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22. Define cross join?

The cross join is referred as the Cartesian product of records from the tables which is present in the join. Cross join delivers a result that merges each row from the 1st table with each row from the 2nd table. 

23. What is referred as temporal data types in Oracle?

Oracle offers the following temporal data types:

Date Data Type: It is referred as the different formats of Dates

TimeStamp Data Type: It specifies various formats of Time Stamp

Interval Data Type: It is the interval between the time and date

24. How can we create privileges in Oracle?

A privilege is said to be nothing but the right to implement an SQL query or to access another user object. Privilege may be provided as user privilege or system privilege. 

[sql]GRANT user1 TO user2 WITH MANAGER OPTION;[/sql]

25. Define VArray?

VArray is defined as an Oracle data type which has been used to have columns that contain multivalued attributes. It holds the bounded array of values. 

26. How can we obtain field details of a table?

Describe has been used to obtain the specific table field details.

27. Explain the difference between alias and rename?

Alias is referred to be a temporary name which is given to a column or table whereas Rename is known as a permanent name that is given to a column or table. Alias is said to be an alternate table name or column name and Rename is considered to be nothing but the replacement of name. 

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28. What is referred as a View?

A view is defined as a logical table that based on one or more views or tables. The tables upon that the view is based are known as Base Tables and it does not have data. 

29. Define cursor variable

A cursor variable has been associated with various statements that hold different values during the runtime. A cursor variable is said to be a kind of the reference type. 

30. What is called as the SET operators?

SET operators have been used with two or more queries. Those operators are Minus, Union All, Intersect, Union.

31. What is known as the cursor attributes?

Each cursor exists in Oracle contain set of attributes that enable the application program to examine the cursor state. Thus the attributes may be used for checking whether a cursor is closed or opened, found or not found and also identify the row count. 

32. What is the procedure to delete the duplicate rows in a table?

The duplicate rows in a table can be deleted with the use of ROWID.

33. Explain about the attributes of the cursor

There are three types of Attributes of Cursor. They are %Found

Returns NULL if the cursor is open and the fetch has not been implemented

Returns TRUE if the cursor fetch has been successfully executed

Returns False if no rows have been returned.

%NOT FOUND

Returns NULL if the cursor is open and fetch is not executed

Returns False if the fetch is implemented

Returns True if no row was returned

%ISOPEN

Returns true if a cursor is open

Returns false if a cursor is closed

%ROWCOUNT

Returns the no of rows fetched. It must be iterated through the entire cursor to provide the exact real count

34. Is it possible to store the pictures in the database and if so, How it is to be done?

Yes, we are able to store pictures in the database by the Long Raw Datatype. This datatype has been used to store the binary data for 2 gigabytes of length. But the table should have only on the Long Raw datatype. 

35. Define integrity constraint?

The integrity constraint is said to be a declaration defined a business rule for the table column. Integrity constraints have been used to make sure the consistency and accuracy of data in a database. There are types such as Domain Integrity, Referential Integrity & Domain Integrity. 

36. Define ALERT

An alert is said to be a window that has been appearing in the center of the screen which is overlaying a portion of a current display. 

37. Explain hash cluster

Hash cluster is referred as a technique that is used to store the table for rapid retrieval. Apply hash value on the table to retrieve rows from a table. 

38. Describe the various constraints that are used in Oracle

The constraints used in the Oracle are listed below

NULL: It specifies a particular column which can have NULL values

NOT NULL: It indicates that the particular column cant have NULL values

CHECK: Evaluate the values that in the provided column in order to reach the specific criteria.

DEFAULT: It indicates the value that has been assigned to the default value.

39. Describe the difference between INSTR and SUBSTR

INSTR gives character position in which the pattern has been found in a string and SUBSTR returns the particular portion of a string. 

INSTR returns numeric whereas SUBSTR returns a string. 

40. What is referred as the parameter mode which can be passed to a procedure?

IN, OUT, and INOUT are the parameter modes which can be passed to a procedure.

41. Explain the various Oracle Database objects?

There are various data objects in Oracle –

Tables – it is set of elements organized in horizontal and vertical

Views – it is the virtual table derived from one or more tables

Indexes – it is the performance tuning method for generating the records

Synonyms – Alias name for the tables

Sequences – Multiple users process unique numbers

Tablespaces – Logical storage unit in Oracle

42. Describe the differences between List item and LOV

List items are said to be single item whereas LOV is property. List of items has set to be a collection of the list of items. List of an item can contain only one column whereas LOV may have one or more columns. 

43. What is known as Grants and Privileges?

Privileges are referred as the rights to implement SQL statements which means right to connect. Grants are provided to the object, thus the objects may be accessed accordingly. Grants can be given by the creator or owner of an object. 

44. Define the difference between $ORACLE_BASE and $ORACLE_HOME

ORACLE_BASE is referred to be the root or main directory of an Oracle whereas ORACLE_HOME has been located beneath base folder in which all the Oracle products reside. 

45. What is known as the fastest query method to obtain data from the tablet?

The row may be obtained from the table with the use of ROWID. The usage of ROW ID is the fastest query method to get data from the table. 

46. What is referred as the maximum number of triggers which can be applied to a single table?

12 is considered to be the maximum no of triggers which can be applied to a single table.

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47. In what way we can display row numbers with records?

For displaying row numbers with the record numbers:

1 Select rownum, from table;

This query displays field name and row numbers from the table.

48. How the last record added to a table can be viewed by us?

Last record may be added to a table and this can be done by:

1 Select * from (select * from employees order by rownumdesc) where rownum<2;

49. Define the difference between Cross Join and Cartesian Join

There are no differences that are occurred between the join. Cross and Cartesian joins are considered to be same. Cross joins provides a Cartesian product of two tables – Rows from the first table has been multiplied by another table which is known as a Cartesian product. Cross join without where the clause provides the Cartesian product. 

50. What is known as the data type of DUAL table?

The DUAL table is said to be a one-column table that is present in Oracle database. The table contains a single VARCHAR(1) column known as DUMMY that holds a value of ‘X’.

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