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Materials Science and Engineering Materials-Free Download



Question 1. What Is The Difference Between The Isotropic And An Isotropic Materials? 

If a material exhibits same mechanical properties regardless of loading direction, it is isotropic.

ex:homogeneous cast materials. Materials lacking this property are anisotropic.

• Question 2. What Are Orthotropic Materials?

Answer :

Orthotropic materials are a special class of isotropic materials which can be described by giving their properties in three perpendicular directions 

ex: wood; composites.

• Question 3. A Plain Carbon Steel Has Brinell Hardness Number (bhn) Of 180. What Are The Values Of Rc, Vhn And Ultimate Strength? 

Answer :

Rc = BHN/10 = 18, VHN = BHN = 180

Ultimate strength = 3.48 × BHN MPa = 620 MPa.

• Question 4. What Properties Are Needed To Be Considered For Application Calling For Following Requirements?

I) Rigidity.

Ii) Strength Of No Plastic Deformation Under Static Load.

Iii) Strength To Withstand Overload Without Fracture.

Answer :

i) Reliability – elastic modulus and yield strength.

ii) Strength (for no plastic deformation under static loading) – yield point.

iii) Strength (overload) – Toughness and impact resistance.

iv) Wear resistance – Hardness.

v) Reliability and safety – Endurance limit and yield.

• Question 5. Explain The Effects Of Alloying Chromium And Nickel In Stainless Steel.?

Answer :

The addition of nickel and chromium increases the tensile strength and increase in resistance to corrosion takes place. 

• Question 6. Mention Two Types Of Dislocations?

Answer :

Dislocation refers to a break in the continuity of the lattice. In an edge dislocation, one plane of atoms gets squeezed out. In screw dislocation, the lattice atoms move from their regular ideal positions. 

• Question 7. What Are The Principal Constituents Of Brass?

Answer :

Principal constituents of brass are copper and zinc.

• Question 8. What Is Curie Point?

Answer :

Curie point is the temperature at which ferromagnetic materials can no longer be magnetized by outside forces. 

• Question 9. Specific Strength Of Materials Is Very High When They Are In Fibre Size But Lower When They Are In Bar Form - Why? 

The crystal structure has ordered, repeating arrangement of atoms. Fibers are liable to maintain this and thus have high specific strength. As for size increases, the condition of ordered and repeating arrangements can’t be guaranteed because of several types of defects and dislocations, and thus the specific strength gets lower. 

• Question 10. What Is The Percentage Of Carbon In Cast Iron? 

2.5%.

• Question 11. Which Element Is Added In Steel To Increase Resistance To Corrosion? 

Chromium.

• Question 12. Whether Individual Components In Composite Materials Retain Their Characteristics Or Not? 

Yes.

• Question 13. Why Is It That The Maximum Value Which The Residual Stress Can Reach Is The Elastic Limit Of The Material?

A stress more than the elastic limit, with no external force to oppose it, we relieve itself by plastic deformation until it reaches the value of the yield stress. 

• Question 14. Why Fatigue Strength Decreases As Size Of A Part Increases Beyond Around 10mm? 

The perfection of material conditions is possible at lower sizes, and as size increases, it is not possible to attain a uniform structure of the material. • Question 15. Distinguish Between Creep And Fatigue? 

Creep is low and progressive deformation of a material with time under a constant stress at high-temperature applications. Fatigue is the reduced tendency of material to offer resistance to applied stress under repeated or fluctuating loading condition. 

• Question 16. While Normal Carburizing And Nit Riding Surface Treatments Increase Fatigue Strength, Excessive Treatment May Decrease The Fatigue Strength. Why? 

Normal carburizes/nits riding treatments increases volume due to phase transformation at the surface and introduce residual compressive surface stress and thus increases fatigue strength. By excessive treatment, the high compressive stresses ae introduced but these are balanced by high internal elastic stresses of equal value, and the surface fatigue cracks may develop in the regions of the high tensile stress and lead o early fatigue failure.

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