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• Question 17. List At Least Two Factors That Promote The Transition From Ductile To Brittle Fracture? 

The manner of loading and the rate of loading promote the transition from ductile to brittle fracture. A machine member may have ductile failure under static loading but may fail in brittle fashion when the load is fluctuating. Similarly a material may evidence ductile failure under tensile loading at ordinary testing speed, but if the load is applied at a high velocity then failure may be brittle. 

• Question 18. Which Theories Of Failure Are Used For? (a) Ductile Materials (b) Brittle Materials? 

For ductile materials, theories of failure used are maximum shear stress theory and maximum energy of distortion theory;

For brittle materials, the theory of maximum principal stress and maximum strain are used.

• Question 19. What Is The Common Element Between The Brass And Bronze Metal Alloys? 

Copper.

• Question 20. What Does The Alloy Designation Fg 250 Indicate? 

FG 250 alloy designation indicates Grey cast iron with a tensile strength of 250 MPa.

• Question 21. Define Ceramic? 

Ceramic is a solid formed by the combination of metallic and non-metallic elements.

• Question 22. Give One Example Of Metal Classified As Per Structure As Bcc, Fcc, Hcp And Ccp? 

Examples of BCC, FCC, HCP and CCP structures:

BCC (Body Centred Cubic) structure – molybdenum;

FCC (Face Centred Cubic) structure – Aluminum;

HCP (Hexagonal Close Packed) structure – Zinc;

CCP (Cubic Close Packing) structure – Copper.

• Question 23. What Is The Name Of Solid Solution Of Carbon In Alpha-iron And Delta Iron? 

Ferrite and Austenite respectively.

• Question 24. Explain The Difference Between Pear Lite And Cementite? 

Pearlite is a eutectoid mixture of ferrite and cementite. Cementide is a chemical compound of iron and carbon. 

• Question 25. Give One Example Each Of The Following Proportion Of Materials – Dimensional, Physical, Technological And Mechanical? 

Roughness, enthalpy, toughness and hardness respectively.

• Question 26. For Which Parts The Wahl Factor And Lewis Factor Is Used? 

Wahl factor and Lewis factor is used for springs and gears respectively.

• Question 27. How Oxygen Gas Can Be Removed From Steel During Melting? What Are Fully Killed Steel? 

Oxygen gas can be removed from steel during melting by adding elements such as manganese, silicon or aluminium which, because of their high affinity for oxygen, react with it to form non-metallic oxides such as manganese oxide, silicon oxide and aluminium oxide. Which rise into the slag. Steels in which have has most of their dissolved oxygen removed are called ‘fully killed steels’. • Question 28. Hydrogen Cannot Be Removed Easily From Molten Steel. What Harm Hydrogen Has On Property Of Steel? Answer : Excessive hydrogen in molten steel results in the formation of small fissures often described as hairline cracks or flakes in the steel. Large forgings an alloy steel are particularly sensitive to this phenomenon. 

• Question 29. What Is Allot Rope? In What Forms Of Cubic Pattern, Iron Exists? 

Some elements exist in more than one crystalline form. Each crystalline form is known as ‘allotrope’ of the element. Iron exists in two crystalline forms of cubic pattern, namely, body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC). 

• Question 30. When A Material Is Known As Allotropy Or Polytropic? 

A material is known as allotropic aur polytropic if it exists in several forms at a different temperature.

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