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Civil Engineering Materials-Free Download



Define Modulus of Elasticity? 

Modulus of Elasticity, also know as elastic modulus is the elastic deformation tendency of a material. In the stress strain curve the slope is the elastic modulus. 

What is the chemical composition of cement? 

Cement primarily consists of CaO. The chemical composition of Portland cement is tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite. 

What is tensile strength? 

It is the maximum longitudinal stress that an object can withstand without necking. It denotes the maximum point in a stress strain curve. 

Which is the world’s largest hydroelectric project? 

The Three Gorges dam on Yangtze River in China is the world’s largest hydroelectric project in terms of total capacity. The total capacity of the Three Gorges dam upon full completion would be 22500 MW with 32 turbines. Its length is 2335m and height is 101m. The second largest is the Itaipu dam on the Parana River in the border of Brazil and Paraguay. Its length is 7700m and height is 196m with a capacity of 14GW in 20 turbines. 

Explain soil analysis. 

Soil testing is a qualitative analysis to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. Soil is mostly tested for elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is also tested for acidity, moisture, organic contents and contaminants. 

What are the points in the stress strain curve for mild steel? 

The points in the stress strain curve for mild steel are Proportional limit, elastic limit or yield point, ultimate stress and stress at failure. 

What are building codes? 

Building codes are a set of specifications regarding minimum safety conditions that any building should take in account during construction. Building codes deal with the height, spacing, installations of a building. These codes lay huge emphasis on safety and ease to evacuate the building in case of an emergency. 

What is fire resistance rating? 

It is a measure of time up to which a system could resist the fire resistance test. It is generally depicted by a time-temperature graph. 

What are tectonic plates? 

Tectonic plates are the pieces of the Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere lies over the asthenophere, which has a higher density and makes the tectonic plates on the lithosphere to move. The movement of the tectonic plates is said to be the cause of earthquakes. Ocean trenches, volcanoes and mountains exist at the meeting points of two tectonic plates. 

What is the Richter scale? 

The Richter scale, a base 10 logarithmic scale, is a measure to quantify the seismic energy from an earthquake. 

The size of concrete cube is 150mm x 150mm x 150mm as per indian standards. Why?

According to British Standard (BS) 1881:1983 . 

100 mm cubes can take up to 20mm CA and 150mm cubes can accommodate up to 40mm CA! 

What is the quantity of 20mm concrete, sand used for 1 cum R.C.C?

The total volume of materials needed for getting 1cum of concrete is 1.5cum.

The mix prop for M20 is 1:1.5:3.

So let a be the qty of cement,

then a+1.5a+3a=1.5

5.5a=1.5

a=0.27

so cement=0.27cum,sand=o.41cum,gravel=0.81cum.

This is more descriptive way to understand,the way of cal.the qnty.

How can we calculate 4/6 lane road width and maximum percentage of super elevation in national highways in india. SINGLE LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS WIDE+1.5M EACH SIDE SHOULDER 

DOUBLE LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS +7.50MTS WIDE+1.5M+1.5M BOTH SIDE SHOULDER 

FOUR LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS +7.50MTS WIDE+1.5M EACH SIDE SHOULDER+1.50 MTS CENTRE MEDIAN 

What is the bearing capacity of soil?

It is defined as the maximum load carrying capacity of soil per unit area without any shearing failure of the soil. 

How are freeway bridges built?

After calculating the anticipated traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are spaced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully. Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete. 

What are the applications of modulus of elasticity?

As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA compared to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel. 

What are the causes of building collapse?

The Passage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings or demolition of buildings is also other reasons.

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