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Civil Engineering Materials-Free Download



1 :: What are the causes of building collapse? 

The Passage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings or demolition of buildings is also other reasons. 

2 :: What are the applications of modulus of elasticity? 

As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA comPAred to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel. 

3 :: What is the difference between routing maintenance and major maintenance in school facilities? 

The routine maintenance is the minor and consistent repairs that are engaged in the school premises. Examples could include Painting, replacement of fixtures, louver blades, furniture repairs, and Patching cracks in the school buildings. 

The major maintenance could also be a total rehabilitation of the school, either school buildings or any other project within the school community. It could be total restructuring of the lighting system in the school or sanitary system. 

4 :: How are freeway bridges built? 

After calculating the anticipated traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are spaced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully. 

Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete. 

5 :: What is the difference between absorption & adsorption and sorption? 

Absorption generally refers to two phenomena, which are largely unrelated. In one case, it refers to when atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. For instance, a sponge absorbs water when it is dry. 

Absorption also refers to the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. The photon is destroyed in the process. The absorbed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy or transformed into heat energy. The absorption of light during wave propagation is often called attenuation. The tools of spectroscopy in chemistry are based on the absorption of photons by atoms and molecules. 

Adsorption is similar, but refers to a surface rather than a volume: adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorb-ate). It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution. 

6 :: How do you measure concrete? 

Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter 

7 :: Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe? 

On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression. 

8 :: What is the tallest man made structure in the world? 

The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall. 

9 :: What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made? 

Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property. 

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel). 

10 :: What is the worlds largest concrete dam? 

The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and PAraguay in South America. 

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009. 

11 :: What is braced excavation all about? 

Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil. 

12 :: What is the meaning of soil reinforcement? 

Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load. 

Two common examples are: 

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-compacting to improve soil-bearing capacity (often done under the road base in highway construction) 

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with compacted soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability) 

13 :: What is aggregate? 

Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress. 

14 :: What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed? 

1967 began commercial operation on unit 1. 

15 :: What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge? 

The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping. 16 :: How do you calculate the power of a centrifugal pump? The input power, that is, the power required to operate the pump should be stated in Hp (horsepower) on the pump's nameplate. It can also be calculated by the 3-phase power equation: P(in Hp) = VI(1.7c) = Rated Voltage x Rated Current x 1.73/ %Efficiency If this is a consumer grade pump that operates on 120Vac, then the equation becomes P = VI, simply multiply the operating voltage, 120 x current (which is the number followed by the letter "A". The output power, which really is not technically power, but rated in Gpm (gallons per minute), or caPAcity should also be on the nameplate. If you have the make, model, and (not necessarily needed) the serial number (also on the nameplate) you could call the manufacturer's customer service dept. As an application engineer, I have contacted countless manufacturers’, and service dept's for assistance. It is now big deal to them, they will be happy to answer your questions. 17 :: Why nautical mile is different from statute mile? One nautical mile is defined by one latitude minute of arc (there are 60 such minutes to a degree). This equals 1852 meters, and roughly (but coincidentally) 2000 yards or 6000 feet. (Edit: actually, a standard nautical mile is 6076 feet, 6000 feet and 2000 yards are commonly used approximations, but produce an error of about 1%). The statute mile had a little fuzzier definition to start with, as one mile was the same as 1000 roman Paces/steps. The definition has since changed, but one statute mile equals about 1609 meters. 18 :: What is rigging? In sailing, the ropes used to move the sails around so the boat will move in the right direction when the wind blows. 19 :: What is absolute pressure? Absolute pressure is simply the addition of the observed gage pressure plus the value of the local atmospheric pressure. 20 :: How do we calculate absolute pressure? Absolute is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric. 21 :: What is Gravity flow? Gravity flow is fluid flowing due to the forces of gravity alone and not to an applied pressure head. In the Bernoulli equation, the pressure term is omitted, and the height and velocity terms are the only ones included. 22 :: What is horizon or horizontal mining? Horizon or horizontal mining can be applied to extraction of material from seams of any stratified mineral such as limestone or ironstone, but it is more usually associated with coal - Particularly where there are several seams that are inclined or folded and/or faulted. Horizon mining involves long level roadways (horizons) being driven from the shafts to the extremity of the area to be mined. The levels of the horizons are chosen to intersect the maximum number of seams the maximum number of times. As the seams are intersected, headings will be driven into the seam so that the desired material may be extracted. This method of mining requires a thorough understanding of the geological structure of the area to be mined so that the level of the horizons can be chosen for optimum results. This method of mining is popular in modern coalmines with seams worked from several horizons. The considerable capital outlay of driving horizons before production can begin is recouped by the advantage of having long straight level roadways of generous dimensions unaffected by the crushing effect of nearby extraction of the mineral.

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