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23 :: What is the difference between engineering stress and true stress? 

In biology, Stress is something that disrupts homeostasis of an organism. In engineering, Stress is an external force that pushes, pulls, twists, or otherwise puts force on something. 

Engineering stress assumes that the area a force is acting upon remains constant, true stress takes into account the reduction in area caused by the force. 

24 :: What is a kip? 

1 kip = 1000 lbs 

25 :: What are some structures that may be subjected to fatigue? 

Bridges, hydraulic presses, burners trains 

26 :: Will going from a 3-tap to 6-tap increase water pressure? 

No, the pressure will be the same, you will get more volume only if your pumps can handle the GPM, to increase pressure you may need a booster pump or a single pump that is rated for your needs. 

27 :: Why does the pressure increase under soil? 

Soil pressure increases with depth due to the overburden or self-weight of the soil and due to loads imposed upon the soil. 

For example, the pressure variation below the depth of soil is linear and the relation is given by pressure = unit wt * depth. As depth increases, there will be a linear increase in the soil pressure. 

28 :: What is the distance between railway tracks? 

4 feet, 8 1/2 inches 

29 :: How high should the water tank be to provide a 60 PSI at base of this water tower? 


2.31ft of water= 1 PSI 

30 :: What are the reasons for geotechnical site investigations in Uganda? 

Based on the soil properties, that can be determined on site and in the lab, design the appropriate foundation for the structure. 

31 :: What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete? 

Some people call it an air pocket in the concrete or a void. 

32 :: What is the purpose of the gap in the road on this bridge? 

Purpose of the gap in the road is to allow the road to expand and contract with temperature changes without causing damage or deformation to the road. 

33 :: What is the tensile strength of wood? 

The tensile strength of a material is the value at which the material fails when subjected to a tensile force. (Tensile means a force pulling the wood fibers lengthwise, as opposed to a compressive force.) There are a lot of different types and load cases for wood, so there is not one answer to this question. For example, wood used outside will fail at a lower load than wood inside. Wood is also anisotropic, i.e. it has different strength in different directions. 

Example values of tensile strength vary anywhere from 175 pounds per square inch for Utility Grade pine to 1400 PSI for Dense Select Structural grade Douglas Fir. A good reference for material strength data for most species and grades of commercially available wood can be found in the American Institute of Timber Construction handbook. 

34 :: How many Lbs are there in a yard? 

A pound (Lb) is a unit of measurement for weight while a yard is a unit of measurement for distance. 

If you are referring to common measurements used on a construction site, a "yard" is a common abbreviation for a "cubic yard", which is a unit of measurement of volume. (A cubic yard equals 27 cubic feet.) 

Since dirt weighs about 110 pounds per cubic feet, a cubic yard of dirt weighs about 2970 Lbs. Since concrete is heavier (150 PCF), a cubic yard of concrete weighs about 4050 Lbs. 

35 :: What is a projection line? 

Projection line is the way, in which the earth is shown on a flat piece of Paper. 

36 :: What are moment of inertia and its importance in civil engineering? 

The moment of inertia measures the opposition any kind of body will have against a certain momentum (along that same axis) trying to rotate that body. 

37 :: What is the origin of name Railway Sleepers? 

When sleepers were added below the railway, lines the trains ran more smoothly and people fell asleep on their journeys. 

38 :: What is BMC stands for in BMC Software? 

BMC Software founders Scott Boulett, John Moores, and Dan Closer began a contract programming Partnership that operated in and around Houston, Texas. 

39 :: Does brick grows bigger every year. 

Usually bricks do not grow, but since stuff gets all over, it looks like it grows. 

40 :: How did street originate in the plumbing term street ell? 

A "street ell" may have gotten its name because it describes a 90° fitting Particularly useful in tight, street ditches. When installing water pipes under a street, or from a water service, again under the street, into a home or business, this street ell allows one to change pipe direction with one less fitting, and in less space, than with a standard ell. 

41 :: What is the absolute pressure scale? 

Absolute pressure is calculated from a vacuum (0 PSI) and atmospheric pressure is14.7PSIa or 14.7 PSI above a vacuum 1PSI on a tire pressure gauge is called 1PSIg = 15.7PSIa 10PSIg=24.7PSIa 100PSIg=114.7PSIa etc. 

42 :: What is the difference between QA and QC? 

Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts. Since all three are necessary to manage the risks of developing and maintaining software, it is important for software managers to understand the differences. They are defined below: 

a) Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives. 

b) Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product. 

c) Testing is the process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the "process of executing a system" includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.) 

43 :: How did the Romans get water up hills using aqua ducts? 

Technically, the Romans were not able to get water to move uphill in a general sense. All aqueducts move water from an elevated source (spring-fed streams in the mountains) to end-users at a lower elevation. The water flows almost entirely downhill from the source to the end user. If the water needed to cross a valley, the Romans would build an arched structure with an elevated channel to cross the valley, but even this channel would have a vary slight downhill gradient that allowed water to flow towards the end user. If a large hill was in their way, the Romans would either divert the channel around the hill, dig a trench through the hill, or dig a tunnel through the hill, all while maintaining a fairly constant, slight downhill gradient towards the end user. 

The only exception to the rule of a generally constant downhill slope to the water channel is that specific tunnel segments, the Romans could build the tunnel as an inverted siphon (mentioned above) to cross a depression or valley and raise the water level on the downhill side almost to the level of the uphill side. To do this requires a well-sealed tunnel strong enough to withstand the increased water pressure within the siphon. Note, however, that except for gaining a little bit of elevation if you slow down fast-moving water, you normally cannot get water to flow out of the outlet at a higher elevation than the inlet. So technically, even the Romans were not able to get water to flow "up a hill". 44 :: Will Water damage concrete? 

As far as only concrete is concerned i.e. plain concrete, the effect of water seepage is very little (depending upon the grade of concrete) whereas for RCC (reinforced cement concrete) water that seeps in corrodes the reinforcement and thus reduces the life of the structure. The defects that water seepage induces in concrete are as follows: 

a) induces capillary formation (due to the detonating characteristics of water) 

b) With this capillaries the concrete starts spelling out; i.e. the places where capillaries are formed, with even slight amount of stress that portion comes out and exposes the steel to the atmosphere 

c) Concrete has a pH of about 12 -13. It also reduces the pH of the concrete when in salty water (or) when exposed to marshy areas. 

d) Reduces the overall strength of concrete 

e) Reduces durability 

f) Reduces permeability to further water seepage 

g) Results in ageing of structures 

45 :: How do you determine Specific gravity of cement? 

Cement is usually purchased as a powdery substance that is mixed with sand, aggregate, gravel, and water to form concrete. Since the cement itself is usually a powder, it is hard to measure a standard value for its specific gravity. In addition, since cement is usually not used by itself, knowing its specific gravity is not Particularly useful. 

A more useful question is "What is the typical density of concrete?" A rule of thumb answer is that normal cured concrete has a density of about 150 pounds per cubic foot. This includes the weight of the cement, sand, aggregate, and that Part of the water that chemically binds with the cement to form the concrete. Since water weighs about 62.4 pounds per cubic feet, concrete is about 2.4 times as heavy. Thus, the specific gravity of concrete is about 2.4. If you took cement and mixed it with water, you would eventually have a hard lump of useless cement and it would also have a specific gravity of between 2 and 2.4. 

46 :: What is the meaning of a blue land surveyors flag? 

If the flag was placed by Utility personnel responding to a "One-call" locate request, the blue flag indicates a buried water line. You see these marked when a contractor calls the "Call before you dig number" a couple of days prior to excavating. This is required by law in each state to reduce the likelihood of damaging underground utilities when excavating. 

The standard color code used by almost all utility companies for Painting & flags is: 

White - "Here is the area I plan on excavating!" 

Blue - water line 

Red -electricity 

Yellow -natural gas 

Green -sewer 

Orange -telephone and/or fiber optic line 

If the blue flagging was a fuzzy blue marker nailed to the top of a wood surveyor's stake, then it probably serves to indicate the top of the grade at which the engineer wants the earthmoving equipment to place fill dirt. These are called "blue-top" stakes. 

47 :: What are advancements in civil engineering? 

Unlike other fields of engineering, the major advancement of the filed has been in the early years of the century before the last century where the use of concrete technology is advanced. The use of cement as a construction material is since the turn of the last century, improvement in the field increase by the use of steel elements in the construction of buildings and bridges of various types. With the help of two, it was possible to do multistory buildings in the world. 

Machineries were created to speed up the construction structures. The last century has also seen the advent of sophisticated design to withstand the effect of earthquake that was not possible before. With the use of computers, development of model and analysis of structures under the effect of loads was made possible. Before just two decades, it used to take months and months to design high-rise building and big bridges. Now it is a matter of hours. 

48 :: Why is the statue of liberty made of copper? 

Copper is a very durable material when exposed to weather and is soft enough that it can be easily molded to curved shapes such as those in the Statue of Liberty. It is also traditionally used in buildings for complex roofs, so there would have been trades people available trained to use it. 

Other metals that can be molded are lead but it does not have the attractive verdigris color, and gold much is more expensive 

49 :: Are cruise ships built for the transatlantic run? 

The Queen Mary 2 was built for transatlantic crossings, but much smaller ships can make the crossing easily. In 1995, I crossed the Atlantic from New York to the Azores on the Royal Princess (which was not the same ship as the current Royal Princess), which was about one-fourth the size of the QM2. Just about any seaworthy Passenger ship can navigate the Atlantic safely, if not comfortably. 

50 :: What is diversion tunnel in a dam? 

When a dam is to be built, a diversion tunnel is usually bored through solid rock next to the dam site to byPAss the dam construction site. The dam is built while the river flows through the diversion tunnel.

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