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Civil Engineering Materials-Free Download



Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings? 

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings. 

What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing? 

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are: 

> Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes. 

> Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner. 

> Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required. 

6. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls? 

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows: 

> Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment. 

> Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost. 

> Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets. 

7. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined? 

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more. 

8. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings? 

P

ot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases. 9. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works? 

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability. 

10. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets? 

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished. 

list of 18 questions commonly asked questions in civil engineering interviews to civil site engineers and project engineers:

1. Name various authorities or workers on a construction site?

• Senior Engineer/Project manager

• Site Engineer

• Contracter

• Mistri

• Mason/labor

2. What is least cover provided for different RCC Members?

• Footing = 50 mm

• Column = 40mm

• Beam = 25mm

• Slab = 20mm

3. What are the functions of column in a building?

Column is a verticle member in building whose primary function is to support structural load and transfer it through beams. Upper columns transfers the load to the lower columns and finally to the ground through footings. 

4. What is the cement sand & aggregate ratios for various grades of concrete mix?

• M10 – 1:3:6

• M15 – 1:2:4

• M20 – 1:1.5:3

• M25 – 1:1:2

• M30 – 1:1:1

5. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb, also known as airpocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting. Already tired of reading these questions? Rather, you can listen to these civil engineering interview questions on our YouTube video, along with their answers here: 

6. Does Water damage concrete?

Plain concrete is not affected or damaged by water but Reinforced Concrete (RCC) can be damaged due to water. This is because the water may seep into the concrete and corrode the steel reinforcement inside. 

7. What is the initial and final setting time of ideal cement mix?

Initial setting time for ideal cement mix is around 30 minutes for almost all kind of cements. For masonry cement it can be 90minutes. Final setting time of ideal cement mix should be 10 hours at max. For masonry cement it shouldn’t exceed 24hours. 

8. What are common methods of curing the concrete?

• Spraying

• Wet covering of Surface

• Ponding

• Application of curing chemicals

• Steam curing

9. What is the formula for weight of steel?

Weight of steel in kg can be calculate by formula (D2*L)/162; where D is diameter of steel bar in millimeter and L is total length of steel bar in meter. 

10. What do you know about “TMT”?

TMT stands for “Thermo Mechanically Treated”. Generally we use TMT bars and sheet for construction purposes for the reason that they have high strength and high corrosion resistance compared to normal steels. 

11. What is difference between working stress method and limit state method?

Working stress method is an elastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load upto elastic limit. Whereas, limit state method is a plastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load beyond plastic limit. 

12. What field tests are required for quality check of cement? 

Quality of cement can be checked with color, physical properties, etc. Cement should have grey color with light greenish shade. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If hand is inserted in a heap of cement or its bags, it should feel cool. When pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sink. Also, it should be lump free. 

13. What are the types of foundation used in construction? 

There are basically two types of foundation: Shallow & Deep foundation. Again shallow foundation can be classified as spread footing, combined footing, strap or cantilever footing and finally mat or raft footing. Deep foundations can be classified as pile footing, pier footing, caissons footing and well foundation. 

14. What are the types of cement?

There are various types of cement which are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Coloured Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, etc. 

15. What is guniting?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces. 

16. What is the function of sand in mortar? 

The main role of sand (aggregate) in mortar or plaster is to provide core strength, but it has other benefits too. If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, both compressive and tensile strength of the mixture would be drastically lower than in mixture with added sand. It also helps to prevent mortar shrinkage, increases density and helps in setting. 

17. What are various tests for checking brick quality? 

We can use water absorption test, hardness test, shape & size, crushing strength test, soundness test, etc. to check the brick quality. In water absorption test, we dip the brick for 16 hours in water. If weight of brick after dipping in water doesn’t exceed by 20%, it can be considered as first class brick, if below 22.5% it can be considered as second class brick, if below 25% it can be considered as third class brick. In crushing test, it crushing strength should be minimum of 10 N/mm2 for first class brick, 7.5 N/mm2 for second class bricks. In hardness test, we scratch the brick with nails. It should be scratch free. In soundness test we check the metallic sound by striking two bricks with each other. 

18. What is void ratio? 

Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids. 

The civil engineering interview questions asked above are useful knowledge required in day-to-day work on field as a site engineer. Hence, it is vital to have sound knowledge of these basic questions. 

1.What do you mean by the OSHA compliance?

OSHA alias Occupational Safety and Health Act; its purpose is to satisfy the health and safety norms of workers and employees. It is considered to be a standard for the safety and health that is trailed by each industrial section and corporate workplaces all through U.S.A. 

2. What do you mean by reinforced concrete?

Reinforced concrete comprise of steel bars or mesh inside them, which gives additional strength to the structure.

1. Enlist the common methods of demolition

• Dismantling

• Hydro-demolition

• Pressure Bursting

4. What is flashing in Civil Engineering? 

Flashing is a construction extension that is carried out to seal and shields the joints in a structure from water leakage. Flashing is introduced at the roof intersection, walls and parapets. 

5. Explain the Critical Path Method Diagram Technique (C.P.M) 

Critical Path Method is a methodology and strategy of depicting the respective tasks and activities required in the construction through an emblematic diagram. 

6. Explain the significance of a zoning permit 

Zoning permit is a document provided by the governing urban authorities allowing the land under question to be utilized for a specific reason. 

7. Mention a few softwares that can prove to be useful for an architect

• AutoCAD

• Digital Media

• Photoshop

• 3DS Max

• Microsoft Office

8. What do you mean by demising walls?

A demising wall is utilized to lay the boundary that isolates your property or house from that of the neighbour’s home.

9. What are the different kinds of roof systems?

• Metal roofing systems

• Stone or Slate roofs

• Wood shingle roofs

10. What would you call a hybrid foundation?

A hybrid foundation is generally utilized for an elevated structure, it consists of both soil supported piles and mat. This kind of foundation is useful in decreasing the measure of the settlement. 

11. Enlist a few checkings to be done post construction completion

• Drainage

• Safety provision (i.e. porches, areaways and so on)

• Compaction factor of fill material

• Edging of the pavements

• Storm sewer framework etc…

12. Explain the term progress payment

It is an installment paid by the proprietor to the temporary contractor; it is a contrast between the finished work and material put away and a pre-decided calendar of values or unit costs. 

13. What does 1/8 on the architect ruler represent ? 

1/8 on the scale is infact a scale that proselytes 1/8 inch on to the drawing to 1 foot. It would depict a drawing with a size of 1/8?= 1 foot. 

14. Structural frames or systems 

Structural frames happen to be a load bearing structure of columns and beams on an establishment. Ordinarily, the columns and pillars are for the most part created off site and put together on site. 

15. List some of the top apps for civil engineers.

• STEEL

• Houzz

• Magic Plan

• Evernote

16. What are wooden shingles? What’s their use? 

Wooden shingles are often rectangular. They resemble sheets or slats that are nailed to the outside surface. Shingling is a customary weather proofing strategy for a building. 

17. What are the various types of roofs?

• Bell cast roof

• Skillion roof

• Gull wind roof

• Mansard roof

• Sawtooth roof

18. What do you mean by release of lien? 

Lien release is a written document executed by a person or firm providing labor, material or professional service, which come up with his repairman’s lien against the venture property. 

19. What are the prerequisite skills needed to become an architect?

• Knowledge about laws

• Engineering capability

• Designing model concepts

• Business aptitude

20. List some of the issues that architects have to face

• Limited budget

• Limited space

• When client is not sure about the requirements

21. Enlist the various steps involved in the concreting process

• Batching

• Mixing

• Transport and placement of the concrete

• Compacting

Source: Contents are provided by Technicalsymposium Google Group Members. 
Disclaimer: All the above contents are provided by technicalsymposium.com Google Group members. 
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