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Technical Interview Materials PDF-Free Download

Technical Interview Q & A PDF

1. What is Cloud and Cloud Computing?


Cloud: A cloud is a term comprised of hardware, storage, services, and interfaces which helps in providing computing as a service from a remote location it has three kinds of users: 

•End Users

•Cloud Service Provider 

Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is a defined as on-demand delivery of computing power, database storage, applications, and other IT resources through a cloud services platform via the internet so that cloud delivers service worldwide. 

2. What are the different service models for cloud computing?


There are different kinds of cloud service model below are three major models, a different business using some or all of these models as per the requirement: 

1.Software as a Service (Saas) :

SaaS model provides a software application and programs a service to the end user, all application and program are managed cloud-based. 

2.Platform as a Service (PaaS) :

PaaS model provides an environment, platform, and operating system layer via the internet to a developer so that they can develop application and services. 

3.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) :

IaaS is fundamental service of the cloud computing, it provides infrastructure to access the computing resources in a virtualized environment on the internet. 

3. What are the different deployment models?


Cloud computing supports several deployment models, each has its own services and operation to a cloud environment. A larger organization uses private cloud where small businesses utilize the public cloud, below are some of the deployment models: 

1.Private Cloud :

It is provided for a single organization having multiple business units. Private cloud is owned, managed and operated by the organization. It may reside in on or off premises.Organizations opt for private cloud for sensitive and critical information as it provides security, reliability, service and it has the ability to scale. 

2.Community Cloud :

It is provided to be accessible by a group of an organization as it shares infrastructure between several organization which belongs to a particular community, i.e. bank and trading firm. It can be managed and operated by the company, a third-party, or a combination. It may reside either on-premises or in a remote data center and it can be hosted internally or externally. 

3.Public Cloud :

Public cloud infrastructure is open for use by the public. It is more secure than accessing information via the internet. It is managed and operated by a government organization or business and it exists on the cloud provider. 

The public cloud provides functions like collaboration, CRM, Storage and social networking.

4.Hybrid Cloud :

It is a combination of two or more different cloud deployment model that remains unique entities and they are bound t?g?th?r b? ?t?nd?rdiz?d or proprietary t??hn?l?g? th?t ?n?bl?? data ?nd application ??rt?bilit? (?.g. ?l?ud bursting for load balancing between clouds). 

4.What are some security measures provided by a cloud?

Answer: Security in the cloud is the major concerned for the organization as data should be stored in encrypted form. There are many levels of security within cloud environment such as: 

1.Identity Management :

Identity management control access information, computing resources, application and services to be used by an authorized user only. 

2. Access Control :

As data can be accessed by anywhere in cloud permission need to provide to the user to control the access to other users to enter into a cloud. 

3. Authorization and Authentication :

As data is in cloud provision is made to allocate access to certain individuals (authorized user) only to change the application and data. 

5. How can a company benefit from cloud computing?

Answer: There are many advantages of cloud computing for any organization below are some of the benefits of cloud computing

•Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users

•More secure data backup

•Data storage (Relational, No-SQL, Block Storage)

•Increased productivity

•Sandboxing and virtualization capabilities

•Increased productivity

•Cost Effectiveness

•Better for growth and scalability

•Take advantage of powerful server capabilities without a hardware investment.

•Software as a Service. (SaaS)

6.Name the platforms which are used for large-scale cloud computing.

Answer: Cloud provides many platforms for cloud computing but as the emergence of the big data cloud needed large-scale distributed computing the platform are as follows: 

1. Apache Hadoop: Apache Hadoop is an open source technology, it uses Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) for storage and distributed processing of very large datasets multi-node computer cluster which are built using commodity hardware with high scalability. Hadoop provides services like data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations. 

2. MapReduce is a framework used for processing of large-scale data generated in structure, unstructured or semi-structured format. MapReduce uses cloud sources and commodity hardware to process data and by replicating same data three (default replication factor = 3) times it provides fault tolerance and scalability at a software level. 

7. Why API’s are used in cloud services?


API’s is an acronym for Application Programming Interface and it is used in a cloud for:

• User doesn’t need to write a complete program as it provides inbuilt programming interface.

• The suggestion and instruction will pop up to make a connection between one or more application.

• Application can be programmed and developed easily with access to a link for cloud services of other systems.

8. Name some of the cloud computing platform databases?


• Mongo DB

• Couch DB

• LucidDB

• DynamoDB-Amazon

9. Name some basic characteristic of cloud computing?


Below are some of the essential characteristic of cloud computing:

• On-demand self-service with a provision of storage, computing etc.

• Broad network access can be used in the thin or thick client platform

• Support rapid elasticity so that it can grow and shrink as per requirement

• Measured Services with pay as you go pricing model.

10.Name the data centers in cloud computing?


1. Containerized data center

2. Low-density data center

1. What types of data are used in cloud computing?

This may sound as a simple question, but in order to answer it, an IT professional has to show he or she is up to date with the latest trend in cloud computing. In fact, there are three types of data necessary to work with the cloud to save and store various data files. First of all, you want the candidate to talk about unstructured data. Unstructured data is data that has an unknown or unclassified structure. You can classify as unstructured data all those file types such as images, video, text and search engine results. After unstructured data, a cloud computing expert should talk about structured data. This type data is processed, accessed, and stored in a fixed format. An example of structured data is contained in database management systems. Finally, we find semi-structured data, which is a mix of structured and unstructured data. A good example of this type of data is XML format. 

2. Can name some of the most important cloud platform databases? 

Cloud computing is a technology that is rapidly evolving in terms of speed, scalability, and efficiency. This is happening especially thanks to open source software that are becoming an integral part of the cloud.Just to name a few, your candidate should be familiar with MongoDB, CouchDB, and LucidDB. The first one, MongoDB, is written in C++, it offers high storage capabilities. Also, this database system is schema free and document-oriented. CouchDB, on the other hand, is based on Apache server and is very efficient and reliable at its job (which is storing data).Finally, we find LucidDB, employed for data warehousing, and it is written in Java/C++. 

3. What is our advantage as a company adopting cloud computing facilities?

This can be a crucial question, as it implies the core question whether or not your company will get any advantage from building an in-house cloud computing department. Also, it gives you a clear view of how much your candidate understands the importance and benefits found in cloud computing. The reasons to build a cloud computing division within your company are many, and your prospect should be able to name those reported below. – Thanks to cloud computing, your data backup and data storage will be safe- Your IT department will be able to boost your server capabilities without the need to invest on hardware.- Your software will be able to work on any operating system- You will be able to use your cloud computing as a software as a service (SaaS) without the need to include a third party company- As you opt for building a new IT capability within your company you will increase productivity and cut costs.- You will be able to grow and scale your business. 

4. Can you talk about platforms that are used for large-scale cloud computing?

With this question, your candidate will have to show his deep knowledge about platforms for data storage and processing, as well as scalability. Two main platforms are Apache Hadoop and MapReduce. Apache Hadoop is an open software platform built specifically for distributed storage and distributed processing of very large datasets. Hadoop is aimed to provide for data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations. Introduced by Google, MapReduce marks the new frontier for analysis of large-scale data with this platform. MapReduce provides the user with the ability to process a huge number of datasets using cloud sources and commodity hardware. It provides fault tolerance and transparent scalability at the software level. 

5. Name the different service models provided by cloud computing.

Again, this question will test the cloud computing expert’s knowledge of the different types of service offered by cloud computing. There are three different types of service: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). The first one, Infrastructure as a Service, is a hardware facility provided by a third party, which also manages it. Platform as a Service consists of the operating system layer and it is operated by another company as well.Software as a Service regards all applications and programs hosted in the cloud. 

6. How can cloud computing help our company?

This is an important question especially for mid-size to big companies that are more interesting in building a private cloud than a small business that may opt for the public cloud. Besides private cloud and public cloud, there are also community cloud and hybrid cloud infrastructures. A company may build a private cloud to be used exclusively for its internal needs, it can be supervised by the company itself or a by another enterprise, or both. Its physical position may be where the company is located or may be positioned in a remote data center.A community cloud infrastructure is aimed to provide its services to a limited community of users that have a shared interest in their businesses. What about the public cloud? As the name says, the public cloud is thought to be used by the public. It can be operated by a third organization and its location is situated where the data center of the cloud provider is.When merging two or more cloud infrastructure you create a hybrid cloud, even though the different clouds keep their distinct attributes. They are called hybrid because they share the proprietary tech that enables data and app portability. 

7. Why should a company opt for utility computing?

This is a complex question that requires a complex answer: thanks to utility computing the end user will only have to pay for the service on a per use basis. The user will have the ability to increase the number of services he’s using to satisfy his needs. This approach to cloud computing can be very remunerative for those businesses that plan to scale and grow their product. 

8. When transferring data to the cloud, what is the best way to make this operation safe?

By adopting a secure key, you can make sure there will not be any data leaks, whether they’re malicious or not, from the cloud storage. This action will make intercepting your data impossible when it moves into the cloud. 

5. Mention the Layers of PaaS Architecture.

Cloud Controller

• Automatically creates Virtual machines and controllers.

• Deploys Applications

• Connects to services

• Automatically scales Ups and Downs.

Storage Services

• Object


• Relational

• Block Storage

Applications store in storage services

• Simple to scale applications

• Easier recovery from failure

6. What are the Cloud Service Models?

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Platform as a service (PaaS)

Software as a service (SaaS)

7. What are the components of Windows Azure?

Windows Azure platform services

• The Cloud

• SQL Azure

• App Fabric: Allows fabric cloud

8. What are the differences occurred in Distributed operations?

FC: Master-Slave operations

Nova: Parallel process and its shared database.

9. Which agent is equivalent of Nova Compute?

Azure Agent

10. Mention the Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing.

Use of fault domains:

• Two virtual machines are in single fault domain if a single hardware can bring down both the virtual machines.

• Azure automatically distributes instances of a role across fault domains.

Use of Upgrade Domains:

• When new version of software is rolled out, then only one up gradation of domain is done at a time.

• Ensures that some instance of the service is always available.

• Availability of the applications in the multiple instances

Storage and Network Availability:

• Copies of data are stored in different domains.

• Mechanism to guard against DoS and DDoS attacks.

11. Give the best example for open source Cloud Computing.


12. Explain the Common storage of PaaS Architecture.

Cloud Controller:

• Automatically creates the virtual machines and containers.

• Deploys applications

• Connects to services

• Automatically scales ups and downs

Storage Services:

• Object


• Relational

• Block Storage

Applications store state in storage services:

• Simple to scale applications

• Easier recovery from failure.

13. Why Hybrid Clouds are so important?

Cloud Bursting:

Access capacity or specialized software are available in public cloud and not in private cloud.

Examples: Virtual Amazon and Dynamo

Leverage best of both worlds:


• It is VM Ware cloud

• It is Expensive

• Enterprise quality


• It has commodity servers and storage.

• It is less reliable.

• We can run Web servers on OpenStack.

• Database is built on VCloud.

14. List the platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing.

The platforms that are used for large scale cloud computing are

• Apache Hadoop

• MapReduce

15. Mention the different types of models used for deployment in Cloud Computing.

The different deployment models in cloud computing are

• Private Cloud

• Public Cloud

• Community Cloud

• Hybrid Cloud

Source: Contents are provided by Technicalsymposium Google Group Members. 
Disclaimer: All the above contents are provided by Google Group members. 
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