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Civil Engineering Materials-Free Download

51 :: What distance in meters on the ground is the equivalent of one second of arc in longitude or latitude? 

One minute of arc as measured at the centre of the Earth covers one nautical mile on the surface of the Earth at mean sea level. One nautical mile is 6080 feet or 1853.2 meters. Therefore one second of arc would be 6080 / 60 = 101.3 feet or 30.886 meters. 

Lines of latitude are at regular intervals Parallel to the equator. The relationship between degrees of latitude and the distance spanned on the earth’s surface remains constant. Therefore at all latitudes 1 minute of latitude spans 1 nautical mile on the earths surface. 

Lines of longitude converge at the poles. Therefore, the relationship between degrees of longitude and the distance spanned on the earth’s surface is reduced as the poles are approached. 

At the equator, the distance spanned by 1 minute of longitude would be 1 nautical mile. At the poles, it would be zero. To calculate the actual distance on the surface of the earth between two points of known latitude and longitude requires knowledge of spherical trigonometry to calculate the great circle distance between the two points. 

The distances quoted are for the surface of the earth at mean sea level. Distances will be increased above sea level and reduced below it. 

52 :: How do you maintain water pressure? 

If you have water pressure and wish to maintain it, do not cause flow in the line, which will reduce pressure due to friction. To keep pressure up, reduce friction by increasing the line size or eliminating some other restriction. 

53 :: What are some facts about concrete? 

Actually, drying is not directly linked to hardness in concrete. After concrete is poured, putting it in a wet environment by spraying it constantly with water will hasten its hardening and its curing. After concrete cures, it is hard. 

54 :: Who designed the city of Washington DC? 

Pierre L'enfant 

55 :: Where is the worlds longest elevator and how long is it? 

Gold mines in South Africa go a few kilometers below the surface. The deepest mine now is the Mponeng Mine in the Orange Free State. The depth of the mine is well over 3000m from the surface and is getting deeper. The lift itself descends 3037m to a point 1200m below sea level. It takes 4 minutes. 

56 :: How many kilo-Newtons equals 1000 kilogram? 

When the 1000 kg are at rest, on Earth with gravitational acceleration 9.81 m/s2, 1000 kg equal 9.81 kN. 

57 :: How is the Leaning Tower of Pisa supported? 

In the same manner, it was supported when it was constructed. However, it has gotten some "help" over the years. 

In the last couple of decades, the responsible Parties rolled up their sleeves and removed something approaching 40 meters3 of earth from under the higher side of the structure. This had the effect of straightening it toward the vertical by about a foot and a half at the top. For the first time in its history, it is no longer moving. In addition, in the good-news corner of the Paper is that it is open to the public again. In addition, the folks who lived near the tower in the direction it was leaning have returned to their homes and do not have to sleep with an eye and an ear open. 

58 :: What does civil engineering mean? 

They do many interesting things. Their job has to do a lot with design and construction. They can tell you what works and what will not for all sorts of situations. There is a lot of mathematics involved along with many other disciplines. They have to have a good solid understanding of how the environment works and how nature interacts with man made. They are probably best known for designing bridges, interstates, skyscrapers, canals, and so forth. 

59 :: How long does it take concrete to harden? 

It takes 28 days to cure. 

60 :: What is the biggest dam in America? The Grand Coulee Dam - Grand Coulee, Washington

a) Length 5,223 ft 

b) Height 550 ft 

61 :: How does siphoning work? 

Pretty good if the outside hose is a lot lower than the inside hose. The siphon works by a hose stuck in a fluid container higher than the receiving container. Suction is shortly placed on the lower side of the hose until the fluid is flowing down the down line. Gravity will cause a continued flow. 

62 :: Why was the Empire State Building made of steel? 

Strength--Steel is very strong 

Flexibility--Ability to flex in the wind 

Cost--Inexpensive and fast to build; prefab construction 

Concrete, a possible alternative, has less compressive strength than steel. The bottom support structure of the empire state building would consist of a large percentage of solid concrete simply to support the weight of the building. 

63 :: What is the quantity of cement in Mix M20 concrete? 

For nominal Mix Cement consumption for M25 will be 570 kg per cum. and for Design Mix it can be optimized to 510 kg per cum. 

64 :: What is unit weight of normal concrete? 

145 PCF 

65 :: What is the difference between shear and tensile strength? 

Tensile Strength for a Bolt is determined by applying a Force along it long axis. Shear Strength for a Bolt is determined by applying a Force across its diameter, as it would be loaded in a lug joint. 

66 :: How many Pyramid in Egypt? 

About 80 

67 :: Would you cause a 55-gallon drum of water to weigh more by climbing in? 

A person will sink in water if he is not holding enough air in his lungs to keep him floating. Therefore, the person weighs more than the amount of water that he will displace. 

68 :: Who built the sears tower? 

While he did not build the structure (he died in l959), there is some evidence the idea was suggested under a different name (Illinois Building) by Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the few true skyscrapers in which he had a role. The original design for the Illinois Building would have topped off at 5,280 Feet! The Swears tower is a quarter of this at most, but there are similarities. 

69 :: At what point does a circle start losing area when being flattened? 

The area ratio decreases slowly at first then more rapidly. 

The area of an ellipse is A=pi x a X b, a and b are the 1/2 major and 1/2 minor axis. If a = r = b the area is A=pi X r2, which is a circle. Not hard to graph this but you will have to write the area of the ellipse in terms of the circumference. 

70 :: How do you compute volume of airflow? 

Orifice meter is used for measuring flow rate air. 

71 :: What is made from large rocks, which protects the base of cliffs? 


72 :: Why are the bolts that hold steel rails together in oval holes? 

It has to do with the design of the bolts. The reason that head of the bolt is oval. The head of a bolt fit flush into the bar and set in opposing sets is so that a piece of dragging equipment will not shear off all the bolts in a joint but rather the just the nuts one side. As a result, if the hole were not oval on one side there would be no way to tighten or loose the bolts in a joint. 

73 :: What are the materials used in building a gravity dam? 

There are many gravity dams constructed of compacted earth. High dams are generally concrete. All dams require a spillway to be safe. The spillway must be armored. 

74 :: How many feet are in 4 square yards? 

There are 9 square feet in a square yard therefore there are 36 square feet in 4 square yards. 

75 :: What black man invented the clothes dryer? 

George T. Sampson 

76 :: What is the average density of soil? 

For purposes of civil engineering, an average soil will have a density of about 100 to 110 pounds per cubic foot. (This can vary a little depending upon how well compacted the soil is.) 

77 :: What glue is least sticky? 

Elmer’s glue is least sticky. 

78 :: What are the strongest shapes in building? 

The pillars 

79 :: Which architectural movement is also known as Jazz Moderna? 

Art nouveau 

80 :: What is the withdrawal force of steel nails? 

In engineering, the code-allowable withdrawal force is zero, because the wood expands and contracts over time and the nail pullout force can reduce to zero. 

81 :: What is the strongest bridge for a school contest? 

If you are making a spaghetti bridge, bunch it all together in a triangular prism or a big brick and just fill the gaps with Paste. 

82 :: What is the formula for figuring out how many gallons of water are in a pipe by the foot? 

0.61 * d2, where d is the diameter of the pipe in inches. 

83 :: What is the tensile strength of marble? 

Tensile Strength, Ultimate 7.00 - 20.0 MPA 1020 - 2900 PSI

this is the strength in a pure tension test. For bending use: 

Modulus of Rupture 0.00410 - 0.0276 GPA 0.595 - 4.00 ksi

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