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Technical Interview Q & A PDF





1. What is a Database?

A database is a collection of information in an organized form for faster and better access, storage and manipulation. It can also be defined as a collection of tables, schema, views and other database objects. 

2. What is Database Testing?

It is AKA back-end testing or data testing.

Database testing involves in verifying the integrity of data in the front end with the data present in the back end. It validates the schema, database tables, columns, indexes, stored procedures, triggers, data duplication, orphan records, junk records. It involves in updating records in a database and verifying the same on the front end. 

3. What is the difference between GUI Testing and Database Testing?

• GUI Testing is AKA User Interface Testing or Front-end testing

Database Testing is AKA back-end testing or data testing.

• GUI Testing deals with all the testable items that are open to the user to interaction such as Menus, Forms etc.

Database Testing deals with all the testable items that are generally hidden from the user.

• The tester who is performing GUI Testing doesn’t need to know Structured Query Language

The tester who is performing Database Testing needs to know Structured Query Language

• GUI Testing includes invalidating the text boxes, check boxes, buttons, drop-downs, forms etc., majorly the look and feel of the overall application 

Database Testing involves in verifying the integrity of data in the front end with the data present in the back end. It validates the schema, database tables, columns, indexes, stored procedures, triggers, data duplication, orphan records, junk records. It involves in updating records in a database and verifying the same on the front end. 

4. What is a Table in a Database?

A table is a database object used to store records in a field in the form of columns and rows that holds data.

5. What is a Field in a Database?

A field in a Database table is a space allocated to store a particular record within a table.

6. What is a Record in a Database?

A record (also called a row of data) is an ordered set of related data in a table.

7. What is a column in a Table?

A column is a vertical entity in a table that contains all information associated with a specific field in a table.

8. What is DBMS?

Database Management System is a collection of programs that enables a user to store, retrieve, update and delete information from a database. 

9. What is RDBMS?

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. RDBMS is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. Data from relational database can be accessed using Structured Query Language (SQL) 

10. What are the popular Database Management Systems in the IT Industry?

Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Sybase, MongoDB, DB2, and Microsoft Access etc.,

11. What is SQL?

SQL Overview: SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is an American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standard. It is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases. Using SQL, some of the action we could do are to create databases, tables, stored procedures (SP’s), execute queries, retrieve, insert, update, delete data against a database. 

12. What are the different types of SQL commands?

SQL commands are segregated into following types:

• DDL – Data Definition Language

• DML – Data Manipulation Language

• DQL – Data Query Language

• DCL – Data Control Language

• TCL – Transaction Control Language

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13. What are the different DDL commands in SQL?

DDL commands are used to define or alter the structure of the database.

• CREATE: To create databases and database objects

• ALTER: To alter existing database objects

• DROP: To drop databases and databases objects

• TRUNCATE: To remove all records from a table but not its database structure

• RENAME: To rename database objects

14. What are the different DML commands in SQL?

DML commands are used for managing data present in the database.

• SELECT: To select specific data from a database

• INSERT: To insert new records into a table

• UPDATE: To update existing records

• DELETE: To delete existing records from a table

15. What are the different DCL commands in SQL?

DCL commands are used to create roles, grant permission and control access to the database objects.

• GRANT: To provide user access

• DENY: To deny permissions to users

• REVOKE: To remove user access

16. What are the different TCL commands in SQL?

TCL commands are used to manage the changes made by DML statements.

• COMMIT: To write and store the changes to the database

• ROLLBACK: To restore the database since the last commit

17. What is an Index?

An index is used to speed up the performance of queries. It makes faster retrieval of data from the table. The index can be created on one column or a group of columns. 

18. What is a View?

A view is like a subset of a table which is stored logically in a database. A view is a virtual table. It contains rows and columns similar to a real table. The fields in the view are fields from one or more real tables. Views do not contain data of their own. They are used to restrict access to the database or to hide data complexity. 

1 CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name1, column_name2 FROM table_name WHERE CONDITION; 

19. What are the advantages of Views?

Some of the advantages of Views are

1. Views occupy no space

2. Views are used to simply retrieve the results of complicated queries that need to be executed often.

3. Views are used to restrict access to the database or to hide data complexity.

20. What is a Subquery ? 

A Subquery is a SQL query within another query. It is a subset of a Select statement whose return values are used in filtering the conditions of the main query. 

21. What is a temp table?

Ans. A temp table is a temporary storage structure to store the data temporarily.

22. How to avoid duplicate records in a query? 

The SQL SELECT DISTINCT query is used to return only unique values. It eliminates all the duplicated values.



23. What is the difference between Rename and Alias?

‘Rename’ is a permanent name given to a table or column

‘Alias’ is a temporary name given to a table or column.

24. What is a Join?

Join is a query, which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables.

25. What are the different types of joins?

Types of Joins are as follows:

• INNER JOIN

• LEFT JOIN

• RIGHT JOIN

• OUTER JOIN

26. What is the difference between an inner and outer join?

An inner join returns rows when there is at least some matching data between two (or more) tables that are being compared.

An outer join returns rows from both tables that include the records that are unmatched from one or both the tables.

27. What are SQL constraints?

SQL constraints are the set of rules that enforced some restriction while inserting, deleting or updating of data in the databases.

28. What are the constraints available in SQL?

Some of the constraints in SQL are – Primary Key, Foreign Key, Unique Key, SQL Not Null, Default, Check and Index constraint.

29. What is a Unique constraint?

A unique constraint is used to ensure that there are no duplication values in the field/column.

30. What is a Primary Key?

A PRIMARY KEY constraint uniquely identifies each record in a database table. All columns participating in a primary key constraint must not contain NULL values.

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