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Question 27. Explain Updating Drupal?

There are two different \"magnitudes\" of upgrades. There are major upgrades and minor updates. A major upgrade updates Drupal from one major version. Because major Drupal versions indicate substantial changes, such upgrades are often time consuming, requiring many steps both before and after the actual installation of the software. Minor updates move from one point release to another newer point release. A point release is a software update that contains only bug fixes and minor feature changes. Its major version number remains the same, but its minor version (its point number) is incremented. Drupal's current major version number is 7, and its minor version number (as of time of writing) is 12, so we have version 7.12. Updating minor releases is much simpler than major upgrades, and should also be done regularly. Since most minor versions are released for security or stability reasons, they are typically quite important. In this section, we will look at updating Drupal multi-site configurations. The process differs from upgrading a single-site instance in that there are more steps, and the order of steps must be done carefully. Since a multi-site runs only one copy of Drupal, all of the sites on a multi-site install must be updated at the same time. Multi-site updates differ from single-site updates in one crucial way: while Drupal's code needs to be updated only once, each individual site needs to go through the updating process. To keep site impact to a minimum (and to avoid catastrophes), doing these updates requires a special process. 

Question 28. How To Fetch A New Version Of Drupal? 

You can use your web browser to go to Drupal.org and download the newest version, or you can use any number of tools to do this for you. For example, you can use Drush, if you have it installed and configured in the Vagrant profile). • Question 29. Which Are Commonly Used Php Based Cmss ? 

Drupal

Joomla

Wordpress

TYPO3

• Question 30. What Are Gnu Licenses ? 

Not at all—there are many other free software licenses. We have an incomplete list. Any license that provides the user certain specific freedoms is a free software license. 

• Question 31. Why Are So Many Drupal Versions Available – 4.×, 5.× …? Which One Should I Use? 

It is recommended that you run the most current stable release. This can always be found at the Drupal Project page. However, if there are no compelling features in the latest version, a contrib module that is important to you isn’t ready or you don’t have time, there is no need to rush your upgrade as long as security updates are available for the version you are running. 

• Question 32. Can I Use Drupal On The Command Line? 

Yes, you can use drush. drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal.

• Question 33. What Is Database Abstraction Layer In Drupal ? 

Allow the use of different database servers using the same code base. Drupal provides a slim database abstraction layer to provide developers with the ability to support multiple database servers easily. The intent of this layer is to preserve the syntax and power of SQL as much as possible, while letting Drupal control the pieces of queries that need to be written differently for different servers and provide basic security checks. Most Drupal database queries are performed by a call to db_query() or db_query_range(). Module authors should also consider using pager_query() for queries that return results that need to be presented on multiple pages, and tablesort_sql() for generating appropriate queries for sortable tables. 

• Question 34. What Is A Module In Drupal ? 

A module is software (code) that extends Drupal features and/or functionality. Core modules are those included with the main download of Drupal, and you can turn on their functionality without installing additional software. Contributed modules are downloaded from the Modules download section of drupal.org, and installed within your Drupal installation. You can also create your own modules; this requires a thorough understanding of Drupal, PHP programming, and Drupal module API. 

• Question 35. Explain The Concept Of Node In Drupal? 

A node in Drupal is the generic term for a piece of content on your web site. (Note that the choice of the word “node” is not meant in the mathematical sense as part of a network.) Some examples of nodes: 

• Pages in books

• Discussion topics in forums

• Entries in blogs

• News article stories

Each node on your site has a Content Type. It also has a Node ID, a Title, a creation date, an author (a user on the site), a Body (which may be ignored/omitted for some content types), and some other properties. By using modules such as the contributed Content Construction Kit (CCK) module, the core Taxonomy module, and the contributed Location module, you can add fields and other properties to your nodes. • Question 36. Concept Of Comment In Drupal ? 

Comments are another type of content you can have on your site (if you have enabled the core Comment module). Each comment is a typically small piece of content that a user submits, attached to a particular node. For example, each piece of discussion attached to a particular forum topic node is a comment. 

• Question 37. Explain Taxonomy In Drupal? 

Drupal has a system for classifying content, which is known as taxonomy and implemented in the core Taxonomy module. You can define your own vocabularies (groups of taxonomy terms), and add terms to each vocabulary. Vocabularies can be flat or hierarchical, can allow single or multiple selection, and can also be “free tagging” (meaning that when creating or editing content, you can add new terms on the fly). Each vocabulary can then be attached to one or more content types, and in this way, nodes on your site can be grouped into categories, tagged, or classified in any way you choose. 

• Question 38. What Is Difference Between Diff And Patch ? 

diff creates patch In simple terms, the diff command is used to compare differences between two versions of a file. The resulting file is called a patch, and typically is given (by the user) a “.patch” suffix. This patch file then can be used on other copies of the “old” file by using the patch command, thus updating their “old” file(s) to match the “new” file(s). Why you would use diff When might one use diff to create a patch file? Let’s say you are customizing a module to fix a bug, and have saved a new version of the module. How will you pass on your bug fix to others? Simply passing on your version of the module may not work, because it’s quite possible someone else has modified some other aspect of the code at the same time and you both would be overwriting each others’ changes. So instead, what you do is run diff between the two files, and then upload the resulting patch — which others can then apply to their files using the patch command. (And you can apply other people’s patches against your files, without losing your own changes.). The added benefit of this type of workflow is that changes to the code can easily be tracked — and undone, if necessary — which is essential in a community-developed project such as Drupal. 

• Question 39. List The Features Of Drupal ? 

1. Rock solid & high quality platform

2. Powerful templating system. Any XHTML or CSS template can be easily converted to Drupal

3. Real multi-site-feature (only one installation for several sites)

4. Any Kind of user groups & user permissions, OpenId compliant in Version 6

5. Can run membership and community sites, not only CMS etc

6. Clear, high quality code and API (easy to integrate with other solutions etc)

• Question 40. Explain The Capabilities Of Views Module? 

The Views module provides a flexible method for Drupal site designers to control how lists and tables of content (nodes in Views 1, almost anything in Views 2) are presented. Traditionally, Drupal has hard-coded most of this, particularly in how taxonomy and tracker lists are formatted. This tool is essentially a smart query builder that, given enough information, can build the proper query, execute it, and display the results. It has four modes, plus a special mode, and provides an impressive amount of functionality from these modes. Among other things, Views can be used to generate reports, create summaries, and display collections of images and other content. 

• Question 41. What Is Pdo? 

PDO is an acronym for PHP Data Objects. PDO is a lean, consistent way to access databases. This means developers can write portable code much easier. PDO is not an abstraction layer like Pear DB. PDO is a more like a data access layer which uses a unified API (Application Programming Interface). • Question 42. Which Are The Core Required Modules In Drupal 6.x ? 

1. Block — Controls the boxes that are displayed around the main content.

2. Filter — Handles the filtering of content in preparation for display.

3. Node — Allows content to be submitted to the site and displayed on pages.

4. System — Handles general site configuration for administrators.

5. User — Manages the user registration and login system.

• Question 43. Is It Possible To Disable The Core Required Modules Through Drupal Admin ? 

No, it is not possible to disable the core required modules. • Question 44. Which Are The Core Optional Modules In Drupal 6.x ? 

1. Aggregator Aggregates syndicated content (RSS, RDF, and Atom feeds).

2. Blog Enables keeping easily and regularly updated user web pages or blogs.

3. Blog API Allows users to post content using applications that support XML-RPC blog APIs.

4. Book Allows users to structure site pages in a hierarchy or outline.

5. Color Allows the user to change the color scheme of certain themes.

6. Comment Allows users to comment on and discuss published content.

7. Contact Enables the use of both personal and site-wide contact forms.

8. Content translation Allows content to be translated into different languages.

9. Database logging Logs and records system events to the database.

10. Forum Enables threaded discussions about general topics.

11. Help Manages the display of online help.

12. Locale Adds language handling functionality and enables the translation of the user interface to languages other than English.

13. Menu Allows administrators to customize the site navigation menu.

14. OpenID Allows users to log into your site using OpenID.

15. Path Allows users to rename URLs.

16. PHP filter Allows embedded PHP code/snippets to be evaluated.

17. Ping Alerts other sites when your site has been updated.

18. Poll Allows your site to capture votes on different topics in the form of multiple choice questions.

19. Profile Supports configurable user profiles.

20. Search Enables site-wide keyword searching.

21. Statistics Logs access statistics for your site.

22. Syslog Logs and records system events to syslog.

23. Taxonomy Enables the categorization of content.

24. Throttle Handles the auto-throttling mechanism, to control site congestion.

25. Tracker Enables tracking of recent posts for users.

26. Trigger Enables actions to be fired on certain system events, such as when new content is created.

27. Update status Checks the status of available updates for Drupal and your installed modules and themes.

28. Upload Allows users to upload and attach files to content.

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