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Industrial Engineering and Management Materials-Free Download

1.What is plant organization?

Organization can be termed as distributing functions of a business to a qualified personnel to get the best output. Organization should be built around functions rather than individuals. In the past and to a large extent today, the majority of progressive concerns are organized on a line-and-staff basis. There are two types of organization: 

A line organization comprises those individuals, groups, and supervising employees concerned directly with the productive operation of the business. The paths of authority are clearly defined, as each individual has but one superior from whom he or she obtains orders and instructions. 

A staff organization involves personnel, departments, or activities that assist the line supervisor in any advisory, service, coordination, or control capacity. It should be noted that a staff position is a full-time job and is essentially the work of a specialist. 

2.What points should be kept in mind to build an effective organization?

Following principles should be kept in mind to build an effective organization:

• Clear separation of the various functions of the business should be established to avoid overlap or conflict in the accomplishment of tasks or in the issuance or reception of orders.

• Each managerial position should have a definite location within the organization, with a written job specification.

• There should be a clear distinction between line and staff operation and control.

• A clear understanding of the authority under each position should prevail.

• Selection of all personnel should be based on unbiased techniques.

• A recognized line of authority should prevail from the top of the organization to the bottom, with an equally clear line of responsibility from the bottom to the top. 

3.Which two groups of management manages the control organization and what are their responsibilities?

The two groups of management control of organization is the responsibility of two groups of management:

1. Administrative management: It has the responsibility for determining policy and coordinating sales, finance, production, and distribution.

2. Production management: It has the responsibility for executing the policies established by administration.

4.What is process analysis?

Process analysis is a procedure for studying all productive and nonproductive operations for the purpose of optimizing cost, quality, throughput time, and production output. These four criteria are not mutually exclusive and they are not necessarily negatively correlated. High quality with few if any rejects can result in high production output with low throughput time and cost. All four of these criteria need to be addressed if a facility is going to be a world competitor producing a quality product. In applying process analysis to an existing plant producing a product line, the procedure is first to acquire all information related to the volume of the work that will be directed to the process under study, namely, the expected volume of business, the chance of repeat business, the life of the job, the chance for design changes, and the labor content of the job. This will determine the time and effort to be devoted toward improving the existing process or planning a new process.

5.What are the requirements of a good organization?

Requirements of a good organization are mentioned below:

• responsibilities should be clearly defined and coupled with corresponding authority;

• a change in responsibility be made only after a definite understanding exists to that effect by all persons concerned;

• Definite orders to an employee should be from one source

• orders not be given to subordinates over the head of another executive;

• Any criticism made should be made privately and for the betterment of the employee

• promotions, wage changes, and disciplinary action always be approved by the executive immediately superior to the one directly responsible;

6.What is process planning? Mention different type of processes.

Process planning consists of selecting the best process, which can be used in the most advantageous way, selecting the specific tricks, fixtures, etc. to be used, and specifying the locating points of the special tools and the speeds, feeds, and depths of cut to be employed. The two different types of processes are mentioned below: Basic Processes The first processes used in the sequence that leads to the finished design. Secondary Processes: operations that are required to transform the general form created by the basic process to product specifications. 

7.What is a plant layout?

For a good process to work smoothly, a proper layout is required. The main purpose of a plant layout should be low handling cost and low throughput time. There are two types of plant layout: 

• Product or straight-line layouts: In this, minimization of flow from one operation to next for any product class as machinery is located. 

• Process, or functional, arrangements: It is the grouping of similar facilities.

8.What are the major disadvantages of product grouping?

The major disadvantages of product grouping are:

Employee discontent can easily be picked as a broad variety of occupations are represented in a small area. The problem of finding competent supervisors is increased due to the variety of facilities and jobs to be supervised. Initial investment is more as duplicate service lines such as air, water, gas, oil, and power lines are required.

9.What is total quality control? Mention the technical standards.

The main objective of total quality control is to provide defect free products in 100 percent of the time to meet the complete needs of the customer. It involves all the members in an organization who can affect the quality of the output – a product or service. ISO 9000 is a world standard for quality, it is a quality assurance management system, which is divided into four divisions on the basis of its technical standards: 

• ISO 9001 covers procedures from purchasing to service of the sold product.

• ISO 9002 targets towards standards related to processes and the assignment of subcontractors.

• ISO 9003 It is applied to final inspection and test.

• ISO 9004 It is applied to quality management systems.

10.What are the problems involved with queuing theory?

Matching of servers, which is provided to randomly arriving customers or services, which takes random amount of time, are the problems involved with Queuing theory. It is also known as waiting-line theory. Typical type of problems involved is, people (or customers or parts) arrive at a server (or machine) and wait in line (in a queue) until service is rendered. There may be one or more servers.

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