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NANOCOMPUTERS AND NANOBOTS-Abstract Details


Abstract

The field of electronics is improving drastically and there has been several new inventions especially in the areas of nano computation and Nanorobotics. Nanoelcetronics holds immense promise for the future but it is still under development. Nanotechnology is a key issue in development of advanced products with more accuracy. The existence of the fourth fundamental circuit element, called memristor which had previously been only theorized, has been proved to exist. Memristors are the non volatile nano elements, which have the potential to replace both DRAM and hard disk of a computer. Nanocapacitors, which are much better in delivering energy over a short period of time, form the basis of giant memory in electronic devices.. The nanowire based information storage device is capable of storing three bit values rather than the usual two-that is, ‘0’, ‘1’ and ‘2’ instead of just ‘0’ and ‘1’. This ability could lead to a new generation of high capacity information storage for electronic devices. Processors can also be miniaturized by the use of DRQ molecules which are capable of executing 16 instructions at a time, which are more advanced than the

Intel duo core processors. Nanorobots have been a recurring theme in many science fiction novels, but due to advancements in technology, these nanomachines are now in the research and development phase. Nanorobots find their application in the fields of medicine and instrumentation. These nanorobots can be easily brought into reality if processor and memory are made in nanometer scale and our paper provides the design of future nanorobots and nano computers that are about to revolutionize our lives.

Introduction

The electronics of the future are becoming increasingly smaller and lighter, as well as faster and more powerful. Nanotechnology is about to explode as a major shaper of new technologies. We are reaching a period when we will be able to build any detailed project completely at the atomic level, consistent with the laws of chemistry and physics. Nanotechnology offers the possibility of building a new generation of electronic devices in which electrons are confined quantum mechanically to provide superior device performance.

The Fourth Basic Circuit Element

The existence of the fourth fundamental circuit element, which had previously been only theorized, has been proved to exist. This scientific advancement could make it possible to develop computer systems that have memories that do not forget, do not need to be booted up, consume far less power and associate information in a manner similar to that of the human brain. It has been termed as “memristor”—a blend of “memory resistor”—which has the unique property of retaining a history of the information it has acquired. It has properties that cannot be duplicated with the other basic circuit elements such as resistor, capacitor and inductor.

Giant Memory Thanks For Nanocapacitors

Whether MP3 players, camera mobile phones, navigation systems or notebooks, all have to be compact but also able to store increasing large amounts of music, images, films or maps, and process them quickly. Innovative new memory would contribute greatly towards making electronics smaller and more powerful, especially if it were able to save information permanently, but still process data as quickly as the DRAMs on which computers currently store programs. Present technology is approaching memory density of several terabits or billions of bits per square inch, and we hope to be able to increase the memory density even further. Such high memory density is necessary for more widespread use of permanent memory..

New Nanowire Based Memory Could Beef Up Information Storage

The nanowire based information storage device is capable of storing three bit values rather than the usual two-that is, ‘0’, ‘1’ and ‘2’ instead of just ‘0’ and ‘1’. This ability could lead to a new generation of high capacity information storage for electronic devices. The use of nanowires to create electronic memory is advantageous for several reasons, but a non-binary form of nanowire memory could allow a huge increase in the memory density of potential future devices .In this technology fewer nanowires can be used to achieve impressive storage capacity. Thus devices can be made compact and fabrication could be simpler.

This nanowire has a core-shell structure and consists of two phase change materials. The core is made up of germanium /antimony/ tellurium compound while the cylindrical shell is made up of germanium telluride. The phase changes are achieved by subjecting the nanowires to pulsed electric fields. These two states correspond to two different electrical resistances: a low resistance for the case where both the core and shell are crystalline and a high resistance when they are both amorphous. In turn, these resistances represent two of the three bit values.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as extensive use in Arco logy and other architectural fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized. The strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes makes them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have an important role in nanotechnology engineering. The highest tensile strength an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube has been tested to be is 63 GPA. Nanotechnology Robotics Vision Versus Lab Reality

There are no nanobots yet, and won’t be for a while, but one of the fundamental problems to be solved for possible future molecular machinery is the challenge of controlling many molecular sized machines simultaneously to perform a desired task to build a true nanorobot-a completely self contained electronic, electric or mechanical device will require a lot of advancements in our present technology. One of them is the issue of controlling large number of devices

The main features of the controller are

• 18 pins, from which 13 are programmable I/O.
• 4 analog inputs, multiplexed in a 8 bit A/D converter.
• 1K EPROM, or PROM
• 36 bytes RAM

Nanosensors

The mini mobile robot that is under research can be scaled down to nanometer scale with the help of nano processors and nanosensors. Gold, DNA combination may lead to the development of nano-sensors. The ability to use genetic material to assemble nanoscopic particles of gold could be an important step towards creating tiny “spies” that will be able to infiltrate individual cells and report back in real time on the cell’s inner workings. DNA is very essential for nanosensors because for a nanostructure to work within a living system, it needs to include a biological component, like DNA that recognizes other molecules. Powering Of Nanorobots Nanorobots could get power directly from the bloodstream. A nanorobot with mounted electrodes could form a battery using the electrolytes found in blood. Another option is to create chemical reactions with blood to burn it for energy. The Seebeck effect occurs when two conductors made of different metals are joined at two points that are kept at two different temperatures.

Conclusion:

Researches are being conducted in the field of nanotechnology especially in applications of nanorobots in medical science. Nanorobots hold promise for a strong presence in medicine to come.

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