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Ans: map function executes the function given as the first argument on all the elements of the iterable given as the second argument. If the function given takes in more than 1 arguments, then many iterables are given. #Follow the link to know more similar functions.

Q35. How to get indices of N maximum values in a NumPy array?

Ans: We can get the indices of N maximum values in a NumPy array using the below code:

import numpy as np

arr = np.array([1, 3, 2, 4, 5])

print(arr.argsort()[-3:][::-1])

Output

[ 4 3 1 ]

Q36. How do you calculate percentiles with Python/ NumPy?

Ans: We can calculate percentiles with the following code

1

2

3

4 import numpy as np

a = np.array([1,2,3,4,5])

p = np.percentile(a, 50) #Returns 50th percentile, e.g. median

print(p)

Output

3 Q37. What advantages do NumPy arrays offer over (nested) Python lists?

Ans:

1. Python’s lists are efficient general-purpose containers. They support (fairly) efficient insertion, deletion, appending, and concatenation, and Python’s list comprehensions make them easy to construct and manipulate.

2. They have certain limitations: they don’t support “vectorized” operations like elementwise addition and multiplication, and the fact that they can contain objects of differing types mean that Python must store type information for every element, and must execute type dispatching code when operating on each element.

3. NumPy is not just more efficient; it is also more convenient. You get a lot of vector and matrix operations for free, which sometimes allow one to avoid unnecessary work. And they are also efficiently implemented.

4. NumPy array is faster and You get a lot built in with NumPy, FFTs, convolutions, fast searching, basic statistics, linear algebra, histograms, etc.

Q38. Explain the use of decorators.

Ans: Decorators in Python are used to modify or inject code in functions or classes. Using decorators, you can wrap a class or function method call so that a piece of code can be executed before or after the execution of the original code. Decorators can be used to check for permissions, modify or track the arguments passed to a method, logging the calls to a specific method, etc.

Q39. What is the difference between NumPy and SciPy?

1. In an ideal world, NumPy would contain nothing but the array data type and the most basic operations: indexing, sorting, reshaping, basic elementwise functions, et cetera.

2. All numerical code would reside in SciPy. However, one of NumPy’s important goals is compatibility, so NumPy tries to retain all features supported by either of its predecessors.

3. Thus NumPy contains some linear algebra functions, even though these more properly belong in SciPy. In any case, SciPy contains more fully-featured versions of the linear algebra modules, as well as many other numerical algorithms.

4. If you are doing scientific computing with python, you should probably install both NumPy and SciPy. Most new features belong in SciPy rather than NumPy.

Q40. How do you make 3D plots/visualizations using NumPy/SciPy?

Ans: Like 2D plotting, 3D graphics is beyond the scope of NumPy and SciPy, but just as in the 2D case, packages exist that integrate with NumPy. Matplotlib provides basic 3D plotting in the mplot3d subpackage, whereas Mayavi provides a wide range of high-quality 3D visualization features, utilizing the powerful VTK engine.

Q41. Which of the following statements create a dictionary? (Multiple Correct Answers Possible)

a) d = {}

b) d = {“john”:40, “peter”:45}

c) d = {40:”john”, 45:”peter”}

d) d = (40:”john”, 45:”50”)

Answer: b, c & d.

Dictionaries are created by specifying keys and values.

Q42. Which one of these is floor division?

a) /

b) //

c) %

d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b) //

When both of the operands are integer then python chops out the fraction part and gives you the round off value, to get the accurate answer use floor division. For ex, 5/2 = 2.5 but both of the operands are integer so answer of this expression in python is 2. To get the 2.5 as the answer, use floor division using //. So, 5//2 = 2.5

Q43. What is the maximum possible length of an identifier?

a) 31 characters

b) 63 characters

c) 79 characters

d) None of the above

Answer: d) None of the above

Identifiers can be of any length.

Q44. Why are local variable names beginning with an underscore discouraged?

a) they are used to indicate a private variables of a class

b) they confuse the interpreter

c) they are used to indicate global variables

d) they slow down execution

Answer: a) they are used to indicate a private variables of a class

As Python has no concept of private variables, leading underscores are used to indicate variables that must not be accessed from outside the class.

Q45. Which of the following is an invalid statement?

a) abc = 1,000,000

b) a b c = 1000 2000 3000

c) a,b,c = 1000, 2000, 3000

d) a_b_c = 1,000,000

Answer: b) a b c = 1000 2000 3000

Spaces are not allowed in variable names.

Q46. What is the output of the following? try:

if '1' != 1:

raise "someError"

else:

print("someError has not occured")

except "someError":

print ("someError has occured")

a) someError has occured

b) someError has not occured

c) invalid code

d) none of the above

Answer: c) invalid code

A new exception class must inherit from a BaseException. There is no such inheritance here.

Q47. Suppose list1 is [2, 33, 222, 14, 25], What is list1[-1] ?

a) Error

b) None

c) 25

d) 2

Answer: c) 25

The index -1 corresponds to the last index in the list.

Q48. To open a file c:\scores.txt for writing, we use

a) outfile = open(“c:\scores.txt”, “r”)

b) outfile = open(“c:\\scores.txt”, “w”)

c) outfile = open(file = “c:\scores.txt”, “r”)

d) outfile = open(file = “c:\\scores.txt”, “o”)

Answer: b) The location contains double slashes ( \\ ) and w is used to indicate that file is being written to.

Q49. What is the output of the following? f = None

for i in range (5):

with open("data.txt", "w") as f:

if i > 2:

break

print f.closed

a) True

b) False

c) None

d) Error

Answer: a) True

The WITH statement when used with open file guarantees that the file object is closed when the with block exits.

Q50. When will the else part of try-except-else be executed?

a) always

b) when an exception occurs

c) when no exception occurs

d) when an exception occurs in to except block

Answer: c) when no exception occurs

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