store the structured data. Table storage is a NoSQL key-attribute data store. It means every data stored into the table is stored with typed property name. It is very fast when you are working with large number of data. It doesn’t use schema for developing the table.

QUEUE STORAGE: Sometimes, it is required to transfer the data in the format of the message over the internet between the two cloud services. In that scenario we prefer to use the queue storage. You can create large number of the queues to process your data. Every queue contains large number of the message and every message size may be up to 64 KB.


Question 45: What isthe Migration Assistant tool in Azure Websites?

Answer

The migration Assistant tool will help to analyze your IIS installation and identify which sites can be migrated to the cloud, highlighting any elements which cannot be migrated or are unsupported on the platform.

Once analyzed this tool will also create websites and databases provided under given azure subscription.

Automated Assessment and Migration

  • This tool will provide a high level readiness assessment.
  • The report outlines sites which are ready to move, elements which may need changes and highlights unsupported features.
  • The detailed report offers expert guidance and advice tailored to your environment.
  • The tool creates any Website(s) and associated database(s), if applicable, automatically and synchronizes your content.

Question 46: What is Azure Mobile Engagement?

Answer

Azure Mobile Engagement is a SaaS-delivered, data-driven user engagement platform that enables real-time fine-grain user segmentation, app user analytics, and contextually-aware smart push notifications and in-app messaging across all connected devices.

With Azure Mobile Engagement, Application publishers and marketing professionals can create cutting edge interactions like the following,

  • Real Time actionable analytics to increase app usage.
  • Push Notification and Communication Platform.
  • Open API's and Ease of integration.
  • Data Protection & Privacy across globe.

Azure Mobile Engagement is available across all major mobile platforms including Android, iOS and Windows.

Question 47: What is WordPress in Microsoft Azure?

Answer

WordPress is Web software you can use to create a Web sites, blog, or apps. The core software is built by hundreds of community volunteers, and when you’re ready for more, there are thousands of plugins and themes available to transform your site into almost anything you can imagine.

Select the WordPress and click next. Fill the required Information.

  • Fill the URL, database, region and deployment setting details.
  • Click on Next: Fill in information about MySQL database. Azure will choose the unique name of your database and region to place the database physically.

Question 48: What is Azure HDInsight?

Answer

Azure HDInsight deploys and provisions Apache Hadoop clusters in the cloud, providing a software framework designed to manage, analyze, and report on big data.

With the September 2015 release of HDInsight, now customers configure these clusters to run using both a Windows Server Operating System as well as an Ubuntu based Linux Operating System.

HDInsight on Linux enables even broader support for Hadoop ecosystem users to run in HDInsight providing you even greater choice of preferred tools and applications for running Hadoop workloads.

Both Linux and Windows clusters in HDInsight are built on the same standard Hadoop distribution and offer the same set of rich capabilities.

Question 49: How can you create a HDInsight Cluster in Azure?

Answer

To create an Azure HDInsight Cluster, open the Azure portal then click on New, Data Services, then HDInsight.

The following options are available:

  1. Hadoop is the default and native implementation of Apache Hadoop.
  2. HBase is an Apache open-source NoSQL database built on Hadoop that provides random access and strong consistency for large amounts of unstructured data.
  3. Storm is a distributed, fault-tolerant, open-source computation system that allows you to process data in real time.

The next step is to add a cluster name, select the cluster size, add a password, select a storage and click on create HDInsight cluster.

Enable Remote Desktop on the Cluster:

Once the cluster has been created, its jobs and contents can be viewed by remote connection. To enable remote connection to the cluster, use the following procedure:

  1. Click HDINSIGHT on the left pane. You will see a list of deployed HDInsight clusters.
  2. Click the HDInsight cluster that you want to connect to.
  3. From the top of the page, click CONFIGURATION.
  4. From the bottom of the page, click ENABLE REMOTE.

In the Configure Remote Desktop wizard, enter a user name and password for the remote desktop. Note that the user name must be different from the one used to create the cluster (admin by default with the Quick Create option). Enter an expiration date in the EXPIRES ON box.

Question 50: What is Text Analytics API in Azure Machine?

Answer

Text Analytics API is a suite of text analytics web services built with Azure Machine Learning. The API can be used to analyze unstructured text for tasks such as sentiment analysis and key phrase extraction.

The API returns a numeric score between 0 & 1. Scores close to 1 indicate positive sentiment, while scores close to 0 indicate negative sentiment.

The advantage of this API is that a new model need not be designed and trained, the user only needs to bring the data and call the service to get the sentiment results.

However, because this is only the initial release of this service only English is supported right now.

How it works:

Text Analytics API does not simply use a lexicon approach to map words such as “good or bad” to return the results.

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