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Technical Round Materials-PLSQL-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-PLSQL-Free Download

Question #1) Differentiate PL/SQL and SQL?

Answer: Difference between SQL and PL/SQL can be categorized as follows

SQL

PL/SQL

SQL is a natural language which is very useful for interactive processing.

PL/SQL is a procedural extension of Oracle - SQL.

No procedural capabilities like condition testing, looping is offered by SQL.

PL/SQL supports procedural capabilities as well as high language features such as conditional statements, looping statements, etc.

All SQL statements are executed by the database server one at a time, thus it is a time-consuming process.

PL/SQL statements send the entire block of statements to the database server at the same time, thus network traffic is reduced considerably.

No error handling procedures are there in SQL.

PL/SQL supports customized error handling.

Question #2) Enlist the characteristics of PL/SQL?

Answer: Characteristics of PL/SQL are as follows

  • PL/SQL allows access and sharing of the same sub programs by multiple applications.
  • PL/SQL is known for portability of code as code can be executed on any operating system provided Oracle is loaded on it.
  • With PL/SQL user can write their own customized error handling routines.
  • Improved transaction performance with integration to Oracle data dictionary.

Question #3) What are the data types available in PL/SQL?

Answer: Data types define the ways to identify the type of data and their associated operations. There are 4 types of predefined data types explained as follows

  • Scalar Data Types: A scalar data type is an atomic data type that does not have any internal components.
  • For example
    • CHAR (fixed length character value between 1 and 32,767 characters)
    • VARCHAR2 (variable length character value between 1 and 32,767 characters)
    • NUMBER ( fixed-decimal, floating-decimal or integer values)
    • BOOLEAN ( logical data type for TRUE FALSE or NULL values)
    • DATE (stores date and time information)
    • LONG (character data of variable length)
  • Composite Data Types: A composite data type is made up of other data types and internal components that can be easily used and manipulated. For example RECORD, TABLE, and VARRAY.
  • Reference Data Types: A reference data types holds values, called pointers that designate to other program items or data items. For example REF CURSOR.
  • Large Object Data Types: A Large Object datatype holds values, called locators, that defines the location of large objects( such as video clips, graphic image, etc) stored out of line.
  • For example
    • BFILE (Binary file)
    • BLOB (Binary large object)
    • CLOB ( Character large object)
    • NCLOB( NCHAR type large object)

Question #4) Explain the purpose of %TYPE and %ROWTYPE data types with the example?

Answer: PL/SQL uses %TYPE declaration attribute for anchoring. This attribute provides the datatype of a variable, constant or column. %TYPE attribute is useful while declaring a variable that has the same datatype as a table column.

For example, the variable m_empno has the same data type and size as the column empno in table emp.

m_empno emp.empno%TYPE;

%ROWTYPE attribute is used to declare a variable to be a record having the same structure as a row in a table. The row is defined as a record and its fields have the same names and data types as the columns in the table or view.

For example: dept_rec dept%ROWTYPE;

This declares a record that can store an entire row for DEPT table.

Question #5) What do you understand by PL/SQL packages?

Answer: PL/SQL packages are schema objects that groups functions, stored procedures, cursors and variables at one place. Packages have 2 mandatory parts

  • Package Specifications
  • Package body

Question #6) What do you understand by PL/SQL cursors?

Answer: PL/SQL requires a special capability to retrieve and process more than one row and that resource is known as Cursors. A cursor is a pointer to the context area, which is an area of memory containing SQL statements and information for processing the statements.

PL/SQL Cursor is basically a mechanism under which multiple rows of the data from the database are selected and then each row is individually processed inside a PL/SQL program.

Question #7) Explain cursor types?

Answer: There are two types of cursors. They are explained as follows

1) Explicit Cursors: For queries that return more than one row, an explicit cursor is declared and named by a programmer. In order to use explicit cursor in PL/SQL, 4 steps are followed

Declare the cursor

Syntax: CURSOR <cursor_name> is
SELECT statement;

Where <cursor_name> is the name assigned to the cursor and SELECT statement is the query that returns rows to the cursor active set.

Open the cursor

Syntax: OPEN <cursor_nam>;

Where, <cursor_name> is the name of the previously defined cursor.

Fetch rows from the cursor

Syntax: FETCH <cursor_name> INTO <record_list>;

Where <cursor_name> refers to the name of the previously defined cursor from which rows are being fetched.

<record_list> represents the list of variables that will receive the data being fetched.

Closing the cursor

Syntax: CLOSE <cursor_name>;

Where <cursor_name> is the name of the cursor being closed.

2) Implicit cursors: When any SQL statement is executed, PL/SQL automatically creates a cursor without defining such cursors are known as implicit cursors.

For following statements, PL/SQL employs implicit cursors

  • INSERT
  • UPDATE
  • DELETE
  • SELECT ( queries that return exactly one row)

Question #8) When do we use triggers?

Answer: The word ‘Trigger’ means to activate. In PL/SQL, the trigger is a stored procedure that defines an action taken by the database when database related event is performed. Triggers are mainly required for the following purposes

  • To maintain complex integrity constraints
  • Auditing table information by recording the changes
  • Signaling other program actions when changes are made to table
  • Enforcing complex business rules
  • Preventing invalid transactions

Question #9) Explain the difference in execution of triggers and stored procedures?

Answer: A stored procedure is executed explicitly by issuing procedure call statement from another block via a procedure call with arguments.

The trigger is executed implicitly whenever any triggering event like the occurrence of DML statements happens.

Question #10) Explain the difference between Triggers and Constraints?

Answer: Triggers are different from constraints in the following ways

Triggers

Constraints

Only affect those rows added after the trigger is enabled.

Affect all rows of the table including that already exist when the constraint is enabled.

Triggers are used to implement complex business rules which cannot be implemented using integrity constraints.

Constraints maintain the integrity of the database.

Question #11) What is a PL/SQL block?

Answer: In PL/SQL, statements are grouped into units called Blocks. PL/SQL blocks can include constants, variables, SQL statements, loops, conditional statements, exception handling. Blocks can also build a procedure, a function or a package.

Broadly, PL/SQL blocks are two types

1) Anonymous blocks: PL/SQL blocks without header are known as anonymous blocks. These blocks do not form the body of a procedure, function or triggers.

Example:

DECLARE

num NUMBER(2);

sq NUMBER(3);

BEGIN

num:= &Number1;

sq := num*num;

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(‘Square:’ ||sq);

END;

2) Named blocks: PL/SQL blocks having header or labels are known as Named blocks. Named blocks can either be subprograms (procedures, functions, packages) or Triggers.

Example:

FUNCTION sqr (num IN NUMBER)

RETURN NUMBER is sq NUMBER(2);

BEGIN

sq:= num*num;

RETURN sq;

END;

Question #12) Differentiate between syntax and runtime errors?

Answer: Syntax errors are the one which can be easily identified by a PL/SQL compiler. These errors can be the spelling mistake, etc.

Runtime errors are those errors in PL/SQL block for which exception handling section is to be included for handling the errors. These errors can be SELECT INTO statement which does not return any rows.

Question #13) What are COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT?

Answer: COMMIT, SAVEPOINT, and ROLLBACK are three transaction specifications available in PL/SQL.



COMMIT statement: When DML operation is performed, it only manipulates data in database buffer and the database remains unaffected by these changes. To save/store these transaction changes to the database, we need to COMMIT the transaction. COMMIT transaction saves all outstanding changes since the last COMMIT and the following process happens

  • Affected rows locks are released
  • Transaction marked as complete
  • Transaction detail is stored in the data dictionary.

Syntax: COMMIT;

ROLLBACK statement: When we want to undo or erase all the changes that have occurred in the current transaction so far, we require rolling back of the transaction. In other words, ROLLBACK erases all outstanding changes since the last COMMIT or ROLLBACK.

Syntax to rollback a transaction fully

ROLLBACK;

SAVEPOINT statement: The SAVEPOINT statement gives a name and marks a point in the processing of the current transaction. The changes and locks that have occurred before the SAVEPOINT in the transaction are preserved while those that occur after the SAVEPOINT are released.

Syntax:

SAVEPOINT <savepoint_name>;

Question #14) What is the mutating table and constraining table?

Answer: A table which is currently being modified by a DML statement like defining triggers in a table is known as a Mutating table.

A table that might need to be read from for a referential integrity constraint is known as constraining table.

Question #15) What are actual parameters and formal parameters?

Answer: The variables or an expression referred to as parameters that appear in the procedure call statement is known as Actual parameters.

For example: raise_sal(emp_num, merit+ amount);

Here in the above example, emp_num and amount are the two actual parameters.

The variables that are declared in the procedure header and are referenced in the procedure body are called as Formal parameters.

For example:
PROCEDURE raise_sal( emp_id INTEGER) IS
curr_sal REAL:
………..
BEGIN
SELECT sal INTO cur_sal FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id;
…….
END raise_sal;

Here in the above example, emp_id acts as a formal parameter.

Question #16) What is the difference between ROLLBACK and ROLLBACK TO statements?

Answer: The transaction is completely ended after ROLLBACK statement i.e. ROLLBACK command completely undoes a transaction and release all locks.

On the other hand, a transaction is still active and running after ROLLBACK TO command as it undoes a part of the transaction up till the given SAVEPOINT.

Question #17) Write a PL/SQL script to display the following series of numbers: 99,96,93……9,6,3?

Answer

SET SERVER OUTPUT ON

DECLARE

BEGIN

FOR i IN REVERSE 1..99

LOOP

IF Mod(i,3) = 0 THEN

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(i);

END IF;

END LOOP;

END;

/

Question #18) What are the 3 modes of parameter?

Answer: 3 modes of the parameter are IN, OUT, IN OUT. These can be explained as follows

IN parameters: IN parameters allow you to pass values to the procedure being called and can be initialized to default values. IN parameters acts like a constant and cannot be assigned any value.

OUT parameters: OUT parameters return value to the caller and they must be specified. OUT parameters act like an uninitialized variable and cannot be used in an expression.

IN OUT parameters: IN OUT parameters passes initial values to a procedure and returns updated values to the caller. IN OUT parameters act like an initialized variable and should be assigned a value.

Question #19) Why is %ISOPEN always false for an implicit cursor?

Answer: An implicit cursor, SQL%ISOPEN attribute is always false because the implicit cursor is opened for a DML statement and is closed immediately after the execution of DML statement.

Question #20) When a DML statement is executed, in which cursor attributes, the outcome of the statement is saved?

Answer: The outcome of the statement is saved in 4 cursor attributes. These are

  • SQL%FOUND
  • SQL%NOTFOUND
  • SQL%ROWCOUNT
  • SQL%ISOPEN

Question #21) What are the ways on commenting in a PL/SQL code?

Answer: Comments are the text which is included with the code to enhance readability and for the understanding of the reader. These codes are never executed. There are two ways to comment in PL/SQL

1) Single line comment: This comment starts with double –.

Example:
DECLARE
num NUMBER(2); — it is a local variable.
BEGIN

2) Multi-line comment: This comment starts with /* and ends with */.

Example:
BEGIN
num := &p_num; /* This is a host variable used in program body */
……….
END

Question #22) What do you understand by Exception handling in PL/SQL?

Answer: When an error occurs in PL/SQL, the exception is raised. In other words, to handle undesired situations where PL/SQL scripts terminated unexpectedly, an error handling code is included in the program. In PL/SQL, all exception handling code is placed in EXCEPTION section.

There are 3 types of EXCEPTION:

  • Predefined Exceptions: Common errors with predefined names.
  • Undefined Exceptions: Less common errors with no predefined names.
  • User-defined Exceptions: Do not cause runtime error but violate business rules.

Question #23) Enlist some predefined exceptions?

Answer: Some of the predefined exceptions are

  • NO_DATA_FOUND: Single row SELECT statement where no data is returned.
  • TOO_MANY_ROWS: Single row SELECT statement where more than one rows are returned.
  • INVALID_CURSOR: Illegal cursor operation occurred.
  • ZERO_DIVIDE: Attempted to divide by zero.

Question #24) What are PL/SQL cursor exceptions?

Answer: The exceptions related to PL/SQL cursors are

  • CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN
  • INVALID_CURSOR

Question #25) Explain the difference between cursor declared in procedures and cursors declared in the package specification?

Answer: The cursor declared in the procedure is treated as local and thus cannot be accessed by other procedures.

The cursor declared in the package specification is treated as global and thus can be accessed by other procedures.

Question #26) What are INSTEAD of triggers?

Answer: The INSTEAD OF triggers are the triggers written especially for modifying views, which cannot be directly modified through SQL DML statements.

Question #27) What are expressions?

Answer: Expressions are represented by a sequence of literals and variables that are separated by operators. In PL/SQL, operations are used to manipulate, compare and calculate some data. An expression is a composition of ‘Operators’ and ‘Operands’.

  • Operands: These are an argument to the operators. Operands can be a variable, function call or constant.
  • Operators: These specify the actions to be performed on operators. E.g. ‘+’, ‘*’, etc.

Question #28) List different type of expressions with the example.

Answer: Expressions can be as mentioned below

  • Numeric or Arithmetic expressions : e.g. 20* 10+ 15
  • Boolean expressions: e.g. ‘spot’ LIKE ‘sp%t’
  • String expressions: e.g. LENGTH (‘NEW YORK’|| ‘NY’)
  • Date expressions: e.g. SYSDATE>TO_DATE(’15-NOV-16’, “dd-mm-yy”)

Question #29) Write a program that shows the usage of WHILE loop to calculate the average of user entered numbers and entry of more numbers are stopped by entering number 0?

Answer

DECLARE

n NUMBER;

avg NUMBER :=0 ;

sum NUMBER :=0 ;

count NUMBER :=0 ;

BEGIN

n := &enter_a_number;

WHILE(n<>0)

LOOP

count := count+1;

sum := sum+n;

n := &enter_a_number;

END LOOP;

avg := sum/count;

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(‘the average is’||avg);

END;

Question #30) What do you understand by PL/SQL Records?

Answer: A PL/SQL records can be referred as a collection of values or say, a group of multiple pieces of information, each of which is of simpler types and can be related to one another as fields.

There are three types of records supported in PL/SQL

  • Table based records
  • Programmer based records
  • Cursor based records

Oracle PL SQL Interview Questions

PL Sql vs Sql

Comparison

SQL

PL/SQL

Execution

Single command at a time

Block of code

Application

Source of data to be displayed

Application created by data aquired by SQL

Structures include

DDL and DML based queries and commands

Includes procedures, functions, etc

Recommended while

Performing CRUD operations on data

Creating applications to display data obtained using sql

Compatibility with each other

SQL can be embedded into PL/SQL

PL/SQL cant be embedded in SQL

Q. What is SQL and also describe types of SQL statements?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a language used to communicate with the server to access, manipulate and control data.

There are 5 different types of SQL statements.

1. Data Retrieval: SELECT

2. Data Manipulation Language (DML): INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, MERGE

3. Data Definition Language (DDL): CREATE, ALTER, DROP, RENAME, TRUNCATE.

4. Transaction Control Statements: COMMIT, ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT

5. Data Control Language (DCL): GRANT, REVOKE

Q. What is an alias in SQL statements?

Alias is a user-defined alternative name given to the column or table. By default column alias headings appear in upper case. Enclose the alias in a double quotation marks (“ “) to make it case sensitive. “AS” Keyword before the alias name makes the SELECT clause easier to read.

For ex: Select empname AS name from employee; (Here AS is a keyword and “name” is an alias).

Q. What is a Literal? Give an example where it can be used?

A Literal is a string that can contain a character, a number, or a date that is included in the SELECT list and that is not a column name or a column alias. Date and character literals must be enclosed within single quotation marks (‘ ‘), number literals need not.

For ex: Select last_name||’is a’||job_id As “emp details” from employee; (Here “is a” is a literal).

Q. What is a difference between SQL and iSQL*Plus?

SQL Vs iSQL*Plus

SQL

iSQL*Plus

Is a Language

Is an Environment

Character and date columns heading are left-justified and number column headings are right-justified.

Default heading justification is in Centre.

Cannot be Abbreviated (short forms)

Can be Abbreviated

Does not have a continuation character

Has a dash (-) as a continuation character if the command is longer than one line

Use Functions to perform some formatting

Use commands to format data

Q. Define the order of Precedence used in executing SQL statements.

Order of Precedence used in executing SQL statements

Order Evaluated

Operator



1

Arithmetic operators (*, /, +, -)



2

Concatenation operators (||)



3

Comparison conditions



4

Is[NOT] NULL, LIKE, [NOT] IN



5

[NOT] BETWEEN



6

NOT Logical condition



7

AND logical condition



8

OR logical condition



Q. What are SQL functions? Describe in brief different types of SQL functions?

SQL Functions are very powerful feature of SQL. SQL functions can take arguments but always return some value.
There are two distinct types of SQL functions:

1) Single-Row functions: These functions operate on a single row to give one result per row.

Types of Single-Row functions:

1. Character

2. Number

3. Date

4. Conversion

5. General

2) Multiple-Row functions: These functions operate on groups of rows to give one result per group of rows.

Types of Multiple-Row functions:

1. AVG

2. COUNT

3. MAX

4. MIN

5. SUM

6. STDDEV

7. VARIANCE

Q. Explain character, number and date function in detail?

Character functions: accept character input and return both character and number values. Types of character function are:

a) Case-Manipulation Functions: LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP

b) Character-Manipulation Functions: CONCAT, SUBSTR, LENGTH, INSTR, LPAD/RPAD, TRIM, REPLACE

Number Functions: accept Numeric input and return numeric values. Number Functions are: ROUND, TRUNC and MOD

Date Functions: operates on values of the Date data type. (All date functions return a value of DATE data type except the MONTHS_BETWEEN Function, which returns a number. Date Functions are MONTHS_BETWEEN, ADD_MONTHS, NEXT_DAY, LAST_DAY, ROUND, TRUNC.

Q. What is a Dual Table?

Dual table is owned by the user SYS and can be accessed by all users. It contains one columnDummy and one row with the value X. The Dual Table is useful when you want to return a value only once. The value can be a constant, pseudocolumn or expression that is not derived from a table with user data.

Q. Explain Conversion function in detail?

Conversion Functions converts a value from one data type to another. Conversion functions are of two types:

Implicit Data type conversion:

1. VARCHAR2 or CHAR To NUMBER, DATE

2. NUMBER To VARCHAR2

3. DATE To VARCHAR2

Explicit data type conversion:

1. TO_NUMBER

2. TO_CHAR

3. TO_DATE

TO_NUMBER function is used to convert Character string to Number format. TO_NUMBER function use fx modifier. Format: TO_NUMBER ( char[, ‘ format_model’] ). fx modifier specifies the exact matching for the character argument and number format model of TO_NUMBER function.

TO_CHAR function is used to convert NUMBER or DATE data type to CHARACTER format. TO_CHAR Function use fm element to remove padded blanks or suppress leading zeros. TO_CHAR Function formats:TO_CHAR (date, ‘format_model’).Format model must be enclosed in single quotation marks and is case sensitive.

For ex: Select TO_CHAR (hiredate, ‘MM/YY’) from employee.

TO_DATE function is used to convert Character string to date format. TO_DATE function use fx modifier which specifies the exact matching for the character argument and date format model of TO_DATE function. TO_DATE function format: TO_DATE ( char[, ‘ format_model’] ).

For ex: Select TO_DATE (‘may 24 2007’,’mon dd rr’) from dual;

Q. Describe different types of General Function used in SQL?

General functions are of following types:

1. NVL: Converts a null value to an actual value. NVL (exp1, exp2) .If exp1 is null then NVL function return value of exp2.

2. NVL2: If exp1 is not null, nvl2 returns exp2, if exp1 is null, nvl2 returns exp3. The argument exp1 can have any data type. NVL2 (exp1, exp2, exp3)

3. NULLIF: Compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal or the first expression if they are not equal. NULLIF (exp1, exp2)

4. COALESCE: Returns the first non-null expression in the expression list. COALESCE (exp1, exp2… expn). The advantage of the COALESCE function over NVL function is that the COALESCE function can take multiple alternative values.

5. Conditional Expressions: Provide the use of IF-THEN-ELSE logic within a SQL statement. Example: CASE Expression and DECODE Function.

Q. What is difference between COUNT (*), COUNT (expression), COUNT (distinct expression)? (Where expression is any column name of Table)

COUNT (*): Returns number of rows in a table including duplicates rows and rows containing null values in any of the columns.

COUNT (EXP): Returns the number of non-null values in the column identified by expression.

COUNT (DISTINCT EXP): Returns the number of unique, non-null values in the column identified by expression.

Q. What is a Sub Query? Describe its Types?

A sub query is a SELECT statement that is embedded in a clause of another SELECT statement. Sub query can be placed in WHERE, HAVING and FROM clause.

Guidelines for using sub queries:

1. Enclose sub queries within parenthesis

2. Place sub queries on the right side of the comparison condition.

3. Use Single-row operators with single-row sub queries and Multiple-row operators with multiple-row sub queries.

Types of sub queries:

1. Single-Row Sub query: Queries that return only one row from the Inner select statement. Single-row comparison operators are: =, >, >=, <, <=, <>

2. Multiple-Row Sub query: Queries that return more than one row from the inner Select statement. There are also multiple-column sub queries that return more than one column from the inner select statement. Operators includes: IN, ANY, ALL.

Q. What is difference between ANY and ALL operators?

ANY Operator compares value to each value returned by the subquery. ANY operator has a synonym SOME operator.

> ANY means more than the minimum.

< ANY means less than the maximum

= ANY is equivalent to IN operator.

ALL Operator compares value to every value returned by the subquery.

> ALL means more than the maximum

< ALL means less than the minimum

<> ALL is equivalent to NOT IN condition.

Q. What is a MERGE statement?

The MERGE statement inserts or updates rows in one table, using data from another table. It is useful in data warehousing applications.

Q. What is a difference between “VERIFY” and “FEEDBACK” command?

VERIFY Command: Use VERIFY Command to confirm the changes in the SQL statement (Old and New values). Defined with SET VERIFY ON/OFF.

Feedback Command: Displays the number of records returned by a query.

Q. What is the use of Double Ampersand (&&) in SQL Queries? Give example?

Use “&&” if you want to reuse the variable value without prompting the user each time.

For ex: Select empno, ename, &&column_name from employee order by &column_name;

Q. What are Joins and how many types of Joins are there?

Joins are used to retrieve data from more than one table.

There are 5 different types of joins.

types of Joins

Oracle 8i and Prior

SQL: 1999 (9i)

Equi Join

Natural/Inner Join

Outer Join

Left Outer/ Right Outer/ Full Outer Join

Self Join

Join ON

Non-Equi Join

Join USING

Cartesian Product

Cross Join

Q. Explain all Joins used in Oracle 8i?

?Cartesian Join: When a Join condition is invalid or omitted completely, the result is a Cartesian product, in which all combinations of rows are displayed. To avoid a Cartesian product, always include a valid join condition in a “where” clause. To Join ‘N’ tables together, you need a minimum of N-1 Join conditions. For ex: to join four tables, a minimum of three joins is required. This rule may not apply if the table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row.

Equi Join: This type of Join involves primary and foreign key relation. Equi Join is also called Simple or Inner Joins.

Non-Equi Joins: A Non-Equi Join condition containing something other than an equality operator. The relationship is obtained using an operator other than equal operator (=).The conditions such as <= and >= can be used, but BETWEEN is the simplest to represent Non-Equi Joins.

Outer Joins: Outer Join is used to fetch rows that do not meet the join condition. The outer join operator is the plus sign (+), and it is placed on the side of the join that is deficient in information. The Outer Join operator can appear on only one side of the expression, the side that has information missing. It returns those rows from one table that has no direct match in the other table. A condition involving an Outer Join cannot use IN and OR operator.

Self Join: Joining a table to itself.

Q. Explain all Joins used in Oracle 9i and later release?

Cross Join: Cross Join clause produces the cross-product of two tables. This is same as a Cartesian product between the two tables.

Natural Joins: Is used to join two tables automatically based on the columns which have matching data types and names, using the keyword NATURAL JOIN. It is equal to the Equi-Join. If the columns have the same names but different data types, than the Natural Join syntax causes an error.

Join with the USING clause: If several columns have the same names but the data types do not match, than the NATURAL JOIN clause can be modified with the USING clause to specify the columns that should be used for an equi Join. Use the USING clause to match only one column when more than one column matches. Do not use a table name or alias in the referenced columns. The NATURAL JOIN clause and USING clause are mutually exclusive.

For ex: Select a.city, b.dept_name from loc a Join dept b USING (loc_id) where loc_id=10;

Joins with the ON clause: Use the ON clause to specify a join condition. The ON clause makes code easy to understand. ON clause is equals to Self Joins. The ON clause can also be used to join columns that have different names.

Left/ Right/ Full Outer Joins: Left Outer Join displays all rows from the table that is Left to the LEFT OUTER JOIN clause, right outer join displays all rows from the table that is right to the RIGHT OUTER JOIN clause, and full outer join displays all rows from both the tables either left or right to the FULL OUTER JOIN clause.

Q. What is a difference between Entity, Attribute and Tuple?

Entity: A significant thing about which some information is required. For ex: EMPLOYEE (table). Attribute: Something that describes the entity. For ex: empno, empname, empaddress (columns). Tuple: A row in a relation is called Tuple.

Q. What is a Transaction? Describe common errors can occur while executing any Transaction?

Transaction consists of a collection of DML statements that forms a logical unit of work.

The common errors that can occur while executing any transaction are:

The violation of constraints.

1. Data type mismatch.

2. Value too wide to fit in column.

3. The system crashes or Server gets down.

4. The session Killed.

5. Locking take place. Etc.

Q. What is locking in SQL? Describe its types?

Locking prevents destructive interaction between concurrent transactions. Locks held until Commit or Rollback. Types of locking are:

Implicit Locking: Occurs for all SQL statements except SELECT.

Explicit Locking: Can be done by user manually.

Further there are two locking methods:

1. Exclusive : Locks out other users

2. Share : Allows other users to access

Q. What is a difference between Commit, Rollback and Savepoint?

  • COMMIT: Ends the current transaction by making all pending data changes permanent.
  • ROLLBACK: Ends the current transaction by discarding all pending data changes.
  • SAVEPOINT: Divides a transaction into smaller parts. You can rollback the transaction till a particular named savepoint.

Q. What are the advantages of COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements?

Advantages of COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements are:

  • Ensure data consistency
  • Can preview data changes before making changes permanent.
  • Group logically related operations.

Q. Describe naming rules for creating a Table?

Naming rules to be consider for creating a table are:

1. Table name must begin with a letter,

2. Table name can be 1-30 characters long,

3. Table name can contain only A-Z, a-z, 0-9,_, $, #.

4. Table name cannot duplicate the name of another object owned by the same user.

5. Table name cannot be an oracle server reserved word.

Q. What is a DEFAULT option in a table?

A column can be given a default value by using the DEFAULT option. This option prevents null values from entering the column if a row is inserted without a value for that column. The DEFAULT value can be a literal, an expression, or a SQL function such as SYSDATE and USER but the value cannot be the name of another column or a pseudo column such as NEXTVAL or CURRVAL.

Q. What is a difference between USER TABLES and DATA DICTIONARY?

USER TABLES: Is a collection of tables created and maintained by the user. Contain USER information. DATA DICTIONARY: Is a collection of tables created and maintained by the Oracle Server. It contains database information. All data dictionary tables are owned by the SYS user.

Q. Describe few Data Types used in SQL?

Data Types is a specific storage format used to store column values. Few data types used in SQL are:

1. VARCHAR2(size): Minimum size is ‘1’ and Maximum size is ‘4000’

2. CHAR(size): Minimum size is ‘1’and Maximum size is ‘2000’

3. NUMBER(P,S): " Precision" can range from 1 to 38 and the “Scale” can range from -84 to 127.

4. DATE

5. LONG: 2GB

6. CLOB: 4GB

7. RAW (size): Maximum size is 2000

8. LONG RAW: 2GB

9. BLOB: 4GB

10. BFILE: 4GB

11. ROWID: A 64 base number system representing the unique address of a row in the table.

Q. In what scenario you can modify a column in a table?

During modifying a column:

1. You can increase the width or precision of a numeric column.

2. You can increase the width of numeric or character columns.

3. You can decrease the width of a column only if the column contains null values or if the table has no rows.

4. You can change the data type only if the column contains null values.

5. You can convert a CHAR column to the VARCHAR2 data type or convert a VARCHAR2 column to the CHAR data type only if the column contains null values or if you do not change the size.

Q. Describe few restrictions on using “LONG” data type?

A LONG column is not copied when a table is created using a sub query. A LONG column cannot be included in a GROUP BY or an ORDER BY clause. Only one LONG column can be used per table. No constraint can be defined on a LONG column.

Q. What is a SET UNUSED option?

SET UNUSED option marks one or more columns as unused so that they can be dropped when the demand on system resources is lower. Unused columns are treated as if they were dropped, even though their column data remains in the table’s rows. After a column has been marked as unused, you have no access to that column. A select * query will not retrieve data from unused columns. In addition, the names and types of columns marked unused will not be displayed during a DESCRIBE, and you can add to the table a new column with the same name as an unused column. The SET UNUSED information is stored in the USER_UNUSED_COL_TABS dictionary view.

Q. What is a difference between Truncate and Delete?

The main difference between Truncate and Delete is as below:

SQL Truncate Vs SQL Delete

TRUNCATE

DELETE



Removes all rows from a table and releases storage space used by that table.

Removes all rows from a table but does not release storage space used by that table.



TRUNCATE Command is faster.

DELETE command is slower.



Is a DDL statement and cannot be Rollback.

Is a DDL statement and can be Rollback.



Database Triggers do not fire on TRUNCATE.

Database Triggers fire on DELETE.



Q. What is a main difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2?

CHAR pads blank spaces to a maximum length, whereas VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces.

Q. What are Constraints? How many types of constraints are there?

Constraints are used to prevent invalid data entry or deletion if there are dependencies. Constraints enforce rules at the table level. Constraints can be created either at the same time as the table is created or after the table has been created. Constraints can be defined at the column or table level. Constraint defined for a specific table can be viewed by looking at the USER-CONSTRAINTS data dictionary table. You can define any constraint at the table level except NOT NULL which is defined only at column level. There are 5 types of constraints:

1. Not Null Constraint

2. Unique Key Constraint

3. Primary Key Constraint

4. Foreign Key Constraint

5. Check Key Constraint.

Q. Describe types of Constraints in brief?

NOT NULL: NOT NULL Constraint ensures that the column contains no null values.

UNIQUE KEY: UNIQUE Key Constraint ensures that every value in a column or set of columns must be unique, that is, no two rows of a table can have duplicate values in a specified column or set of columns. If the UNIQUE constraint comprises more than one column, that group of columns is called a Composite Unique Key. There can be more than one Unique key on a table. Unique Key Constraint allows the input of Null values. Unique Key automatically creates index on the column it is created.

PRIMARY KEY: Uniquely identifies each row in the Table. Only one PRIMARY KEY can be created for each table but can have several UNIQUE constraints. PRIMARY KEY ensures that no column can contain a NULL value. A Unique Index is automatically created for a PRIMARY KEY column. PRIMARY KEY is called a Parent key.

FOREIGN KEY: Is also called Referential Integrity Constraint. FOREIGN KEY is one in which a column or set of columns take references of the Primary/Unique key of same or another table. FOREIGN KEY is called a child key. A FOREIGN KEY value must match an existing value in the parent table or be null.

CHECK KEY: Defines a condition that each row must satisfy. A single column can have multiple CHECK Constraints. During CHECK constraint following expressions is not allowed:

1) References to CURRVAL, NEXTVAL, LEVEL and ROWNUM Pseudo columns.

2) Calls to SYSDATE, UID, USER and USERENV Functions

Q. What is the main difference between Unique Key and Primary Key?

The main difference between Unique Key and Primary Key are:

Unique Vs Primary Key

Unique Key

Primary Key



A table can have more than one Unique Key.

A table can have only one Primary Key.



Unique key column can store NULL values.

Primary key column cannot store NULL values.



Uniquely identify each value in a column.

Uniquely identify each row in a table.



Q. What is a difference between ON DELETE CASCADE and ON DELETE SET NULL?

ON DELETE CASCADE Indicates that when the row in the parent table is deleted, the dependent rows in the child table will also be deleted. ON DELETE SET NULL Coverts foreign key values to null when the parent value is removed. Without the ON DELETE CASCADE or the ON DELETE SET NULL options, the row in the parent table cannot be deleted if it is referenced in the child table.

Q. What is a Candidate Key?

The columns in a table that can act as a Primary Key are called Candidate Key.

Q. What are Views and why they are used?

A View logically represents subsets of data from one or more table. A View is a logical table based on a table or another view. A View contains no data of its own but is like a window through which data from tables can be viewed or changed. The tables on which a view is based are called Base Tables. The View is stored as a SELECT statement in the data dictionary. View definitions can be retrieved from the data dictionary table: USER_VIEWS.

Views are used:

  • To restrict data access
  • To make complex queries easy
  • To provide data Independence
  • Views provide groups of user to access data according to their requirement.

Q. What is a difference between Simple and Complex Views?

The main differences between two views are:

Simple Views Vs Complex Views

Simple View

Complex View



Derives data from only one table.

Derives data from many tables.



Contains no functions or group of data

Contain functions or groups of data.



Can perform DML operations through the view.

Does not always allow DML operations through the view.



Q. What are the restrictions of DML operations on Views?

Few restrictions of DML operations on Views are:

You cannot DELETE a row if the View contains the following:

1. Group Functions

2. A Group By clause

3. The Distinct Keyword

4. The Pseudo column ROWNUM Keyword.

You cannot MODIFY data in a View if it contains the following:

1. Group Functions

2. A Group By clause

3. The Distinct Keyword

4. The Pseudo column ROWNUM Keyword.

5. Columns defined by expressions (Ex; Salary * 12)

You cannot INSERT data through a view if it contains the following:

Q. What is PL/SQL?

1. PL/SQL is a procedural language extension with SQL Language.

2. Oracle 6.0 introduced PL/SQL

3. It is a combination of SQL and Procedural Statements and used for creating applications.

4. Basically PL/SQL is a block structure programming language whenever we are submitting PL/SQL

5. Blocks then all SQL statements are executing separately by using sql engine and also all procedure statements are executed separately.

Q . What are the different functionalities of a Trigger ?

Trigger is also same as stored procedure & also it will automatically invoked whenever DML operation performed against table or view.

There are two types of triggers supported by PL/SQL

1. Statement Level Trigger.

2. Row Level Trigger

Statement Level Trigger: In statement level trigger, trigger body is executed only once for DML statement.

Row Level Trigger: In row level trigger, trigger body is executed for each row DML statements. It is the reason, we are employing each row clause and internally stored DML transaction in trigger specification, these qualifiers :old, :new, are also called as records type variables.
These qualifiers are used in trigger specification & trigger body.

Synatx :
:old.column_name
Synatx:
:new column_name

When we are use this qualifiers in trigger specification then we are not allowed to use “:” in forms of the qualifiers names.

Q. Write a PL/SQL Program which raise a user defined exception on thursday?

declare
a exception
begin
If to_char(sysdate, ‘DY)=’THU’
then
raise a;
end if;
exception
when a then
dbms_output.put_line(‘my exception raised on thursday’);
end;

Output : my exception raised on thursday

Q.Write a PL/SQL program to retrieve emp table and then display the salary?

declare
v_sal number(10);
begin
select max(sal)intr v_sal;
from emp;
dbms_output.put_line(v.sal);
end;
/

(or)

declare
A number(10);
B number(10);
C number(10);
begin
a:=70;
b:=30;
c:=greatest+(a,b);
dbms_output.put_line(c);
end;
/

Output :70

Q. Write a PL/SQL cursor program which is used to calculate total salary from emp table without using sum() function?

Declare
cursor c1 is select sal from emp;
v_sal number(10);
n.number(10):=0;
begin
open c1;
loop
fetch c1 into v_sal;
exit when c1%not found;
n:=n+v_sal;
end loop;
dbms_output.put_line(‘tool salary is’||’ ‘ ||n);
close c1;
end;
/

Output : total salary is: 36975

Q. Write a PL/SQL cursor program to display all employee names and their salary from emp table by using % not found attributes?

Declare
Cursor c1 is select ename, sal from emp;
v_ename varchar2(10);
v_sal number(10);
begin
open c1;
loop
fetch c1 into v_ename, v_sal;
exist when c1 % notfound;
dbms_output.put_line(v_name ||’ ‘||v_sal);
end loop;
close c1;
end;
/

Q. What is Mutating Trigger?

  • Into a row level trigger based on a table trigger body cannot read data from same table and also we cannot perform DML operation on same table.
  • If we are trying this oracle server returns mutating error oracle-4091: table is mutating.
  • This error is called mutating error, and this trigger is called mutating trigger, and table is called mutating table.
  • Mutating errors are not occured in statement level trigger because through these statement level trigger when we are performing DML operations automatically data committed into the database, whereas in row level trigger when we are performing transaction data is not committed and also again we are reading this data from the same table then only mutating errors is occured.

Q. What is Triggering Events (or) Trigger Predicate Clauses?

If we want to perform multiple operations in different tables then we must use triggering events within trigger body. These are inserting, updating, deleting clauses. These clauses are used in statement, row-level trigger. These triggers are also called as trigger predicate clauses.
Syntax:

If inserting then
stmts;
else if updating then
stmts;
else if deleting then
stmts;
end if;

Q. What is Discard File?

  • This file extension is .dsc
  • Discard file we must specify within control file by using discard file clause.
  • Discard file also stores reflected record based on when clause condition within control file. This condition must be satisfied into table tablename clause.

Q. What is REF CURSOR (or) CURSOR VARIABLE (or) DYNAMIC CURSOR ?

Oracle 7.2 introduced ref cursor, This is an user defined type which is used to process multiple records and also this is a record by record process.

In static cursor database servers executes only one select statement at a time for a single active set area where in ref cursor database servers executes number of select statement dynamically for a single active set area that's why those cursor are also called as dynamically cursor.

Generally we are not allowed to pass static cursor as parameters to use subprograms where as we can also pass ref cursor as parameter to the subprograms because basically refcursor is an user defined type in oracle we can also pass all user defined type as parameter to the subprograms.
Generally static cursor does not return multiple record into client application where as ref cursor are allowed to return multiple records into client application (Java, .Net, php, VB, C++).

This is an user defined type so we are creating it in 2 steps process i.e first we are creating type then only we are creating variable from that type that’s why this is also called as cursor variable.

Q. What are The Types of Ref Cursors?

In all databases having 2 ref cursors.

1. Strong ref cursor

2. Weak ref cursor

Strong ref cursor is a ref cursor which have return type, whereas weak ref cursor has no return type.
Syntax:

Type typename is ref cursor return record type data type;
Variable Name typename

Syntax

Type typename is ref cursor
Variable Name typename;

In Weak ref cursor we must specify select statement by using open for clause this clause is used in executable section of the PL/SQL block.
Syntax:

Open ref cursor varname for SELECT * FROM tablename condition;

Q. What is Difference Between trim, delete collection method?

SQL> declare
type t1 is table of number(10);
v_t t1;=t1(10,20,30,40,50,60);
beign
v_t.trim(2);
dbms_output.put_line(‘after deleting last two elements’);
for i in v_t.first.. V_t.last
loop
dbms_output.put_line(v_t(i));
End loop;
vt.delete(2);
dbms_output.put_line(‘after deleting second element;);
for i in v_t.first..v_t.last
loop
If v_t.exists(i) then
dbms_output.put_line(v_t(i));
end if;
end loop;
end;
/

Q. What is Overloading Procedures?
Overload is refers to same name can be used for different purpose, in oracle we can also implement overloading procedure through package. Overloading procedure having same name with different type or different number of parameters.

Q. What is Global Variables?
In oracle we are declaring global variables in Package Specification only.

Q. What is Forward Declaration?
In oracle declaring procedures within package body is called forward declaring generally before we are calling private procedures into public procedure first we must implements private into public procedure first we must implements private procedure within body otherwise use a forward declaration within package body.

Q. What is Invalid_number, Value_Error?
In oracle when we try to convert “string type to number type” or” data string into data type” then oracle server returns two types of errors.
1. Invalid.number
2. Value_error (or) numeric_error
a) Invalid_number:
When PL/SQL block have a SQL statements and also those SQL statements try to convert string type to number type or data string into data type then oracle server returns an error: ora-1722-Invalid Number
For handling this error oracle provides number exception Invalid_number exceptionname.
Example:

begin
Insert into
emp(empno, ename, sal) values(1,’gokul’, ‘abc’)
exception
when invalid_number then
dbms_output.put_line(‘insert proper data only’);
end;
/

b)value_error
Whenever PL/SQL block having procedural statements and also those statements find to convert string type to number type then oracle servers returns an error: ora-6502:numeric or value error: character to number conversion error
For handling this error oracle provided exception value_error exception name
Example:

begin
declare
z number(10);
begin
z:= ‘&x’ + ‘&y’;
dbms_output.put_line(z);
exception
when value_error then
dbms_output.put_line(‘enter numeric data value for x & y only’);
end;
/

Output :
Enter value for x:3
Enter value for y:2
z:=5

Enter value for x:a
Enter value for y:b
Error:enter numeric data value for x & y only.

Q. What is Flashback Query?

  • Flashback query are handle by Database Administrator only flashback queries along allows content of the table to be retrieved with reference to specific point of time by using as of clause that is flashback queries retrieves clause that is flashback queries retrieves accidental data after committing the transaction also.
  • Flashback queries generally uses undo file that is flashback queries retrieve old data before committing the transaction oracle provide two method for flashback queries

Method1 : using timestamp
Method2: using scn number

Oracle PL SQL Interview Questions And Answers

What is PL-SQL ?

Oracle PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration, conditional branching.

What is the basic structure of PL/SQL?

PL/SQL uses block structure as its basic structure. Anonymous blocks or nested blocks can be used in PL/SQL.

What are the most important characteristics of PL/SQL?

A list of some notable characteristics:

  • PL/SQL is a block-structured language.
  • It is portable to all environments that support Oracle.
  • PL/SQL is integrated with the Oracle data dictionary.
  • Stored procedures help better sharing of application.

How is a process of PL/SQL compiled?

Compilation process includes syntax check, bind and p-code generation processes.Syntax checking checks the PL/SQL codes for compilation errors. When all errors are corrected, a storage address is assigned to the variables that hold data. It is called Binding. P-code is a list of instructions for the PL/SQL engine. P-code is stored in the database for named blocks and is used the next time it is executed.

How can we connect an Android App to an Oracle database and use the PL/SQL procedural code?

Before getting into the PL/SQL, we must create a REST API using JSON for establishing connection. You can import the Retrofit libraries along with dependencies to establish communication with your Android App. Then prepare the functions and procedures using PL/SQL, and then once your oracle database is connected.

Name few schema objects that can be created using PL/SQL?

Stored procedures and functions

Packages

Triggers

Cursors

How is PL/SQL differs from SQL?

SQL

PL/SQL

Query/Command executions

Programming Language Execution at a time

Data source for web pages

Build, format and display web pages that contains data source

Declarative in nature

Procedural in nature

Manipulating data

Creating Web Applications

What are the three basic sections of a PL/SQL block?

Declaration section

Execution section

Exception section

What is a trigger?

A trigger is a PL/SQL program that is stored in the database and executed immediately before or after the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands.

What are the uses of triggers?

Basically triggers are used to create consistencies, access restriction and implement securities to the database. Triggers are also used for -

  • Creating validation mechanisms involving searches in multiple tables
  • Creating logs to register the use of a table
  • Update other tables as a result of inclusion or changes in the current table.

How can we debug in PL/SQL?

We can make use of the DBMS_OUTPUT for printing breakpoint activities. We can also use DBMS_DEBUG.

How can we implement Rollback or Commit statement in a Trigger?

We cannot. It is not logical to put a Rollback or Commit within a Trigger because these statements impose a savepoint which affects the logical transaction processing.

What is an Oracle sequence?

A Sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database’s tables.

Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?

INSTR (String1, String2 (n, (m)), INSTR returns the position of the m-th occurrence of the string 2 in string1. The search begins from nth position of string1.

SUBSTR (String1 n, m) SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1, starting from n-th position of string1.

What is PL/SQL Records?

PS/SQL Records is type of data structure that contain a set of data(can be of various types), or distinct information values that can be referenced with each other as fields. They are useful for classifying and retrieving data with common attributes or properties. With this, it is much easier to identify similar data by tracing the attributes.

PL/SQL can manage three types of records:

  • Table based records
  • Programmer based records
  • Cursor based records

How can we make an IF Statement within a SELECT Statement?

We make use of the DECODE keyword. For example,
e.g. select DECODE (EMP_CAT,’3',’Third’,’4',’Fourth’Null);

What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle database?

Oracle database is comprised of three types of files. One or more datafiles, two are more redo log files, and one or more control files.

How are functions and procedures called in PL/SQL?

CALL <procedure name> to call it directly

EXECUTE <procedure name> from calling environment

<Procedure name> from other procedures or functions or packages

Functions are called directly from other programs or procedures, no additional keyword is required.

What are the different datatypes available in PL/SQL?

PL SQL data types can be broadly divided into following categories. There are many data types available in PL SQL but mostly you will be using some of the popular ones.

  • Numbers – INT, INTEGER, FLOAT, NUMBER, SMALLINT, REAL etc.
  • Character or String – CHAR, CHARACTER, RAW, VARCHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, NVARCHAR2 etc.
  • Boolean – BOOLEAN
  • Date Time – DATE, TIMESTAMP etc.
  • Refer them in detail at oracle Database Documentation.

Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it.

STARTUP NOMOUNT

Instance startup

STARTUP MOUNT

The database is mounted

STARTUP OPEN

The database is opened

How to convert date to Julian Date format?

Using ‘J’ format string

SQL > select to_char(to_date(’24-Jan-2013',’dd-mm-yyyy’),’J’) as julian from dual;

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