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Technical Round Materials-Civil Engineering-Free Download

Technical Round Materials-Civil Engineering-Free Download

How do you measure concrete?
Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter


Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?
On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.


What is the tallest man made structure in the world?
The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

What is braced excavation all about?
Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.


What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

What is aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?
1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?
The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.


What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?
Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

10 What is the worlds largest concrete dam?
The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and Paraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

What are the main reasons of building collapse?
There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.


State the applications of modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of elasticity is related to the flexibility of the material. The value of modulus of elasticity is pretty important in case of deflection of different materials used in building construction.


How are the freeway bridges built?
The traffic that is likely to go over the bridge at a time is estimated and the cement, rocked with rebar stanchions is placed over the freeway to build a bridge. Off-ramp from freeway to the bridge and on-ramp from the bridge to the freeway are constructed. Cement slabs are used to build a platform.


What is the basic difference in absorption, adsorption, and sorption?
Absorption refers to the phenomenon where an atom, molecule or ions enter any bulk phase like gas, solid or liquid. Absorption refers to the phenomenon where energy of photon is transferred to other entity.
Adsorption is similar to absorption. It refers to the surface rather than a volume. Adsorption takes place when the gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of solid. A substance diffuses in liquid or solid to form a solution.


Difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance for school facilities:
Routine maintenance is handling the minor repairs of the school campus. Major maintenance can be total reconstruction or renovation of the school.


What is soil analysis?
Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.


State the building codes.
These codes are the set of specifications to ensure the safety associated with any building construction. These codes are associated with the height, spacing, and installation of the building. These codes play an important role in vacating the building in case of any emergency situations.
From these interview questions, you will get an idea of the questions interviewer can ask you in the civil engineering position interview. Refer to some more sample questions here and revise all the answers carefully.


What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

The major steps involved in the process of concreting are as follows:
1. Batching
2. Mixing
3. Transporting and placing of concrete
4. Compacting.

> Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
> Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
> Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
> Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.


Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.


What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
> Length of bearing
> 2 x irreversible movement.
> 2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.


Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.


What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
> Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
> Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
> Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.


6. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls?

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:
> Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
> Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
> Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.


7. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.


8. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.


9. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

10. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

How do you measure concrete?
Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter


Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?
On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.


What is the tallest man made structure in the world?
The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

What is braced excavation all about?
Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.


What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

What is aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?
1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?
The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.


What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?
Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

10 What is the worlds largest concrete dam?
The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and Paraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

What are the main reasons of building collapse?
There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.


State the applications of modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of elasticity is related to the flexibility of the material. The value of modulus of elasticity is pretty important in case of deflection of different materials used in building construction.


How are the freeway bridges built?
The traffic that is likely to go over the bridge at a time is estimated and the cement, rocked with rebar stanchions is placed over the freeway to build a bridge. Off-ramp from freeway to the bridge and on-ramp from the bridge to the freeway are constructed. Cement slabs are used to build a platform.


What is the basic difference in absorption, adsorption, and sorption?
Absorption refers to the phenomenon where an atom, molecule or ions enter any bulk phase like gas, solid or liquid. Absorption refers to the phenomenon where energy of photon is transferred to other entity.
Adsorption is similar to absorption. It refers to the surface rather than a volume. Adsorption takes place when the gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of solid. A substance diffuses in liquid or solid to form a solution.


Difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance for school facilities:
Routine maintenance is handling the minor repairs of the school campus. Major maintenance can be total reconstruction or renovation of the school.


What is soil analysis?
Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.


State the building codes.
These codes are the set of specifications to ensure the safety associated with any building construction. These codes are associated with the height, spacing, and installation of the building. These codes play an important role in vacating the building in case of any emergency situations.
From these interview questions, you will get an idea of the questions interviewer can ask you in the civil engineering position interview. Refer to some more sample questions here and revise all the answers carefully.


What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

The major steps involved in the process of concreting are as follows:
1. Batching
2. Mixing
3. Transporting and placing of concrete
4. Compacting.

> Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
> Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
> Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
> Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.


Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.


What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
> Length of bearing
> 2 x irreversible movement.
> 2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.


Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.


What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
> Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
> Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
> Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.


6. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls?

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:
> Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
> Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
> Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.


7. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.


8. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.


9. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

10. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

e is the list of 18 questions commonly asked questions in civil engineering interviews to civil site engineers and project engineers:

1. Name various authorities or workers on a construction site?

  • Senior Engineer/Project manager
  • Site Engineer
  • Contracter
  • Mistri
  • Mason/labor

2. What is least cover provided for different RCC Members?

  • Footing = 50 mm
  • Column = 40mm
  • Beam = 25mm
  • Slab = 20mm

3. What are the functions of column in a building?

Column is a verticle member in building whose primary function is to support structural load and transfer it through beams. Upper columns transfers the load to the lower columns and finally to the ground through footings.

4. What is the cement sand & aggregate ratios for various grades of concrete mix?

  • M10 – 1:3:6
  • M15 – 1:2:4
  • M20 – 1:1.5:3
  • M25 – 1:1:2
  • M30 – 1:1:1

5. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb, also known as airpocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting.

Already tired of reading these questions? Rather, you can listen to these civil engineering interview questions on our YouTube video, along with their answers here:

6. Does Water damage concrete?

Plain concrete is not affected or damaged by water but Reinforced Concrete (RCC) can be damaged due to water. This is because the water may seep into the concrete and corrode the steel reinforcement inside.

7. What is the initial and final setting time of ideal cement mix?

Initial setting time for ideal cement mix is around 30 minutes for almost all kind of cements. For masonry cement it can be 90minutes. Final setting time of ideal cement mix should be 10 hours at max. For masonry cement it shouldn’t exceed 24hours.

8. What are common methods of curing the concrete?

  • Spraying
  • Wet covering of Surface
  • Ponding
  • Application of curing chemicals
  • Steam curing

9. What is the formula for weight of steel?

Weight of steel in kg can be calculate by formula (D2*L)/162; where D is diameter of steel bar in millimeter and L is total length of steel bar in meter.

10. What do you know about “TMT”?

TMT stands for “Thermo Mechanically Treated”. Generally we use TMT bars and sheet for construction purposes for the reason that they have high strength and high corrosion resistance compared to normal steels.

11. What is difference between working stress method and limit state method?

Working stress method is an elastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load upto elastic limit. Whereas, limit state method is a plastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load beyond plastic limit.

12. What field tests are required for quality check of cement?

Quality of cement can be checked with color, physical properties, etc. Cement should have grey color with light greenish shade. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If hand is inserted in a heap of cement or its bags, it should feel cool. When pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sink. Also, it should be lump free.

13. What are the types of foundation used in construction?

There are basically two types of foundation: Shallow & Deep foundation. Again shallow foundation can be classified as spread footing, combined footing, strap or cantilever footing and finally mat or raft footing. Deep foundations can be classified as pile footing, pier footing, caissons footing and well foundation.

14. What are the types of cement?

There are various types of cement which are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Coloured Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, etc.

15. What is guniting?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

16. What is the function of sand in mortar?

The main role of sand (aggregate) in mortar or plaster is to provide core strength, but it has other benefits too. If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, both compressive and tensile strength of the mixture would be drastically lower than in mixture with added sand. It also helps to prevent mortar shrinkage, increases density and helps in setting.

17. What are various tests for checking brick quality?

We can use water absorption test, hardness test, shape & size, crushing strength test, soundness test, etc. to check the brick quality. In water absorption test, we dip the brick for 16 hours in water. If weight of brick after dipping in water doesn’t exceed by 20%, it can be considered as first class brick, if below 22.5% it can be considered as second class brick, if below 25% it can be considered as third class brick. In crushing test, it crushing strength should be minimum of 10 N/mm2 for first class brick, 7.5 N/mm2 for second class bricks. In hardness test, we scratch the brick with nails. It should be scratch free. In soundness test we check the metallic sound by striking two bricks with each other.

18. What is void ratio?

Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids.

The civil engineering interview questions asked above are useful knowledge required in day-to-day work on field as a site engineer. Hence, it is vital to have sound knowledge of these basic questions.

:

1.What do you mean by the OSHA compliance?

OSHA alias Occupational Safety and Health Act; its purpose is to satisfy the health and safety norms of workers and employees. It is considered to be a standard for the safety and health that is trailed by each industrial section and corporate workplaces all through U.S.A.

2. What do you mean by reinforced concrete?

Reinforced concrete comprise of steel bars or mesh inside them, which gives additional strength to the structure.

1. Enlist the common methods of demolition

  • Dismantling
  • Hydro-demolition
  • Pressure Bursting

4. What is flashing in Civil Engineering?

Flashing is a construction extension that is carried out to seal and shields the joints in a structure from water leakage. Flashing is introduced at the roof intersection, walls and parapets.

5. Explain the Critical Path Method Diagram Technique (C.P.M)

Critical Path Method is a methodology and strategy of depicting the respective tasks and activities required in the construction through an emblematic diagram.

6. Explain the significance of a zoning permit

Zoning permit is a document provided by the governing urban authorities allowing the land under question to be utilized for a specific reason.

7. Mention a few softwares that can prove to be useful for an architect

  • AutoCAD
  • Digital Media
  • Photoshop
  • 3DS Max
  • Microsoft Office

8. What do you mean by demising walls?

A demising wall is utilized to lay the boundary that isolates your property or house from that of the neighbour’s home.

9. What are the different kinds of roof systems?

  • Metal roofing systems
  • Stone or Slate roofs
  • Wood shingle roofs

10. What would you call a hybrid foundation?

A hybrid foundation is generally utilized for an elevated structure, it consists of both soil supported piles and mat. This kind of foundation is useful in decreasing the measure of the settlement.

11. Enlist a few checkings to be done post construction completion

  • Drainage
  • Safety provision (i.e. porches, areaways and so on)
  • Compaction factor of fill material
  • Edging of the pavements
  • Storm sewer framework etc…

12. Explain the term progress payment

It is an installment paid by the proprietor to the temporary contractor; it is a contrast between the finished work and material put away and a pre-decided calendar of values or unit costs.

13. What does 1/8 on the architect ruler represent ?

1/8 on the scale is infact a scale that proselytes 1/8 inch on to the drawing to 1 foot. It would depict a drawing with a size of 1/8?= 1 foot.

14. Structural frames or systems

Structural frames happen to be a load bearing structure of columns and beams on an establishment. Ordinarily, the columns and pillars are for the most part created off site and put together on site.

15. List some of the top apps for civil engineers.

  • STEEL
  • Houzz
  • Magic Plan
  • Evernote

16. What are wooden shingles? What’s their use?

Wooden shingles are often rectangular. They resemble sheets or slats that are nailed to the outside surface. Shingling is a customary weather proofing strategy for a building.

17. What are the various types of roofs?

  • Bell cast roof
  • Skillion roof
  • Gull wind roof
  • Mansard roof
  • Sawtooth roof

18. What do you mean by release of lien?

Lien release is a written document executed by a person or firm providing labor, material or professional service, which come up with his repairman’s lien against the venture property.

19. What are the prerequisite skills needed to become an architect?

  • Knowledge about laws
  • Engineering capability
  • Designing model concepts
  • Business aptitude

20. List some of the issues that architects have to face

  • Limited budget
  • Limited space
  • When client is not sure about the requirements

21. Enlist the various steps involved in the concreting process

  • Batching
  • Mixing
  • Transport and placement of the concrete
  • Compacting

22. What do you mean by workability in concrete?

The simplicity with which concrete can be blended, placed and wrapped up. Wet cements are workable, however, weak.

23. What do you mean by soil reinforcement?

Soil fortification or reinforcement is the act of enhancing soil strength to empower it to support or convey more load.

24. What do you mean by an aggregate?

Aggregate is the part of a composite material used to contain compressive stress.

25. What is the difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance?

Routine maintenance is taking care of the minor repairs in a structure. Major maintenance refers to the total renovation or the reconstruction of a structure.

26. Explain the labor and material payment bond

It is a bond between the proprietor and the principle contractor. Where a contractor ensures for payment to the proprietor in the event that he neglects to pay for all work, materials, gears or administrations as per the contract. It can be asked at the time of your interview so you should include it in your list of Interview Questions.

27. What all does the construction cost includes and what not?

Construction cost includes labour, material, gear and services, contractor’s overhead and benefit and other direct construction costs. While, it doesn’t cover compensation to the architect, engineers or consultants, cost of the land and other costs that are proprietor’s obligation.

28. What are the major causes of the building collapse?

There are quite a few causes behind a building collapse. The time frame is the principle reason. Additionally, weak foundations, natural calamities such as earthquakes, storms and so on., are the significant reasons behind a building collapse. Bombarding and destruction is likewise another significant reason.

29. What are the units to measure concrete?

Cubic yards, cubic feet, cubic meters

30. Braced excavation and its importance

Excavations are carried out to keep the collapse of encompassing unstable soil at bay.

31. What are the applications of modulus of elasticity?

Modulus of elasticity is identified with the adaptability of the material. The estimation of modulus of elasticity is entirely vital in the event of redirection of various materials utilized as a part of building construction.

32. What does one understand by soil analysis?

Soil analysis is the process of soil testing to decide the nutritional and elemental structure of soil. It is for the most part tried for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.

33. State the different kinds of foundations

Three primary sorts of foundations are:

• Basement: Under this, a basement is constructed at first, over it building is erected.

• Crawl space: This is a raised foundation, it is built over the ground, sufficiently enabling space to creep underneath

• Slab: In this kind, concrete is specifically filled the pit made in the ground.

34. Mention the building codes

These codes are the group of specifications to guarantee the well-being related with any building construction. These code are related to the height, space, and establishment of the building. These are assume a vital part in clearing the structure if there should arise an occurrence of any crisis circumstances.

35. What do you mean by a hybrid foundation?

A hybrid foundation is generally utilized for an elevated structure, it contains both soil bolstered piles and mat. This sort of foundation is useful in diminishing the measure of the settlement.

:

1. Compare Liquefaction and Sand Boiling.- Liquefaction- In loose saturated sand due to seismic activity or other dynamic loading effective stress becomes zero and excess pore pressure generation takes place which takes the sand in upward direction with muddy water through soil pores this phenomenon is termed as Liquefaction. Sand boiling/piping- when steady seepage takes place in a saturated soil mass in upward direction , water exerts upward pressure on soil grains and reduces the eff.Stress to zero at this time soil starts moving in upward direction. This phenomenon is known as sand boiling.

2. What do you mean by Dowel action? Dowel action is phenomenon generated automatically inside the structure to transfer shear force.

3. What is the basic relationship between Shear Force and Bending Moment? Rate of change of Bending Moment along length of the member is the Shear force at that point or the slope of Bending Moment Diagram at any point is Shear Force at that point.

4. What is the need and benefits of stabilization of soil with the help of Lime? Answer- Lime decreases the plasticity of soil and reduces the permeability also it is responsible for increased Bearing Capacity of soil Lime is widely used to stabilize High plastic soil like Black Cotton Soil.

5. What is alternate depth? Answer- In open channel flow a Number of depths are chosen such that Specific Energy is same at l thode section. Hence, the sections chosen for specific Energy to be same in any open Channel flow are known as Alternate Depth.

6. Define Consumptive use of water by plants. Answer- Consumptive use of water is the term which gives the amount of water required by plants in order to fullfil there Evapo-Transpiration need. Evaporation from root zone and Transpiration from plant leaves.

7. What is the use of Lacing and Bracing in steel structures? Lacing- as the name suggest Lacing will be a structural part in steel structure that will held two different column sections to act as a single section in case of eccentric loading. Bracing - These are the members which are added in structure in order to give stability to.main structure whether in horizontal plane or vertical plane.

8. What are different stresses acting on a circular water tank? Answer- Hoop stress in circumferential direction, Longitudinal stress along the length, Radial or meridional stress in Radial direction when seeing from top view.

9. What is the basic difference between Anchorage bond stress and Flexural bond stress? Flexural bond stress is generally generated between supports in order to balance the unbalanced shear force caused by variations of Bending Moment. Anchorage bond stress is generated at supports (or end regions of structural members) in order to balance the resist high shear at supports.

10. What is negative superelevation and where does it appears in an Railway Track? When outer edge is lowered wrt inner edge this geometrical arrangement os known as Negative Superelevation, this condition occurs where any branch track emerges out from the main track.

What is quantity surveying?

2) What is estimation and costing?

3) Types of contract

4) What is valuation

5) What is productivity?

6) Tender procedure

7) Players in contract agreement

8) What is FIDIC ? brief Detail about FIDIC?

9) Condition of contract

10) What is breach of contract.

11) What is BOQ

12) What is reconciliation

13) What is arbitration

14) Stages involve in arbitration

15) Construction laws

16) What is variation

17) What do you see as the key challenges faced by Quantity Surveyors on a day to day basis.

18) Being civil engineer why did you choose this field

19) What is producivity of different work forces?

20) What m^2 of brickwork can a mason do in one day

21) Calculation of the concrete reinforcement Quantities in a structure

22) What is Development Length and what it should be in the case of a beam?

23) Measuring units for plaster, wooden framework & excavation.

24) Different diameters of reinforcement available.

25) What is Fe-500 D?

26) What is the capacity of a transit mixture?

27) What is the estimate of the interior work of the room, you are sitting in?

28) How can you define quantity surveying and cost management?

29) Development Length, Lap Length?

30) What are overlap lengths for columns, beam, slab ?

31) what,s the clear cover of beam,slab,column?

32) Rate Analysis And Negotiation

33) Deduction in brick work, form work

34) Amount of Binding Wire per tonne of Steel.

35) Size of Brick and Block?

36) What is Cost Analysis, Estimation And Budget

37) IS code of different items?

38) How much is Concrete Wastage?

For Sr. Quantity Surveyor

1) Tell me something about yourself.

2) How does your previous experience relate to the job you are applying for?

3) What are your short- and long-term objectives for your career?

4) What have been your biggest frustrations in your career?

5)What are some things your present company and department might do to become more successful?

6) What are your hobbies and interests? How do they contribute to,

or balance, the work you do professionally?

7) How do you motivate your crew?

8) If there were one area you've always wanted to improve upon, what

would that be?

9) Give me an example of when you had to go above and beyond the call of duty in order to get a job done.

10) What are your career goals?

11) Tell me about an important goal that you set in the past. Were you successful?

12) How well do you handle criticism?

13 ) Tell me about a time when you had to criticize and give feedback to a construction worker. How did it go?

14) Tell me about a time when a certain project did not go as planned. How did you and your team correct the issue?

15) When working on a typical project in your field, what do you find

to be the usual culprit to time delays? How do you correct these issues?

16) What are the different clauses in FIDIC conditions of conctract?

17) Whhat are the different way of measurment based on POMI

18) On what basis are man holes and Chambers are classified ?

19) Describe the projects you have worked on ?

20 ) Values & Type of contracts of previous project

What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

2. What are the different types of foundation?

3. What are the causes of building collapse?

4. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

5. What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

6. What is Water-Cement Ratio and How it is related to the strength of concrete?

7. What is bleeding, segregation, honeycombing of concrete?

8. How to increase the bearing capacity of soil?

9. How to calculate the unit weight of steel bars?

10. Why is concrete slump test carried out?

11. What is the different type of slump test indications?

12. What is the ratio of steel to concrete to use in slabs, beams, columns?

13. Difference between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning?

14. 28 days compressive strength of concrete in PSI?

15. What are the functions of a column in a building?

16. What is the average density of soil?

17. why shear reinforcement is provided?

18. Why is concrete cube test carried out?

19. What are the weights of 16mm, 12mm, 20mm, 25mm, 8mm Dia. Bars.

20. Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?

21. How do you construct a 25 storey building with no columns?

22. What do you know about tender? Discuss different types of tenders.

23.What is bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF) – Explain

24. What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

25. What is the minimum curing period?

26. What is a bearing capacity of soil?

27. Why we provide steel in concrete?

28. How can cracks in concrete be avoided?

29. Types Of DPC and its Thickness used?

30. What are the advantages of Prestressed Concrete over R.C.C?

31. Define slenderness ratio. What is its effect on the design of compression member?

32. Difference between mild steel and HYSD bars?

33. What do you understand by 80/100 bitumen?

34. What is differential settlement?

35. What do 53 stands for in 53-grade cement?

36. Types of loads on structure?

37.Will water damage concrete?

38. What is the L/D ratio of a cantilever beam?

39. What is camber?

40. What is batching? Difference between volume and weight batching?

41. What is a benchmark? Name the different types.

42. Types of admixtures?

43. Define modulus of elasticity.

44. What are the chemical compositions of cement?

45. What is creep & shrinkage of concrete

46. When the possibility of segregation of concrete is more?

47. Min. deshuttering (stripping) period of formwork as per IS 456.

48.What is gravity flow?

49. How is a theodolite leveled?

50. What is buckling or crippling load.

What is workability of concrete?

2.What are the forces taken into consideration while providing super elevation? Why do we provide camber?

3. What kind of cement would you use for completing the project with less budget and without compromising on the quality?

4. What do you know about hollow bricks used in construction of buildings?

5. What makes a building a green building?

6. What are the geotechnical methods used in seismic prone areas?

7. Why do longitudinal cracks develop on concrete pavements?

8. How much nominal cover would you provide to meet durability requirements. In sever exposure climatic conditions as per IS 456?

9. SFD and BMD for a some particular load conditions.

10. What happens when sugar is added to concrete?

11. What is the difference between one way slab and a two way slab?

12. How do you know if a reinforcement bar is fit for construction or not, just by looking at it ? Tell me other reasons keeping corrosion aside.

13. How would stress strain graph for concrete look like?

Question 1: What do u mean by M20?

Question 2: What is the nominal mix of M20?

Question 3: How do u measure the workability of concrete?

Question 4: Explain briefly the procedure for the above methods.?

Question 5: Which method would you use in site? What are its demerits?

Question 6: Tell me something about placing of concrete?

Question 7: Have you heard about slip form technique?

Question 8: What is chuting of concrete?

Question 9: As an engineer when will you go for chuting and is it a good method of concrete pouring?

Question 10: What are the factores affecting the strength of concrete?

Question 11: Have you heard about Boars compounds?

Question 12: Name the compounds and state their importance.

Question 13: How many different types of slabs are there? Explain each.

Question 14: What is the difference between 1way slab and 2 way slab?

Question 15: Identify which type of slab is above our heads?

Question 16: When to use 1 way and 2 way slab?

Question 17: In slab above our head where is the shear force and bending moment maximum?

Question 18: Where is the reinforcement provided for shear and bending ?

Question 3: what is the procedure for form work removal on site?

Question 4: what is difference between nominal & design mix?

Question 5: what are the main admixtures used in concrete?

Question 6: what will you do if transit mixer getting delay in reaching site before the i.s.t. of cement?

Question 7: difference between one way and two way slab?

Question 8: what is the green building?

Question 9: why it is required to design the mix on site?

Question 10: what are the common tests performed on concrete and cement?

Question 11: how will u measure the workability of concrete on site?

Section 2

Question 1: what is quick sand condition and how will you rectify it?

Question 2: In RCC how can you determine practically the under and over reinformed sections?

Question 3: what's the sequence of removing form work in site and explain it logically?

Question 4: shear force and bending moment diagrams of the beams given by the interviewer.

Question 5: what is honey combing and how to rectify it on site?

Question 6: questions related to your minor project and major trainings.

Question 7: various codes and their relevance

Question 8: applications of matrix method and MDM.

Question 9: define curb resistances and give practical methods of providing vertical alignment on highways?

Question 10: questions related to tests on road aggregates and bitumen.

Section 3

Question 1: Difference between Nominal mix of concrete and Design mix of concrete ?

Question 2: Grades of concrete and Grades of Cement

Question 3: How do you define Compressive strength of concrete and what is the meaning of M25 concrete

Question 4: Types of Cover in Reinforced concrete and explain them

Question 5: What is singly and Doubly Reinforced beam

Question 6: Types of Retaining wall and difference between them

Question 7: What is Green Buildings and materials to make green building

Question 8: What is parapet wall?

Question 9: How much thickness of plaster we provide for inner and outer wall

Question 10: What is damp proof course and why we use it ?

Question 11: What is the N value of rocks

Question 12: some basic of soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Section 4

Question 1: Bending moment diagram of a given framed structure ?

Question 2: Bending Moment diagram of an indeterminate beam. And, how to find the moments at the mid span of the beam ?

Question 3: Describe the basic moment distribution method to solve indeterminate systems ?

Question 4: Basic assumptions in Concrete Limit Design state and the method to design a beam ?

Question 5: Working Stress Design Method for Steel Structures ?

Question 6: How to design a building taking into account the earthquake loads and what are the parameters used during the procedure ?

Question 7: Draw a Bending Moment Diagram in a given loading case?

Section 5

Question 1: Basic tests in geotechnical engineering e.g. Plate Load Test, DCPT, CPT, SPT and Terzaghi equations.

Question 2: Some questions on the intern.

Question 2: Can a concrete member take tension?

Question 3: what is tension capacity of concrete?...etc

They will ask questions mostly on strength of materials, structural analysis and rcc, few questions from steel structures.

Question 1: What is your favourate subject?

Question 2: Assumtions in limitstate method?

Question 3: Bending moment d0iagram for cantilever beam with UDL?

Question 4: Bending moment diagram for propped cantilever with UDL?

Then slowly starting from basics, about the bending moment and shear force diagrams of a cantilever beam with UDL on it. Then going deeper into the code book details.

Question 1: Questions from SOM

Question 2: draw B.M.D

Question 3: questions from soil mechanics

Question 4: explain terzaghis assumptions

Question 5: draw the phreatic lines

Question 6: questions from foundation engg- explain how load is transmitted,

Question 7: Universal terzaghis eqn, cNc +qNq+.... & each term in that, the usual problems when ground water level at various heights

  • Name various authorities or workers on a construction site?
  • Senior Engineer/Project manager
  • Site Engineer
  • Contracter
  • Mistri
  • Mason/labor
  • What is least cover provided for different RCC Members?
  • Footing = 50 mm
  • Column = 40mm
  • Beam = 25mm
  • Slab = 20mm
  • What are the functions of column in a building?

Column is a verticle member in building whose primary function is to support structural load and transfer it through beams. Upper columns transfers the load to the lower columns and finally to the ground through footings.

  • What is the cement sand & aggregate ratios for various grades of concrete mix?
  • M10 – 1:3:6
  • M15 – 1:2:4
  • M20 – 1:1.5:3
  • M25 – 1:1:2
  • M30 – 1:1:1
  • What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?
  • Honeycomb, also known as airpocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting.
  • Does Water damage concrete?

Plain concrete is not affected or damaged by water but Reinforced Concrete (RCC) can be damaged due to water. This is because the water may seep into the concrete and corrode the steel reinforcement inside.

  • What is the initial and final setting time of ideal cement mix?

Initial setting time for ideal cement mix is around 30 minutes for almost all kind of cements. For masonry cement it can be 90minutes. Final setting time of ideal cement mix should be 10 hours at max. For masonry cement it shouldn’t exceed 24hours.

  • What are common methods of curing the concrete?
  • Spraying
  • Wet covering of Surface
  • Ponding
  • Application of curing chemicals
  • Steam curing
  • What is the formula for weight of steel?

Weight of steel in kg can be calculate by formula (D2*L)/162; where D is diameter of steel bar in millimeter and L is total length of steel bar in meter.

  • What do you know about “TMT”?

TMT stands for “Thermo Mechanically Treated”. Generally we use TMT bars and sheet for construction purposes for the reason that they have high strength and high corrosion resistance compared to normal steels.

  • What is difference between working stress method and limit state method?

Working stress method is an elastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load upto elastic limit. Whereas, limit state method is a plastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load beyond plastic limit.

  • What field tests are required for quality check of cement?

Quality of cement can be checked with color, physical properties, etc. Cement should have grey color with light greenish shade. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If hand is inserted in a heap of cement or its bags, it should feel cool. When pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sink. Also, it should be lump free.

  • What are the types of foundation used in construction?

There are basically two types of foundation: Shallow & Deep foundation. Again shallow foundation can be classified as spread footing, combined footing, strap or cantilever footing and finally mat or raft footing. Deep foundations can be classified as pile footing, pier footing, caissons footing and well foundation.

  • What are the types of cement?

There are various types of cement which are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Coloured Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, etc.

  • What is guniting?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2

. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

  • What is the function of sand in mortar?

The main role of sand (aggregate) in mortar or plaster is to provide core strength, but it has other benefits too. If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, both compressive and tensile strength of the mixture would be drastically lower than in mixture with added sand. It also helps to prevent mortar shrinkage, increases density and helps in setting.

  • What are various tests for checking brick quality?

We can use water absorption test, hardness test, shape & size, crushing strength test, soundness test, etc. to check the brick quality. In water absorption test, we dip the brick for 16 hours in water. If weight of brick after dipping in water doesn’t exceed by 20%, it can be considered as first class brick, if below 22.5% it can be considered as second class brick, if below 25% it can be considered as third class brick. In crushing test, it crushing strength should be minimum of 10 N/mm2 for first class brick, 7.5 N/mm2

for second class bricks. In hardness test, we scratch the brick with nails. It should be scratch free. In soundness test we check the metallic sound by striking two bricks with each other.

  • What is void ratio?

Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids.

The civil engineering interview questions asked above are useful knowledge required in day-to-day work on field as a site engineer. Hence, it is vital to have sound knowledge of these basic questions.

How do you measure concrete?
Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter

Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?
On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.

What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

What is aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

What are the main reasons of building collapse?
There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.

What is soil analysis?
Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.

What is rigging?

In sailing, the ropes used to move the sails around so the boat will move in the right direction when the wind blows.

What is Gravity flow?

Gravity flow is fluid flowing due to the forces of gravity alone and not to an applied pressure head. In the Bernoulli equation, the pressure term is omitted, and the height and velocity terms are the only ones included.

What is the distance between railway tracks?

4 feet, 8 1/2 inches.

:)

75 CIVIL ENGINEERING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF) – Explain.

2. What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

3. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

4. What is the minimum curing period?

5. What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

6. What is Water-Cement Ratio and How it is related to the strength of concrete?

7. What is a bearing capacity of soil?

8. How to increase the bearing capacity of soil?

9. What are the different types of foundation?

10. Explain moment of inertia and its importance.

11. How do we determine the specific gravity of a cement?

12. Density Of 1 cum cement?

13. What are the causes of building collapse?

14. What is bar bending schedule (BBS) & how to prepare it?

15. Why is concrete cube test carried out?

16. Why is concrete slump test carried out?

17. What is bleeding, segregation, honeycombing of concrete?

18. What is pre-stressed concrete? Which reinforcement is used in prestressed concrete?

19. What is the ratio of steel and concrete to use in slabs, beams, columns?

20. Difference between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning?

21. What are the weights of 16mm, 12mm, 20mm, 25mm, 8mm Dia. Bars.

22. What is the minimum Propping Period of Beams and Slabs of various Spans?

23. What are the advantages of Prestressed Concrete over R.C.C?

24. Quantity of materials required for different works.

25. Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?

26. Initial & final setting time of concrete?

27. why we use steel reinforcement in concrete for construction?

28. Is brick strength more or concrete block?

29. How to Calculate Number of Bricks Per Square Foot?

30. 28 days compressive strength of concrete in PSI?

31. How to calculate the unit weight of steel bars?

32. What is Plinth Level and Sill Level?

33. What is Brest Wall?

34. What is Brick crushing strength(PSI)?

35. How many Types of Joints are in Concrete Pavement ?

36. How can cracks in concrete be avoided?

37. How many types Of Damp proofing in construction?

38. 28 Days Strength of Concrete (1:2:4)?

39. How many types of slabs are there & how to design it?

40. How much is the cover for slab?

41. Maximum % of Steel in columns and beams?

42. What is fineness modulus?

43. What is Packing Factor?

44. Difference between one way slab & two way slab?

45. Difference between QA & QC?

46. What do you mean by Fe415?

47. What are the functions of a column in a building?

48. How many feet are in 4 square yards?

49. What is the average density of soil?

50. What is the ratio of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?

51. Why foundation is provided?

52. The concrete slump recommended for beams and slabs; is-

53. What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?

54. What is the different type of slump test indications?

55. What is buckling or crippling load?

56. Define slenderness ratio. What is its effect on the design of compression member?

57. Shear force and BM diagrams for different types of loadings on beams.

58. Difference between mild steel and HYSD bars?

59. What is meant by 80/100 grade bitumen?

60. What is differential settlement?

61. What does 33,43 and 53-grades of cement mean?

62. How do you construct a 25 storey building with no columns?

63. Types of loads on structure?

64. Difference between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning?

65. What is the L/D ratio of a cantilever beam?

66. What is camber?

67. What is batching? Difference between volume and weight batching?

68. How is a theodolite leveled?

69. What is a benchmark? Name the different types.

70. Types of admixtures?

71. What are the CAD softwares you have used?

72. Interpret a strss vs strain curve.

73. Define modulus of elasticity.

74. What are the chemical compositions of cement?

75. What is creep & shrinkage of concrete?

What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

The major steps involved in the process of concreting are as follows:
1. Batching
2. Mixing
3. Transporting and placing of concrete
4. Compacting.

> Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
> Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
> Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
> Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.

Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.

What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
> Length of bearing
> 2 x irreversible movement.
> 2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.

Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.

What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
> Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
> Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
> Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.

6. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls?

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:
> Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
> Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
> Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.

7. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.

8. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.

9. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

10. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

11. What are the different type of slump test indications?

Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the workability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests. They are as follows:
> True Slump
> Shear Slump
> Collapse Slump

True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop of the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration.
Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth in the long run effecting the durability of the concrete.
Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.

12. Why is propping required for long structures once the formwork is removed?

Once the process of concreting is performed the striking of the formworks should be done as soon as possible as delay in this process can lead to the discoloration of the concrete structures. In case of long structures particularly long span structures once the structures have attained enough strength to support themselves it is essential to provide them with propping as creep deflection can take place which can greatly reduce the integrity of the structure. Due to the above mentioned reasons propping should be done after the removal of formwork. Also the props should not be made to stand long as it can lead to overstress for the structures.

13. Explain the mechanism of cavitations in pipes and drains?

The formation of air bubbles in a fluid due to low pressure conditions lower than the saturation pressure is known as cavitations. This is considered to be a high potential damage condition where the strength and durability of the pipes can be greatly reduced. Cavitation works on the principle of Bernoulli's Equation. When fluids are at high velocities the pressure head of fluids reduce accordingly. But since the fluid pressure is lower than the saturation pressure the dissolved gases get released from the flowing fluid. These air bubbles suddenly collapse on entering a region of high pressure. This leads to the damage of the pipelines as a high level of dynamic pressure is created.

14. For what purpose bedding is used under storm water drains, explain?

Beddings are primarily made up of granular or concrete materials. They are primarily used for the following purposes:
> They are used to provide a more uniform support for the under pipes so that the bending moment longitudinally can be reduced greatly.
> In order to enable the pipes to get more load-supporting strength.
> They are also used to act as a platform to achieve a more correct alignment and level pre and post construction.
> In case of pipes which contain spigot and socket joints, it enables pipes to get supported along pipe lengths in place of sockets. Otherwise it can lead to uneven stress being induced on the pipes eventually damaging it.

15. Why are pull-out tests performed for soil nails?

Pull out tests are performed for primarily the following reasons:
> In order to detect and the verification of the bond strength among the soil and the grout adopted during the design of soil nails. This is considered to be as the primary objective of performing pull out tests for soil nails.
> For the detection of any slippage or occurrence of creeps.
> To detect the elastic and deformations (plastic) of any of the test nails employed. Observations are made during the loading and unloading cycles of the soil nails repetitively.
> To achieve the perfect balance the test nails should always be loaded so that the ultimate soil/grout mixture with an upper limit of 80%.

16. Describe briefly the advantages and disadvantages of using plastic and timber fenders?

The advantages and disadvantages of using plastic fenders are as follows:
Plastic fenders are low in strength with a relatively high resistance to abrasion. Plastic fenders are resistant to chemical and biological attacks. Plastic fenders have moderate energy absorption capacity. The berthing reactions are also comparatively moderate and depends on the point of contact. Also since they are made from recycled material they are environmental friendly.
The advantages and disadvantages of using timber fenders are:
timber fenders are low in strength and are very susceptible to marine borer attacks and rotting. The energy absorption capacity is very low. Also generally the contact pressure between the vessels and the fender are high.

17. Explain why concrete barriers have curved surface profiles?

The concrete safety fencings are made to contain vehicles in their carriageway being travelled so as to reduce the chances of rebounding into the roads leading to more hazards. In the case of normal fencings upon vehicle crashes the fencings give away so as to absorb as much energy as possible henceforth reducing the impact on the vehicles. But in the case of concrete barriers their purpose is not to absorb energy of vehicles crashing into the barrier but to retain them. They have a curved design so as to allow the vehicles that hit them to slightly go up on the barrier but not overturn. They also prevent the vehicle from again getting back on the road by rebounds. This helps in vastly reducing the chances of other vehicle hazards.

18. Why is the use of granular sub-base in concrete carriageways not preferred, explain?

Some of the reasons why granular sub-base is not preferred in concrete carriageways:
> Sub bases are permeable and hence water can seep through them easily. The soil particles get pumped out through the joints on the application of traffic loads. This results in the creation of voids underneath the pavement structure. This leads to the weakening of the concrete surface and it can crack easily upon intense traffic loads.
> Instead if lean concrete is used for carriageways it greatly increases the strength of the roads and the load carrying capacity of the roads is increased.
> Sub-bases implementation requires a lot of workmanship which can lead to an un-uniform distribution of the sub-base. This can lead to the cracking of the carriageway when there is severe traffic loading.

19. Why are separation membranes used between concrete pavement slab and sub-base?

The purpose of separation membrane between the concrete pavement slab and the sub-base are as follows:
> The separation membrane reduces the frictional forces between the concrete slabs and the sub-base. The membrane aids the movement of the concrete slab in reference to the sub-base when changes in the level of the moisture and temperature occurs.
> It aids in the segregation of sub-base materials from freshly placed concrete.
> The separation membrane also helps in the reduction of cement and water loss in the form of immature concrete. Immature concrete greatly affects the strength of the concrete. It also affects the durability of it.
A good example of a separation membranes is polythene sheeting which is commonly used.

20. In the roof of a pumping station explain briefly the components of a waterproofing system.

The components of a typical waterproofing system on the roof of a pumping station are as follows:
> Right above the structural finish level of the roof ( concrete ) a uniform thickness screed is applied so as to facilitate the application of the waterproofing membrane. The surface provide for the membrane should always possess good cohesion properties and must be thin so as to prevent any un-uniformity. This thin layer also acts as a layer of thermal insulation.
> Right above this layer the waterproofing membrane is deployed to secure the water tightness of the roof.
> In order to enhance the thermal insulation of the roof an insulation board is sometime placed right above the waterproof membrane. The insulation board helps in the maintenance of a stable temperature in both weathers.

21. During reclamation how can the occurrence of mud waves can be rectified?

There are several solution to the rectification of the problem of mud waves:
> Complete removal of all the disturbed mud: This method can be considered to be one of the fastest methods. As soon as the disturbed mud is removed some filling material is used to replace the disturbed mud. But economically this method can be expensive as compared to others.
> Accelerated consolidation of disturbed mud: In this method surcharging loads are placed on top of the mud waves. Along with this band drains are installed to accelerate the consolidation process. This method is quite slow compared to the other methods.
> Partial removal of the disturbed mud: This method is the hybrid of the above two methods where the top layer is removed whereas the lower level is treated with the surcharging process.

22. In reclamation works what are the importance of geotextiles and sand?

The primary purposes of geotextiles and sand in reclamation works are as follows:
> Geotextiles: They are used to separate the marine mud from the reclamation fill. Also geotextiles are used as reinforcements in reclamation processes to increase its stability. It is still debated as to whether the usage of geotextiles is better or are the old processes followed are better as the performance has not been comparable to the conventional methods.
> Sand: In reclamation process sand is used to spread the load of any future public dumps placed on top of it. Sand also acts as a drainage for the excess pore water pressure of band drain installations.

23. In block work seawalls what is the purpose of slip joints?

Joints which are formed from the cope level to the toe level of seawalls through a complete vertical plane are known as slip joints. Such joints are designed so as to handle the differential settlements between the seawalls adjacent panels. In the slip joints the aggregates inside the half-rounds channels enables some vertical movements. These vertical movements are induced by differential settlements. This enables in the interlocking of the adjacent panels of the seawalls to link the panels in one unit against the earth pressure ( lateral ) which is exerted on the seawalls.

24. For a washout valve why are two gate valves required in normal practice?

The washout valves are primarily used for normal maintenance works such as that of water main. This can be like to allow water to flow out during the cleaning of the water main. The junctions at which a pipe branches out to a washout point usually a gate valve is installed so that the two pipelines are separated. The gate valve installed above usually remains open during normal operation. Another gate valve is installed further downstream and this remains closed during normal operation of the washout valve. In case this valve is not installed then the pipe section of the branched out pipe would remain dry during normal operation and high chances of damage and leakage can take place. When the downstream valve is installed the branched out water main contains water under normal operation. With two gate valves installed a leakage can be detected immediately.

25. What are the different approaches in designing the floors of the service reservoirs?

In general there are two main approaches of designing the reservoir floors to prevent leakage of water due to seasonal and shrinkage movements:
> In this approach the movement joints of the reservoir floor panels are such that the free expansion and contraction of the panels takes place. Every panel is isolated from the other panels and two panels have a sliding layer between them to help in sliding.
> The second method does not provide any room for free movement. With seasonal and shrinkage movements, some cracks are designed to voluntarily occur on the floors of the service reservoirs. These tiny cracks are spread throughout the floor and are simply too minute to cause any leakage or corrosion of the floors. But the difference also in this method is that the amount of reinforcement used is much more than the first approach.

1. How can you distinguish between sorption, absorption and adsorption?
2. What is modular elasticity?
3. Discuss some applications of modular elasticity.
4. What is difference between engineering stress and true stress?
5. What are some structures that are subjected to fatigue?
6. What is the tensile strength of wood?
7. Explain soil analysis?
8. What is soil enforcement?
9. How can you achieve soil enforcement?
10. What is a bearing capacity of soil?
11. Why does the pressure increase under soil?
12. How to increase a bearing capacity of soil?
13. What you understand by building codes?
14. Explain moment of inertia and its importance.
15. Which is the best book for building construction?
16. How do we determine the specific gravity of a cement?
17. What are the causes of building collapse?
18. Explain the latest method to detect a crack in a building?
19. How do we test on design and style in a software?
20. Explain different types of RCC pipes.
21. Explain the design for RCC multi-storied building?
22. What are the benefits of RCC pipes over steel designed pipes?
23. Elaborate advantages & disadvantages of using crusher dust instead of sand in RCC work.
24. How can you produce desired alloys and discuss their applications in daily life.
25. Can inverted beams used in pipes during construction? If yes, explain how it can be implemented?
26. What is rigging?
27. What are the techniques to measure road difference?
28. Explain major differences between routing maintenance and major maintenance.
29. What you understand by Richter scale?
30. How do we calculate the power of centrifugal pump?
31. What is a tensile strength? What is the tensile strength of wood?
32. Difference between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.
33. Explain the difference between shear and tensile strength.
34. Why the statue of liberty is made of Copper?
35. What is the difference between TOR steel and TMT steel?
36. Which code is used for TOR & TMT steel bar?
37. Explain major difference between auto level and dumpy level?
38. What is the L/D ratio of cantilever beam?
39. What is the ratio of steel and concrete to use in slabs , beams, columns ?
40. What is pre-stressed concrete?
41. What are the ingredients of pre-stressed concrete?
42. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?
43. Why is concrete cube test carried out?
44. How do you calculate the power of centrifugal pump?
45. What is aggregate?
46. What is absolute pressure? How absolute pressure is calculated?
47. What is the absolute pressure scale?
48. What is gravity flow?
49. What is a projection line?
50. What is horizon or horizontal mining?

? Question 1. What Are The Steps Involved In The Concreting Process, Explain?

Answer :

1. Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.

2. Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.

3. Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.

4. Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.

? Question 2. Describe Briefly The Various Methods Of Concrete Curing?

Answer :

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:

  • Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
  • Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
  • Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
  • Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
  • Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.

? Question 3. What Do You Understand By “preset” During The Installation Process Of Bridge Bearings?

Answer :

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:

  • Length of bearing
  • 2 x irreversible movement.
  • 2 x reversible movement.

The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.

? Question 4. Why Are Steel Plates Inserted Inside Bearings In Elastomeric Bearings?

Answer :

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.

? Question 5. What Reinforcements Are Used In The Process Of Prestressing?

Answer :

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:

  • Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
  • Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
  • Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.

? Question 6. In The Design Of Bridge Arguments What Considerations Should Be Made To Select The Orientation Of The Wing Walls?

Answer :

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:

  • Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
  • Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
  • Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.

? Question 7. In Case If Concrete Box Girder Bridges How Is The Number Of Cells Determined?

Answer :

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.

? Question 8. Under What Circumstances Should Pot Bearings Be Used Instead Of Elastomeric Bearings?

Answer :

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.

? Question 9. Why Should Pumping Be Not Used In Case Of Concreting Works?

Answer :

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

? Question 10. Why Should Curing Not Be Done By Ponding And Polythene Sheets?

Answer :

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds.

In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

? Question 11. What Are The Different Type Of Slump Test Indications?

Answer :

Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the work ability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests. They are as follows:

  • True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop of the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration.
  • Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth in the long run effecting the durability of the concrete.
  • Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.

? Question 12. Why Is Propping Required For Long Structures Once The Form Work Is Removed?

Answer :

Once the process of concreting is performed the striking of the formworks should be done as soon as possible as delay in this process can lead to the discoloration of the concrete structures. In case of long structures particularly long span structures once the structures have attained enough strength to support themselves it is essential to provide them with propping as creep deflection can take place which can greatly reduce the integrity of the structure.

Due to the above mentioned reasons propping should be done after the removal of formwork. Also the props should not be made to stand long as it can lead to overstress for the structures.

? Question 13. Explain The Mechanism Of Cavitations In Pipes And Drains?

Answer :

The formation of air bubbles in a fluid due to low pressure conditions lower than the saturation pressure is known as cavitations. This is considered to be a high potential damage condition where the strength and durability of the pipes can be greatly reduced. Cavitation works on the principle of Bernoulli's Equation.

When fluids are at high velocities the pressure head of fluids reduce accordingly. But since the fluid pressure is lower than the saturation pressure the dissolved gases get released from the flowing fluid. These air bubbles suddenly collapse on entering a region of high pressure. This leads to the damage of the pipelines as a high level of dynamic pressure is created.

? Question 14. For What Purpose Bedding Is Used Under Storm Water Drains, Explain?

Answer :

Beddings are primarily made up of granular or concrete materials. They are primarily used for the following purposes:

  • They are used to provide a more uniform support for the under pipes so that the bending moment longitudinally can be reduced greatly.
  • In order to enable the pipes to get more load-supporting strength.
  • They are also used to act as a platform to achieve a more correct alignment and level pre and post construction.
  • In case of pipes which contain spigot and socket joints, it enables pipes to get supported along pipe lengths in place of sockets. Otherwise it can lead to uneven stress being induced on the pipes eventually damaging it.

? Question 15. Why Are Pull-out Tests Performed For Soil Nails?

Answer :

Pull out tests are performed for primarily the following reasons:

  • In order to detect and the verification of the bond strength among the soil and the grout adopted during the design of soil nails. This is considered to be as the primary objective of performing pull out tests for soil nails.
  • For the detection of any slippage or occurrence of creeps.
  • To detect the elastic and deformations (plastic) of any of the test nails employed. Observations are made during the loading and unloading cycles of the soil nails repetitively.
  • To achieve the perfect balance the test nails should always be loaded so that the ultimate soil/grout mixture with an upper limit of 80%.

? Question 16. Describe Briefly The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Plastic And Timber Fenders?

Answer :

The advantages and disadvantages of using plastic fenders are as follows:

Plastic fenders are low in strength with a relatively high resistance to abrasion. Plastic fenders are resistant to chemical and biological attacks. Plastic fenders have moderate energy absorption capacity. The berthing reactions are also comparatively moderate and depends on the point of contact. Also since they are made from recycled material they are environmental friendly.

The advantages and disadvantages of using timber fenders are:

timber fenders are low in strength and are very susceptible to marine borer attacks and rotting. The energy absorption capacity is very low. Also generally the contact pressure between the vessels and the fender are high.

? Question 17. Explain Why Concrete Barriers Have Curved Surface Profiles?

Answer :

The concrete safety fencings are made to contain vehicles in their carriageway being travelled so as to reduce the chances of rebounding into the roads leading to more hazards. In the case of normal fencings upon vehicle crashes the fencings give away so as to absorb as much energy as possible henceforth reducing the impact on the vehicles.

But in the case of concrete barriers their purpose is not to absorb energy of vehicles crashing into the barrier but to retain them. They have a curved design so as to allow the vehicles that hit them to slightly go up on the barrier but not overturn. They also prevent the vehicle from again getting back on the road by rebounds. This helps in vastly reducing the chances of other vehicle hazards.

? Question 18. Why Is The Use Of Granular Sub-base In Concrete Carriageways Not Preferred, Explain?

Answer :

Some of the reasons why granular sub-base is not preferred in concrete carriageways:

  • Sub bases are permeable and hence water can seep through them easily. The soil particles get pumped out through the joints on the application of traffic loads. This results in the creation of voids underneath the pavement structure. This leads to the weakening of the concrete surface and it can crack easily upon intense traffic loads.
  • Instead if lean concrete is used for carriageways it greatly increases the strength of the roads and the load carrying capacity of the roads is increased.
  • Sub-bases implementation requires a lot of workmanship which can lead to an un-uniform distribution of the sub-base. This can lead to the cracking of the carriageway when there is severe traffic loading.

? Question 19. Why Are Separation Membranes Used Between Concrete Pavement Slab And Sub-base?

Answer :

The purpose of separation membrane between the concrete pavement slab and the sub-base are as follows:

  • The separation membrane reduces the frictional forces between the concrete slabs and the sub-base. The membrane aids the movement of the concrete slab in reference to the sub-base when changes in the level of the moisture and temperature occurs.
  • It aids in the segregation of sub-base materials from freshly placed concrete.
  • The separation membrane also helps in the reduction of cement and water loss in the form of immature concrete. Immature concrete greatly affects the strength of the concrete. It also affects the durability of it.

A good example of a separation membranes is polythene sheeting which is commonly used.

? Question 20. In The Roof Of A Pumping Station Explain Briefly The Components Of A Waterproofing System?

Answer :

The components of a typical waterproofing system on the roof of a pumping station are as follows:

  • Right above the structural finish level of the roof ( concrete ) a uniform thickness screed is applied so as to facilitate the application of the waterproofing membrane. The surface provide for the membrane should always possess good cohesion properties and must be thin so as to prevent any un-uniformity. This thin layer also acts as a layer of thermal insulation.
  • Right above this layer the waterproofing membrane is deployed to secure the water tightness of the roof.
  • In order to enhance the thermal insulation of the roof an insulation board is sometime placed right above the waterproof membrane. The insulation board helps in the maintenance of a stable temperature in both weathers.

? Question 21. During Reclamation How Can The Occurrence Of Mud Waves Can Be Rectified?

Answer :

There are several solution to the rectification of the problem of mud waves:

  • Complete removal of all the disturbed mud: This method can be considered to be one of the fastest methods. As soon as the disturbed mud is removed some filling material is used to replace the disturbed mud. But economically this method can be expensive as compared to others.
  • Accelerated consolidation of disturbed mud: In this method surcharging loads are placed on top of the mud waves. Along with this band drains are installed to accelerate the consolidation process. This method is quite slow compared to the other methods.
  • Partial removal of the disturbed mud: This method is the hybrid of the above two methods where the top layer is removed whereas the lower level is treated with the surcharging process.

? Question 22. In Reclamation Works What Are The Importance Of Geotextiles And Sand?

Answer :

The primary purposes of geotextiles and sand in reclamation works are as follows:

  • Geotextiles: They are used to separate the marine mud from the reclamation fill. Also geotextiles are used as reinforcements in reclamation processes to increase its stability. It is still debated as to whether the usage of geotextiles is better or are the old processes followed are better as the performance has not been comparable to the conventional methods.
  • Sand: In reclamation process sand is used to spread the load of any future public dumps placed on top of it. Sand also acts as a drainage for the excess pore water pressure of band drain installations.

? Question 23. In Block Work Seawalls What Is The Purpose Of Slip Joints?

Answer :

Joints which are formed from the cope level to the toe level of seawalls through a complete vertical plane are known as slip joints. Such joints are designed so as to handle the differential settlements between the seawalls adjacent panels. In the slip joints the aggregates inside the half-rounds channels enables some vertical movements.

These vertical movements are induced by differential settlements. This enables in the interlocking of the adjacent panels of the seawalls to link the panels in one unit against the earth pressure ( lateral ) which is exerted on the seawalls.

? Question 24. For A Washout Valve Why Are Two Gate Valves Required In Normal Practice?

Answer :

The washout valves are primarily used for normal maintenance works such as that of water main. This can be like to allow water to flow out during the cleaning of the water main. The junctions at which a pipe branches out to a washout point usually a gate valve is installed so that the two pipelines are separated. The gate valve installed above usually remains open during normal operation. Another gate valve is installed further downstream and this remains closed during normal operation of the washout valve.

In case this valve is not installed then the pipe section of the branched out pipe would remain dry during normal operation and high chances of damage and leakage can take place. When the downstream valve is installed the branched out water main contains water under normal operation. With two gate valves installed a leakage can be detected immediately.

? Question 25. What Are The Different Approaches In Designing The Floors Of The Service Reservoirs?

Answer :

In general there are two main approaches of designing the reservoir floors to prevent leakage of water due to seasonal and shrinkage movements:

  • In this approach the movement joints of the reservoir floor panels are such that the free expansion and contraction of the panels takes place. Every panel is isolated from the other panels and two panels have a sliding layer between them to help in sliding.
  • The second method does not provide any room for free movement. With seasonal and shrinkage movements, some cracks are designed to voluntarily occur on the floors of the service reservoirs. These tiny cracks are spread throughout the floor and are simply too minute to cause any leakage or corrosion of the floors. But the difference also in this method is that the amount of reinforcement used is much more than the first approach.

? Question 26. How Can You Distinguish Between Sorption, Absorption And Adsorption?

Answer :

Sorption is a concomitant phenomenon of adsorption and absorption.

Adsorption describes the phenomenon in which molecules that are present in a fluid (liquid or gas), concentrated spontaneously on a solid surface by a finite time.

? Question 27. What Is Modular Elasticity?

Answer :

Young's modulus (E) describes tensile elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis; it is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. It is often referred to simply as the elastic modulus.

? Question 28. Discuss Some Applications Of Modular Elasticity?

Answer :

As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA comPAred to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel.

? Question 29. What Is Difference Between Engineering Stress And True Stress?

Answer :

Think about pulling a bar in tension. Load divided by cross-sectional area is force, or stress. But what cross section are you considering? Before starting pull, the bar had a known cross-section of (lets say) 0.5" wide x metal thickness. It's easy to measure these, since it is your starting material. At any load, the engineering stress is the load divided by this initial cross- area. While you are pulling, the length increases, but the width and thickness shrink.

At any load, the true stress is the load divided by the cross-area at that instant. Unless thickness and width are being monitored continuously during the test, you cannot calculate true stress. It is, however, a much better representation of how the material behaves as it is being deformed, which explains its use in forming simulations. In circle grid analysis, engineering strain is the % expansion of the circle compared to the initial diameter of the circle. The relationships between engineering values and true values are:

s = s (1+e) e = ln (1+e)

Where "s" and "e" are the engineering stress and strain, respectively, and " " and " " are the true stress and strain, respectively.

? Question 30. What Is The Difference Between Routing Maintenance And Major Maintenance In School Facilities?

Answer :

The routine maintenance is the minor and consistent rePAirs that are engaged in the school premises. Examples could include PAinting, replacement of fixtures, louver blades, furniture rePAirs, and PAtching cracks in the school buildings.

The major maintenance could also be a total rehabilitation of the school, either school buildings or any other project within the school community. It could be total restructuring of the lighting system in the school or sanitary system.

? Question 31. How Are Freeway Bridges Built?

Answer :

After calculating the anticiPAted traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are sPAced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully.

Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete.

? Question 32. What Is Aggregate?

Answer :

Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

? Question 33. What Is The Meaning Of Soil Reinforcement?

Answer :

Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

  • Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)
  • Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

? Question 34. What Is Braced Excavation All About?

Answer :

Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.

? Question 35. What Is The Worlds Largest Concrete Dam?

Answer :

The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and PAraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

? Question 36. What Are The Uses Of Alloys In Daily Life And How Are Alloys Made?

Answer :

Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

? Question 37. What Is The Tallest Man Made Structure In The World?

Answer :

The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

? Question 38. Which Is Stronger Solid Steel Rod Or Hollow Steel Pipe?

Answer :

On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.

? Question 39. How Do You Measure Concrete?

Answer :

Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter.

? Question 40. What Is The Difference Between Absorption & Adsorption And Sorption?

Answer :

Absorption generally refers to two phenomena, which are largely unrelated. In one case, it refers to when atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. For instance, a sponge absorbs water when it is dry.

Absorption also refers to the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. The photon is destroyed in the process. The absorbed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy or transformed into heat energy. The absorption of light during wave proPAgation is often called attenuation. The tools of spectroscopy in chemistry are based on the absorption of photons by atoms and molecules.

Adsorption is similar, but refers to a surface rather than a volume: adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorb-ate). It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution.

What are the responsibilities of a construction manager?

The responsibilities of a construction manager are

• Cost Estimates
• Pre-purchase of selected materials
• Selection of bidders for bidding phase
• Analysis of proposals
• Construction contract negotiations
• Construction Scheduling and Monitoring
• Cost control of construction
• Construction supervision

2) List out the potential risk factors for workers on the construction site?

Potential risk factors for worker on the construction site

• Falls from heights
• Scaffold and Trench collapse
• Electric shock and arc blast
• Repetitive motion injuries
• Not using personal protective equipment correctly

3) What is OSHA compliance?

OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Act; its motive is to fulfill the health and safety requirement of employees and workers. It is a standard for health and safety that is followed by every industrial segment and corporate offices throughout U.S.A.

4) Mention what are the composition of a landfill?

For secure landfill, there are four critical elements

• The bottom liner
• A leachate collection system
• A cover
• Natural hydrogeologic settings

5) For the construction project what capital cost has to be taken in consideration?

• Land acquisition ( Assembly, holding and improvement)
• Planning and feasibility studies
• Construction ( Material, equipment, and labor)
• Construction financing ( Bank loan)
• Insurance and taxes during construction
• Owner’s general office overhead
• Inspection and testing
• Equipment and furnishing not included in the construction
• Field supervision, architectural and engineering design

) List out some of the software used in the construction sector to estimate cost and monitoring expenses?


• Tally System
• Sage
• Maxwell System
• Premier construction software
• eTakeoff
• Construction partner, etc.

7) What is reinforced concrete?

Reinforced concrete have steels bars or mesh in them, which gives extra strength to the construction.

8) What are the different types of foundation?

Three main types of foundation are

• Basement: In this a basement is prepared first on top of it building is constructed
• Crawl space: A crawl space is a raised foundation, it is built above the ground, just allowing enough space to crawl underneath
• Slab: In this foundation, concrete is directly poured into the pit made in the ground.

9) Explain what is Hybrid Foundation?

Hybrid Foundation is usually used for high rise building, it contains both soil supported mat and piles. This type of foundation is helpful in reducing the amount of the settlement.

10) What are the common ways of demolition?

• Hydro-demolition
• Pressure Bursting
• Dismantling

11) Explain what is floating slab foundation?

A floating concrete foundation is a type of mat foundation that consists of the hollow mat formed by a grid of thick reinforced concrete walls between two thick reinforced concrete slabs.

12) Explain what is flashing?

Flashing is an extended construction that is done to seal and protects joints in a building from water penetration. Flashing is installed at the intersecting roofs, walls and parapets.

13) Mention different types of roof systems?

• Slate or Stone roofs
• Wood shingle roofs
• Metal roofing systems

14) Explain what are the phases inspections are done by local authority while construction?

Various inspections during the construction includes

• Site Inspection
• Pre-construction or first construction Inspection
• Foundation inspection(before placing of concrete)
• Framing inspection ( before insulating or covering frame)
• Insulation inspection ( After insulation is completed)
• Final inspection (after all construction is completed, and permits are received)

15) List out some of the checking’s, done at the completion of construction?

Some of the checking done on the exterior of the construction is

• Utility connections
• Drainage
• Retaining walls
• Compaction of fill material
• Caulking at opening
• Storm sewer system
• Safety provision ( terraces, porches, areaways)
• Accessory buildings
• Pavement edging
• Protection against moisture penetration
• Design of dwelling structure

16) Explain what is alternate bid?

Alternate bid is the amount stated in the bid to be deducted or added from the base bid amount. Alternate bid is proposed when there is a use of alternate materials or methods of construction.

17) Explain what is change order request?

Change order request is a written document issued or given by the owner, requesting an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time. Usually, it is issued by the architect or owners representative.

18) What does a construction cost covers and what does not?

A construction cost covers material, labor, equipment and services, contractor’s overhead and profit and other direct construction costs. While, it does not cover compensation paid to the architect, consultant or engineers, cost of the land and other cost that is owner’s responsibility.

19) Explain what is Critical Path Method (C.P.M)?

Critical Path Method is strategy and method of representing the respective tasks and activities involved in the construction through a symbolic diagram.

20) What is demising walls?

Demising wall is used for the boundary that separates your land or house from neighbor’s house

21) What is labor and material payment bond?
It is a bond between the owner and the main contractor. Where a contractor guarantees for payment to the owner if he fails to pay for all labor, materials, equipment’s or services in accordance with the contract.

22) Explain what is progress payment?

It is a payment done by owner to the contractor; it is a difference between the completed work and material stored and a pre-determined schedule of values or unit costs.

23) Explain what is structural frames or systems?

Structural frames are a load bearing assembly of beams and columns on a foundation. Normally, the columns and beams are generally fabricated off site and assembled on site.

24) Explain what is zoning permit?


Zoning permit is a document issued by governing urban authority permitting land to be used for a particular purpose.

25) Explain what is the release of lien?

Release of lien is a written document executed by an individual or firm supplying labor, material or professional service on a project, which release his mechanic’s lien against the project property.

26) What is Architect-Prepared Contract?

Architect- Prepared Contract is an agreement prepared in-house by the architect between owner and architect, and often reviewed by an attorney, before its execution. It is a legal contract, and it includes all terms and conditions including adequate legal protection for both the parties.

27) Explain what is 1/8 on the architect ruler denotes?

1/8 on the ruler is infact a scale that converts 1/8 inch on to the drawing to 1 foot. It would represent a drawing with a scale of 1/8”= 1 foot.

28) List out some of the software program that can be useful for architect?

• AutoCAD
• Revit
• 3DS Max
• Sketchup
• Photoshop
• Adobe creative suites
• Microsoft office
• Digital Media

29) Explain what are the skills required to become an architect?

• Conceptual understanding of designing models
• Basic knowledge of computer and architect related software programs
• Engineering ability
• Business aptitude
• Legal knowledge
• Designing 3D models

30) What things architect have to take care of before starting any project?

• Whether the owner has proper planning permission
• Whether the building has a certain listed grade approved
• Knowledge of building appliances and materials that includes the cost as well
• Need to take environmental factors into consideration

31) Explain how you can use different dimension tools in CAD? What are the different dimensions available?

If you are using CAD and want to use dimension tools, then go to CAD>Dimensions and you can have access to a wide range of dimensions like

• Manual dimensions
• Interior dimensions
• Auto exterior dimensions
• Auto interior dimensions
• End to end dimensions
• Point to point dimensions
• Angular dimensions
• Display temporary dimensions
• Moving objects using dimensions

32) Explain how you can turn off the display for dimension in CAD?

The display of your dimensions can be turned off in CAD for that you have to go under Floor Plan View and follow the following steps

• In floor plan active, select Tools – Display Options
• Scroll down to the dimensions- Automatic and Dimensions- Manual layers and remove the checkmarks from the Disp column
• When you click OK, the display of the dimensions in your plan will be turned off

33) Which are the top apps for you civil engineeer?

Some of the best apps

• Evernote
• STEEL
• Dropbox
• Instagram
• Sketchbook
• Photoshop Express
• Flipboard
• Magic Plan
• Houzz
• AutoCAD Ws

34) What are wooden shingles?

Wooden shingles are rectangular in shapes, and they are like slats or sheets that are nailed to the exterior surface. Shingling is a traditional weather proofing method for building.

35) List out some of the common problems that architect have to tackle it?

• When client is not sure about what they want
• When there is a limited budget
• When customer requires custom design at standard design cost
• When architect has to work with limited space

36) How to build the floor to ceiling bookcase?

To build a floor to ceiling bookcase

• First measure the distance between the floor and ceiling
• Cut two boards of the length of that distance
• Cut two boards with the width you require
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side with 2 inch nails. Keep a gap about one or two inches between each nail
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side boards with 2 inch nail. This will create a frame of your bookcase. Add the shelves to the bookcase the way you want and then paint it.

37) What should be the standard roof height like to be?

For inhabited building, standard height for roof should be one or two storeys tall. If you don’t need to make roof taller and yet you want make it look bigger from outside use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The roof of the room can be adjusted by changing its pitch or by adding a parapet.

38) List out the types of roofs?

• Half hipped roof
• Dutch gable roof
• Skillion roof
• Gambrel roof
• Gull wind roof
• Mansard roof
• Bell cast roof
• Sawtooth roof
• Monitor roof, etc.

38) Explain what are the problems one might face while having a Cantilever balcony?

Cantilever balcony are usually unsupported and extend outwards, so the problem with Cantilever balconies are

• Excess deflection or bounce
• Weakness of the deck structure
• Rot and water damage to the interior of the house
• Unevenness inside the house
• Can’t use the balcony for gardening or other purposes as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight

39) For what building Built-on balconies are preferable? What are the advantages?

Built on balconies are mainly designed for retrofitting older buildings. This free standing balcony is supported in front of the facade on four columns. They are backed to the wall with brackets.

The advantage of built-on balconies are

• Old balconies can be dismantled, and the new ones can be erected immediately in front of the faced without disturbing the inner structure of the building
• The work takes place outside of the house, so there is no interference to the interior of the building

40) What things you need to take care of before building a kitchen island?

Before you start building a kitchen island, you need to take care of

• Design the kitchen island according to the need- if it is only for cooking purpose then use less space, but if it is also for eating then design it accordingly
• List out what appliances you need for your kitchen island
• How high the counter should be
• How much storage space should you required
• Working sides surrounding the kitchen island should have 42 inches of space as a minimum around the kitchen island. Don’t plan Kitchen Island if it makes your kitchen more congested.

41) Explain what is the difference between built area and super built up area?

• Built up area: It includes your carpet area plus area covered by walls, pillars and ducts. It is usually 10% more from the carpet area
• Super built up area: It includes your built up area plus the area that you use as building amenities like passage to lift, stairs and lifts, gym, club, etc.

42) What is the ideal size of the living room ranges from small to large size?

• Very small size living room= 7x10ft ( for two seater sofas on one side of the room)
• Small living room= 10x13ft ( for two 2 seater sofa)
• Medium living room= 12×18 (for 3 Seater sofa)
• Large living room= 15×20 ( for 4 seater or 5 seater sofa)

Q1. What are the functions of a column in a building?

Answer – A column is used to support the weight of the roof and/or the upper floors. Nowadays, many columns are used for decorative purposes. A column along with load bearing beams can support a lot of weight.

Q2. What are the uses of Groynes?

Answer – They prevent, or slow down erosion, and stop the longshore drift. This, however, can have bad knock-on effects somewhere near.

Q3. What are the strongest shapes in the building?

Answer – The pillars

Q4. How many feet are in 4 square yards?

Answer – There are 9 square feet in a square yard, therefore, there are 36 square feet in 4 square yards.

Q5. What is the average density of soil?

Answer – For purposes of civil engineering, an average soil will have a density of about 100 to 110 pounds per cubic foot. (This can vary a little depending upon how well compacted the soil is)

Q6. What is the ratio of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?

Answer – M5 – 1:5:10
M7.5 – 1:4:8
M10 – 1:3:6
M15 – 1:2:4
M20 – 1:1.5:3
M25 – 1:1:2
M30, M35, M40 – Design Mix Followed

Q7. How do you compute the volume of airflow?

Answer – Orifice meter is used for measuring flow rate air.

Q8. Who designed the city of Washington DC?

Answer – Pierre L’Enfant

Q9. How do you maintain water pressure?

Answer – If you have water pressure and wish to maintain it, do not cause flow in the line, which will reduce pressure due to friction. To keep the pressure up, reduce friction by increasing the line size or eliminating some other restriction.

Q10. The mixture of different ingredients of cement is burnt at

Answer – 1400°C

Q11. The foundations are placed below ground level, to increase

Answer – stability of structure

Q12. The portion of a brick cut across the width is called

Answer – Bat

Q13. The concrete slump recommended for beams and slabs; is

Answer – 30 to 125 mm

Q14. In jack arch floor, the rise is kept

Answer – 1/12th of the span

Q15. What is absolute pressure?

Answer – Absolute pressure is simply the addition of the observed gauge pressure plus the value of the local atmospheric pressure.

Q16. What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?

Answer – Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Q17. Minimum size of the particles of silt soil, is

Answer – 0.002 mm

Q18. Under reamed piles are generally

Answer – bored piles

Q19. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Answer – Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for the small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:

(a) Spraying of water: On walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.

(b) The wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw

(c) Ponding: The horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.

(d) Steam curing: Prefabricated concrete units, steam can be cured by passing it through the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.

(e) Application of curing compounds: Compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.

Q20. Sometimes the side of concrete bridges is observed to turn black in color. What is the reason for this phenomenon?

Answer – In some cases, it may be due to the accumulation of dust and dirt. However, for the majority of such phenomenon, it is due to fungus or algae growth on concrete bridges. After rainfall, the bridge surface absorbs water and retains it for a certain period of time. Hence, this provides a good habitat for fungus or algae to grow. Moreover, atmospheric pollution and proximity of plants provide nutrients for their growth. Improvement in drainage details and application of painting and coating to bridges help to solve this problem.

Q21. What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

Answer – The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:

(a) Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.

(b) Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.

(c) Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses, reinforcements in the form of bursting are required.

Q22. What are the functions of grout inside tendon ducts?

Grout in prestressing works serves the following purposes:

(i) Protect the tendon against corrosion.

(ii) Improve the ultimate capacity of the tendon.

(iii) Provide a bond between the structural member and the tendon.

(iv) In a case of failure, the anchorage is not subject to all strain energy.

Q23. What is the different type of slump test indications?

Answer – Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the workability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general, there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests. They are as follows:

(i) True Slump
(ii) Shear Slump
(iii) Collapse Slump

(i) True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop in the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration. Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth, in the long run, affecting the durability of the concrete.

(ii) Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth, in the long run, affecting the durability of the concrete. Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.

(iii) Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.

Q24. Is it worthwhile to carry out tests on particle density of soil particles for geotechnical design?

Answer – Particle density of soils is defined by the ratio of soil particle mass and soil particle volume. Depending on soil types, the range of variation of soil particle density varies not significantly, i.e. by 4%. Therefore, it may not be worthwhile to order laboratory tests and incur additional expenditure just to determine the particles density by recognizing that the variation of particles density is not significant.

Q25. What are the main reasons for conducting pull-out tests for soil nails?

Answer – There are mainly four reasons for this test: (i) To check and verify the bond strength between soil and grout adopted during the design of soil nails. This is the main objective of conducting soil nail pull-out test. (ii) To determine the bond strength between soil and grout for future design purpose. However, if this target is to be achieved, the test nails should be loaded to determine the ultimate soil/grout bond with an upper limit of 80% of the ultimate tensile strength of steel bars. (iii) To check if there is any slippage or creep occurrence. (iv) To check the elastic and plastic deformations of test nails. This is observed during the repeated loading and unloading cycles of soil nails.

1. What are the functions of a column in a building?

Q2. What are the uses of Groynes?

Q3. What are the strongest shapes in the building?

Q4. How many feet are in 4 square yards?

Q5. What is the average density of soil?

Q6. What is the ratio of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?

Q7. How do you compute the volume of airflow?

Q8. Who designed the city of Washington DC?

Q9. How do you maintain water pressure?

Q10. The mixture of different ingredients of cement is burnt at

Q11. The foundations are placed below ground level, to increase

Q12. The portion of a brick cut across the width is called

Q13. The concrete slump recommended for beams and slabs; is

Q14. In jack arch floor, the rise is kept

Q15. What is absolute pressure?

Q16. What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?

Q17. Minimum size of the particles of silt soil, is

Q18. Under reamed piles are generally

Q19. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Q20. Sometimes the side of concrete bridges is observed to turn black in color. What is the reason for this phenomenon?

Q21. What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

Q22. What are the functions of grout inside tendon ducts?

Q23. What is the different type of slump test indications?

Q24. Is it worthwhile to carry out tests on particle density of soil particles for geotechnical design?

Q25. What are the main reasons for conducting pull-out tests for soil nails?

What happens to Load at yielding ?

2. What is Critical Path in Ms-Project ?

3. where will be the reinforcement of slab placed when there is an inverted beam and the bottom of the beam and slab are at same level ?

4. What is Passive earth pressure ?

5. Which condition will prevail for the design of a swimming pool ? when th e pool is empty or when it is filled ?

6. What will be the effect of over reinforcement ?

7. What is Planning ?

8. What is the comprevsive strength of Brick ?

9. What is the water absorption of first class brick ?

10. Why we provide steel in Concrete ?

11. Define Shear Force and in a structure subjected to gravity loads where will be the shear force ?

12. Which are the Steel tests ?

13. Which are the concrete Tests?

14. Initial & final setting time of concrete?

15. Brick strength is more or concrete block?

16. Why in Pakistan Bricks are used so much?

17. In a cantilever …where will the steel be provided and why?

18. What is Plinth Level and Sill Level?

19. How many bricks are there in 100cft?

20. 28 days compressive strength of concrete in PSI?

21. What is slump Test?

22. How can u check the diameter of steel after the construction?

23. What is specific gravity?

24. How cracks in concrete can be avoided?

25. Types Of DPC and its Thickness used?

26. 28 Days Strength of Concrete (1:2:4)?

27. Strength of brick?

28. what is Brest Wall?

29. what is Brick crushing strength(PSI)?

30. what is Bearing Capacity,How to determine it?

31. How much is the curing time period?

32. How many types of slabs are there & how to design it?

33. How many are the types of joints?

34. Why joints are provided?

35. How many bricks are there in 100cft?

36. Types Of DPC and its Thickness used?

37. How many bricks are there in 100 cft?

38. Which are the Steel tests ?

39. How much is the cover for slab?

40. What is Packing Factor ?

41. Forces in a Shear Wall are in plane or out of plane ?

42. What is fineness modulus ? and its sieve # ?

43. What is Base Shear ?

44. What is Time period of a building and its relation with frequency ?

45. There are two buildings one taller and one shorter whose time period will be grater and similarly the frequency ?

46. Workability ?

47.Sulphate Resisting Cement ?

48. Special thing in designing a overhead reservoir ? which is different from an ordinary design

49. Maximum %age of Steel in columns and beams ?

50.Types of foundation?

How do you measure concrete?
Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter


Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?
On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.


What is the tallest man made structure in the world?
The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

What is braced excavation all about?
Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.


What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

What is aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?
1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?
The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.


What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?
Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

10 What is the worlds largest concrete dam?
The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and Paraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

What are the main reasons of building collapse?
There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.


State the applications of modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of elasticity is related to the flexibility of the material. The value of modulus of elasticity is pretty important in case of deflection of different materials used in building construction.


How are the freeway bridges built?
The traffic that is likely to go over the bridge at a time is estimated and the cement, rocked with rebar stanchions is placed over the freeway to build a bridge. Off-ramp from freeway to the bridge and on-ramp from the bridge to the freeway are constructed. Cement slabs are used to build a platform.


What is the basic difference in absorption, adsorption, and sorption?
Absorption refers to the phenomenon where an atom, molecule or ions enter any bulk phase like gas, solid or liquid. Absorption refers to the phenomenon where energy of photon is transferred to other entity.
Adsorption is similar to absorption. It refers to the surface rather than a volume. Adsorption takes place when the gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of solid. A substance diffuses in liquid or solid to form a solution.


Difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance for school facilities:
Routine maintenance is handling the minor repairs of the school campus. Major maintenance can be total reconstruction or renovation of the school.


What is soil analysis?
Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.


State the building codes.
These codes are the set of specifications to ensure the safety associated with any building construction. These codes are associated with the height, spacing, and installation of the building. These codes play an important role in vacating the building in case of any emergency situations.
From these interview questions, you will get an idea of the questions interviewer can ask you in the civil engineering position interview. Refer to some more sample questions here and revise all the answers carefully.


What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

The major steps involved in the process of concreting are as follows:
1. Batching
2. Mixing
3. Transporting and placing of concrete
4. Compacting.

> Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
> Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
> Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
> Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.


Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.


What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
> Length of bearing
> 2 x irreversible movement.
> 2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.


Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.


What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
> Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
> Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
> Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.


6. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls?

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:
> Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
> Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
> Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.


7. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.


8. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.


9. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

10. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

1 :: What are the causes of building collapse?

The Passage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings or demolition of buildings is also other reasons.

2 :: What are the applications of modulus of elasticity?

As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA comPAred to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel.

3 :: What is the difference between routing maintenance and major maintenance in school facilities?

The routine maintenance is the minor and consistent repairs that are engaged in the school premises. Examples could include Painting, replacement of fixtures, louver blades, furniture repairs, and Patching cracks in the school buildings.

The major maintenance could also be a total rehabilitation of the school, either school buildings or any other project within the school community. It could be total restructuring of the lighting system in the school or sanitary system.

4 :: How are freeway bridges built?

After calculating the anticipated traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are spaced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully.

Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete.

5 :: What is the difference between absorption & adsorption and sorption?

Absorption generally refers to two phenomena, which are largely unrelated. In one case, it refers to when atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. For instance, a sponge absorbs water when it is dry.

Absorption also refers to the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. The photon is destroyed in the process. The absorbed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy or transformed into heat energy. The absorption of light during wave propagation is often called attenuation. The tools of spectroscopy in chemistry are based on the absorption of photons by atoms and molecules.

Adsorption is similar, but refers to a surface rather than a volume: adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorb-ate). It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution.

6 :: How do you measure concrete?

Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter

7 :: Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?

On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.

8 :: What is the tallest man made structure in the world?

The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

9 :: What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?

Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

10 :: What is the worlds largest concrete dam?

The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and PAraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

11 :: What is braced excavation all about?

Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.

12 :: What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?

Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-compacting to improve soil-bearing capacity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with compacted soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

13 :: What is aggregate?

Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

14 :: What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?

1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

15 :: What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?

The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.

16 :: How do you calculate the power of a centrifugal pump?

The input power, that is, the power required to operate the pump should be stated in Hp (horsepower) on the pump's nameplate. It can also be calculated by the 3-phase power equation:

P(in Hp) = VI(1.7c) = Rated Voltage x Rated Current x 1.73/ %Efficiency

If this is a consumer grade pump that operates on 120Vac, then the equation becomes P = VI, simply multiply the operating voltage, 120 x current (which is the number followed by the letter "A".

The output power, which really is not technically power, but rated in Gpm (gallons per minute), or caPAcity should also be on the nameplate. If you have the make, model, and (not necessarily needed) the serial number (also on the nameplate) you could call the manufacturer's customer service dept. As an application engineer, I have contacted countless manufacturers’, and service dept's for assistance. It is now big deal to them, they will be happy to answer your questions.

17 :: Why nautical mile is different from statute mile?

One nautical mile is defined by one latitude minute of arc (there are 60 such minutes to a degree). This equals 1852 meters, and roughly (but coincidentally) 2000 yards or 6000 feet. (Edit: actually, a standard nautical mile is 6076 feet, 6000 feet and 2000 yards are commonly used approximations, but produce an error of about 1%).

The statute mile had a little fuzzier definition to start with, as one mile was the same as 1000 roman Paces/steps. The definition has since changed, but one statute mile equals about 1609 meters.

18 :: What is rigging?

In sailing, the ropes used to move the sails around so the boat will move in the right direction when the wind blows.

19 :: What is absolute pressure?

Absolute pressure is simply the addition of the observed gage pressure plus the value of the local atmospheric pressure.

20 :: How do we calculate absolute pressure?

Absolute is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric.

21 :: What is Gravity flow?

Gravity flow is fluid flowing due to the forces of gravity alone and not to an applied pressure head. In the Bernoulli equation, the pressure term is omitted, and the height and velocity terms are the only ones included.

22 :: What is horizon or horizontal mining?

Horizon or horizontal mining can be applied to extraction of material from seams of any stratified mineral such as limestone or ironstone, but it is more usually associated with coal - Particularly where there are several seams that are inclined or folded and/or faulted.

Horizon mining involves long level roadways (horizons) being driven from the shafts to the extremity of the area to be mined.

The levels of the horizons are chosen to intersect the maximum number of seams the maximum number of times. As the seams are intersected, headings will be driven into the seam so that the desired material may be extracted. This method of mining requires a thorough understanding of the geological structure of the area to be mined so that the level of the horizons can be chosen for optimum results.

This method of mining is popular in modern coalmines with seams worked from several horizons. The considerable capital outlay of driving horizons before production can begin is recouped by the advantage of having long straight level roadways of generous dimensions unaffected by the crushing effect of nearby extraction of the mineral.

23 :: What is the difference between engineering stress and true stress?

In biology, Stress is something that disrupts homeostasis of an organism. In engineering, Stress is an external force that pushes, pulls, twists, or otherwise puts force on something.

Engineering stress assumes that the area a force is acting upon remains constant, true stress takes into account the reduction in area caused by the force.

24 :: What is a kip?

1 kip = 1000 lbs

25 :: What are some structures that may be subjected to fatigue?

Bridges, hydraulic presses, burners trains

26 :: Will going from a 3-tap to 6-tap increase water pressure?

No, the pressure will be the same, you will get more volume only if your pumps can handle the GPM, to increase pressure you may need a booster pump or a single pump that is rated for your needs.

27 :: Why does the pressure increase under soil?

Soil pressure increases with depth due to the overburden or self-weight of the soil and due to loads imposed upon the soil.

For example, the pressure variation below the depth of soil is linear and the relation is given by pressure = unit wt * depth. As depth increases, there will be a linear increase in the soil pressure.

28 :: What is the distance between railway tracks?

4 feet, 8 1/2 inches

29 :: How high should the water tank be to provide a 60 PSI at base of this water tower?

138.60ft

2.31ft of water= 1 PSI

30 :: What are the reasons for geotechnical site investigations in Uganda?

To know the soil properties, in so doing be in position to determine whether the Particular site is suitable for the purpose intended

To know the history of the site

To know what remedies need to be put in place before construction can start

Based on the soil properties, that can be determined on site and in the lab, design the appropriate foundation for the structure.

31 :: What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Some people call it an air pocket in the concrete or a void.

32 :: What is the purpose of the gap in the road on this bridge?

Purpose of the gap in the road is to allow the road to expand and contract with temperature changes without causing damage or deformation to the road.

33 :: What is the tensile strength of wood?

The tensile strength of a material is the value at which the material fails when subjected to a tensile force. (Tensile means a force pulling the wood fibers lengthwise, as opposed to a compressive force.) There are a lot of different types and load cases for wood, so there is not one answer to this question. For example, wood used outside will fail at a lower load than wood inside. Wood is also anisotropic, i.e. it has different strength in different directions.

Example values of tensile strength vary anywhere from 175 pounds per square inch for Utility Grade pine to 1400 PSI for Dense Select Structural grade Douglas Fir. A good reference for material strength data for most species and grades of commercially available wood can be found in the American Institute of Timber Construction handbook.

34 :: How many Lbs are there in a yard?

A pound (Lb) is a unit of measurement for weight while a yard is a unit of measurement for distance.

If you are referring to common measurements used on a construction site, a "yard" is a common abbreviation for a "cubic yard", which is a unit of measurement of volume. (A cubic yard equals 27 cubic feet.)

Since dirt weighs about 110 pounds per cubic feet, a cubic yard of dirt weighs about 2970 Lbs. Since concrete is heavier (150 PCF), a cubic yard of concrete weighs about 4050 Lbs.

35 :: What is a projection line?

Projection line is the way, in which the earth is shown on a flat piece of Paper.

36 :: What are moment of inertia and its importance in civil engineering?

The moment of inertia measures the opposition any kind of body will have against a certain momentum (along that same axis) trying to rotate that body.

37 :: What is the origin of name Railway Sleepers?

When sleepers were added below the railway, lines the trains ran more smoothly and people fell asleep on their journeys.

38 :: What is BMC stands for in BMC Software?

BMC Software founders Scott Boulett, John Moores, and Dan Closer began a contract programming Partnership that operated in and around Houston, Texas.

39 :: Does brick grows bigger every year.

Usually bricks do not grow, but since stuff gets all over, it looks like it grows.

40 :: How did street originate in the plumbing term street ell?

A "street ell" may have gotten its name because it describes a 90° fitting Particularly useful in tight, street ditches. When installing water pipes under a street, or from a water service, again under the street, into a home or business, this street ell allows one to change pipe direction with one less fitting, and in less space, than with a standard ell.

41 :: What is the absolute pressure scale?

Absolute pressure is calculated from a vacuum (0 PSI) and atmospheric pressure is14.7PSIa or 14.7 PSI above a vacuum 1PSI on a tire pressure gauge is called 1PSIg = 15.7PSIa 10PSIg=24.7PSIa 100PSIg=114.7PSIa etc.

42 :: What is the difference between QA and QC?

Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts. Since all three are necessary to manage the risks of developing and maintaining software, it is important for software managers to understand the differences. They are defined below:

a) Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.

b) Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product.

c) Testing is the process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the "process of executing a system" includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.)

43 :: How did the Romans get water up hills using aqua ducts?

Technically, the Romans were not able to get water to move uphill in a general sense. All aqueducts move water from an elevated source (spring-fed streams in the mountains) to end-users at a lower elevation. The water flows almost entirely downhill from the source to the end user. If the water needed to cross a valley, the Romans would build an arched structure with an elevated channel to cross the valley, but even this channel would have a vary slight downhill gradient that allowed water to flow towards the end user. If a large hill was in their way, the Romans would either divert the channel around the hill, dig a trench through the hill, or dig a tunnel through the hill, all while maintaining a fairly constant, slight downhill gradient towards the end user.

The only exception to the rule of a generally constant downhill slope to the water channel is that specific tunnel segments, the Romans could build the tunnel as an inverted siphon (mentioned above) to cross a depression or valley and raise the water level on the downhill side almost to the level of the uphill side. To do this requires a well-sealed tunnel strong enough to withstand the increased water pressure within the siphon. Note, however, that except for gaining a little bit of elevation if you slow down fast-moving water, you normally cannot get water to flow out of the outlet at a higher elevation than the inlet. So technically, even the Romans were not able to get water to flow "up a hill".

44 :: Will Water damage concrete?

As far as only concrete is concerned i.e. plain concrete, the effect of water seepage is very little (depending upon the grade of concrete) whereas for RCC (reinforced cement concrete) water that seeps in corrodes the reinforcement and thus reduces the life of the structure. The defects that water seepage induces in concrete are as follows:

a) induces capillary formation (due to the detonating characteristics of water)

b) With this capillaries the concrete starts spelling out; i.e. the places where capillaries are formed, with even slight amount of stress that portion comes out and exposes the steel to the atmosphere

c) Concrete has a pH of about 12 -13. It also reduces the pH of the concrete when in salty water (or) when exposed to marshy areas.

d) Reduces the overall strength of concrete

e) Reduces durability

f) Reduces permeability to further water seepage

g) Results in ageing of structures

45 :: How do you determine Specific gravity of cement?

Cement is usually purchased as a powdery substance that is mixed with sand, aggregate, gravel, and water to form concrete. Since the cement itself is usually a powder, it is hard to measure a standard value for its specific gravity. In addition, since cement is usually not used by itself, knowing its specific gravity is not Particularly useful.

A more useful question is "What is the typical density of concrete?" A rule of thumb answer is that normal cured concrete has a density of about 150 pounds per cubic foot. This includes the weight of the cement, sand, aggregate, and that Part of the water that chemically binds with the cement to form the concrete. Since water weighs about 62.4 pounds per cubic feet, concrete is about 2.4 times as heavy. Thus, the specific gravity of concrete is about 2.4. If you took cement and mixed it with water, you would eventually have a hard lump of useless cement and it would also have a specific gravity of between 2 and 2.4.

46 :: What is the meaning of a blue land surveyors flag?

If the flag was placed by Utility personnel responding to a "One-call" locate request, the blue flag indicates a buried water line. You see these marked when a contractor calls the "Call before you dig number" a couple of days prior to excavating. This is required by law in each state to reduce the likelihood of damaging underground utilities when excavating.

The standard color code used by almost all utility companies for Painting & flags is:

White - "Here is the area I plan on excavating!"

Blue - water line

Red -electricity

Yellow -natural gas

Green -sewer

Orange -telephone and/or fiber optic line

If the blue flagging was a fuzzy blue marker nailed to the top of a wood surveyor's stake, then it probably serves to indicate the top of the grade at which the engineer wants the earthmoving equipment to place fill dirt. These are called "blue-top" stakes.

47 :: What are advancements in civil engineering?

Unlike other fields of engineering, the major advancement of the filed has been in the early years of the century before the last century where the use of concrete technology is advanced. The use of cement as a construction material is since the turn of the last century, improvement in the field increase by the use of steel elements in the construction of buildings and bridges of various types. With the help of two, it was possible to do multistory buildings in the world.

Machineries were created to speed up the construction structures. The last century has also seen the advent of sophisticated design to withstand the effect of earthquake that was not possible before. With the use of computers, development of model and analysis of structures under the effect of loads was made possible. Before just two decades, it used to take months and months to design high-rise building and big bridges. Now it is a matter of hours.

48 :: Why is the statue of liberty made of copper?

Copper is a very durable material when exposed to weather and is soft enough that it can be easily molded to curved shapes such as those in the Statue of Liberty. It is also traditionally used in buildings for complex roofs, so there would have been trades people available trained to use it.

Other metals that can be molded are lead but it does not have the attractive verdigris color, and gold much is more expensive

49 :: Are cruise ships built for the transatlantic run?

The Queen Mary 2 was built for transatlantic crossings, but much smaller ships can make the crossing easily. In 1995, I crossed the Atlantic from New York to the Azores on the Royal Princess (which was not the same ship as the current Royal Princess), which was about one-fourth the size of the QM2. Just about any seaworthy Passenger ship can navigate the Atlantic safely, if not comfortably.

50 :: What is diversion tunnel in a dam?

When a dam is to be built, a diversion tunnel is usually bored through solid rock next to the dam site to byPAss the dam construction site. The dam is built while the river flows through the diversion tunnel.

51 :: What distance in meters on the ground is the equivalent of one second of arc in longitude or latitude?

One minute of arc as measured at the centre of the Earth covers one nautical mile on the surface of the Earth at mean sea level. One nautical mile is 6080 feet or 1853.2 meters. Therefore one second of arc would be 6080 / 60 = 101.3 feet or 30.886 meters.

Lines of latitude are at regular intervals Parallel to the equator. The relationship between degrees of latitude and the distance spanned on the earth’s surface remains constant. Therefore at all latitudes 1 minute of latitude spans 1 nautical mile on the earths surface.

Lines of longitude converge at the poles. Therefore, the relationship between degrees of longitude and the distance spanned on the earth’s surface is reduced as the poles are approached.

At the equator, the distance spanned by 1 minute of longitude would be 1 nautical mile. At the poles, it would be zero. To calculate the actual distance on the surface of the earth between two points of known latitude and longitude requires knowledge of spherical trigonometry to calculate the great circle distance between the two points.

The distances quoted are for the surface of the earth at mean sea level. Distances will be increased above sea level and reduced below it.

52 :: How do you maintain water pressure?

If you have water pressure and wish to maintain it, do not cause flow in the line, which will reduce pressure due to friction. To keep pressure up, reduce friction by increasing the line size or eliminating some other restriction.

53 :: What are some facts about concrete?

Actually, drying is not directly linked to hardness in concrete. After concrete is poured, putting it in a wet environment by spraying it constantly with water will hasten its hardening and its curing. After concrete cures, it is hard.

54 :: Who designed the city of Washington DC?

Pierre L'enfant

55 :: Where is the worlds longest elevator and how long is it?

Gold mines in South Africa go a few kilometers below the surface. The deepest mine now is the Mponeng Mine in the Orange Free State. The depth of the mine is well over 3000m from the surface and is getting deeper. The lift itself descends 3037m to a point 1200m below sea level. It takes 4 minutes.

56 :: How many kilo-Newtons equals 1000 kilogram?

When the 1000 kg are at rest, on Earth with gravitational acceleration 9.81 m/s2, 1000 kg equal 9.81 kN.

57 :: How is the Leaning Tower of Pisa supported?

In the same manner, it was supported when it was constructed. However, it has gotten some "help" over the years.

In the last couple of decades, the responsible Parties rolled up their sleeves and removed something approaching 40 meters3 of earth from under the higher side of the structure. This had the effect of straightening it toward the vertical by about a foot and a half at the top. For the first time in its history, it is no longer moving. In addition, in the good-news corner of the Paper is that it is open to the public again. In addition, the folks who lived near the tower in the direction it was leaning have returned to their homes and do not have to sleep with an eye and an ear open.

58 :: What does civil engineering mean?

They do many interesting things. Their job has to do a lot with design and construction. They can tell you what works and what will not for all sorts of situations. There is a lot of mathematics involved along with many other disciplines. They have to have a good solid understanding of how the environment works and how nature interacts with man made. They are probably best known for designing bridges, interstates, skyscrapers, canals, and so forth.

59 :: How long does it take concrete to harden?

It takes 28 days to cure.

60 :: What is the biggest dam in America?

The Grand Coulee Dam - Grand Coulee, Washington

a) Length 5,223 ft

b) Height 550 ft

61 :: How does siphoning work?

Pretty good if the outside hose is a lot lower than the inside hose. The siphon works by a hose stuck in a fluid container higher than the receiving container. Suction is shortly placed on the lower side of the hose until the fluid is flowing down the down line. Gravity will cause a continued flow.

62 :: Why was the Empire State Building made of steel?

Strength--Steel is very strong

Flexibility--Ability to flex in the wind

Cost--Inexpensive and fast to build; prefab construction

Concrete, a possible alternative, has less compressive strength than steel. The bottom support structure of the empire state building would consist of a large percentage of solid concrete simply to support the weight of the building.

63 :: What is the quantity of cement in Mix M20 concrete?

For nominal Mix Cement consumption for M25 will be 570 kg per cum. and for Design Mix it can be optimized to 510 kg per cum.

64 :: What is unit weight of normal concrete?

145 PCF

65 :: What is the difference between shear and tensile strength?

Tensile Strength for a Bolt is determined by applying a Force along it long axis. Shear Strength for a Bolt is determined by applying a Force across its diameter, as it would be loaded in a lug joint.

66 :: How many Pyramid in Egypt?

About 80

67 :: Would you cause a 55-gallon drum of water to weigh more by climbing in?

A person will sink in water if he is not holding enough air in his lungs to keep him floating. Therefore, the person weighs more than the amount of water that he will displace.

68 :: Who built the sears tower?

While he did not build the structure (he died in l959), there is some evidence the idea was suggested under a different name (Illinois Building) by Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the few true skyscrapers in which he had a role. The original design for the Illinois Building would have topped off at 5,280 Feet! The Swears tower is a quarter of this at most, but there are similarities.

69 :: At what point does a circle start losing area when being flattened?

The area ratio decreases slowly at first then more rapidly.

The area of an ellipse is A=pi x a X b, a and b are the 1/2 major and 1/2 minor axis. If a = r = b the area is A=pi X r2, which is a circle. Not hard to graph this but you will have to write the area of the ellipse in terms of the circumference.

70 :: How do you compute volume of airflow?

Orifice meter is used for measuring flow rate air.

71 :: What is made from large rocks, which protects the base of cliffs?

Stacks

72 :: Why are the bolts that hold steel rails together in oval holes?

It has to do with the design of the bolts. The reason that head of the bolt is oval. The head of a bolt fit flush into the bar and set in opposing sets is so that a piece of dragging equipment will not shear off all the bolts in a joint but rather the just the nuts one side. As a result, if the hole were not oval on one side there would be no way to tighten or loose the bolts in a joint.

73 :: What are the materials used in building a gravity dam?

There are many gravity dams constructed of compacted earth. High dams are generally concrete. All dams require a spillway to be safe. The spillway must be armored.

74 :: How many feet are in 4 square yards?

There are 9 square feet in a square yard therefore there are 36 square feet in 4 square yards.

75 :: What black man invented the clothes dryer?

George T. Sampson

76 :: What is the average density of soil?

For purposes of civil engineering, an average soil will have a density of about 100 to 110 pounds per cubic foot. (This can vary a little depending upon how well compacted the soil is.)

77 :: What glue is least sticky?

Elmer’s glue is least sticky.

78 :: What are the strongest shapes in building?

The pillars

79 :: Which architectural movement is also known as Jazz Moderna?

Art nouveau

80 :: What is the withdrawal force of steel nails?

In engineering, the code-allowable withdrawal force is zero, because the wood expands and contracts over time and the nail pullout force can reduce to zero.

81 :: What is the strongest bridge for a school contest?

If you are making a spaghetti bridge, bunch it all together in a triangular prism or a big brick and just fill the gaps with Paste.

82 :: What is the formula for figuring out how many gallons of water are in a pipe by the foot?

0.61 * d2, where d is the diameter of the pipe in inches.

83 :: What is the tensile strength of marble?

Tensile Strength, Ultimate 7.00 - 20.0 MPA 1020 - 2900 PSI

this is the strength in a pure tension test. For bending use:

Modulus of Rupture 0.00410 - 0.0276 GPA 0.595 - 4.00 ksi

84 :: Did any of the Egyptian pyramids ever fall down?

Yes, many did. The great pyramid and others that have survived did so for a reason. Their shapes made them sturdier over time and were not the first design. Many steppe pyramids were built but were too steep and as the corners eroded, the whole pyramid fell under its own weight. They were built too steep and did not have the base structure as seen in the great pyramid.

85 :: Can a wave happen in the middle of the ocean like in the movie Poseidon 2006?

Yes. Rogue waves have been known to capsize ships.

86 :: What materials were used to build the Golden Gate Bridge?

Its materials were steel and concrete.

87 :: What is the density of most of construction materials?

If it floats it is less dense than water, 62.4 lbs/cubic ft. Wood is about 40 lbs/ cu.ft.--it floats. Concrete is 150 lbs. / cu.ft. -- It does not float.

88 :: How and where are aqueducts built?

Aqueducts are built in areas where you have a bunch of motivated end users (like a town or group of farmers) at a low elevation in need of a more reliable source of water located somewhere fairly nearby at a higher elevation. The aqueduct builders construct a series of canals, elevated channels, and tunnels as required to get the water from the source to the end users. Some good examples:

a) Roman engineers built aqueducts throughout Italy and France from mountain water sources to serve city dwellers

b) Water-needy Southern California cities and farms are served by an aqueduct that brings them water from sources in Northern California

c) New York City is supplied by an aqueduct and tunnel system from sources upstate.

d) Inca farmers in coastal valleys built irrigation aqueducts from sources higher up in the Rockies

e) Native American cultures in Phoenix area built irrigation canal systems that diverted water from sources at higher elevations to irrigate their crops.

89 :: What does civil status mean?

Civil means like, when you do not get on with someone, but only talk when you have to. Alternatively, when you do talk you do not argue. Alternatively, if you are with someone who is of your both friends and family, you do not ruin it for them.

90 :: What are the advantages and disadvantages of lead products in construction?

Disadvantages: -Lead is very toxic; its use can result in pollution of the ground and more importantly of water supplies. This leads to the contamination of drinking water and can cause hazards to human health as well as disrupting entire ecosystems.

Advantages: Because of its toxicity, lead is being bought less and less around the world, which of course results in the lowering of its cost. In addition, lead melts at a relatively low temperature, making it great for solder. However, recently the Chinese have show an interest in buying mass quantities to manufacture batteries made from a base of lead so the price of this metal may soon rise.

91 :: How do you measure water flowing through 300mm diameter pipes?

Same as in inches 3.14159265 and PSI have to be known.

92 :: Explain the various stages of the project planning process in construction.

First stage could be Briefing and Inception.

93 :: How do you convert wind speed into force?

Thermometer

94 :: What is kn measurement?

kn (both letters lowercase) is knots, which is a speed nautical miles per hour.

95 :: What are the advantages of building a dam on the river Nile?

It is the same as building a dam on any river. Dams are built to control flooding downstream during the wet season, generate power year round, and provide irrigation in the dry season.

96 :: How much does the leaning tower of Pisa lean?

About 14 feet

97 :: What is the best type of wood glue?

Noob

98 :: What are the uses of Groynes?

They prevent, or slow down erosion, and stop long shore drift. This, however, can have bad knock-on effects somewhere near.

99 :: What are the functions of a column in a building?

A column is used to support the weight of the roof and/or the upper floors. Now days, many columns are used for decorative purposes. A column along with load bearing beams can support a lot of weight.

100 :: What is an ice dam sock?

If you have never used a ice dam melting sock on your roof before, you will find that they provide an inexpensive method for removing roof ice dams and improving your home's heating efficiency. Roof ice dams are an annoying source of roof damage, leaks, and heat loss in the winter. The main causes are drip melt from improperly capped warm air vent pipes and poor roof insulation. Laying a ice melt sock onto the roof so it crosses the ice dam and overhangs the gutter, will melt through the snow and ice and create a channel for water to flow down into the gutters or off the roof. If done properly those ice sickles that form as the snow melts from the edges of the gutters will never appear, they too are a cause of much damage and are dangerous to life and limb.

101 :: What Tor stands for in Tor steel?

The owner’s last name

102 :: When was the first motorway built in England?

The first motorway opened in Britain was the M6 (M=Motorway). It was known as the Preston Bypass. It was opened in 1958.

When it was planned, the Preston Bypass was seen as the first piece of a large network. It was deemed a success and led to the construction of a second motorway, the M1, opened in 1959.

CIVIL ENGINEERING QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

Civil engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineering that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of buildings, roads, bridges, artificial waterways, dams etc. Civil engineers have shown their expertise from time immemorial. From the Roman Pantheon to Hong Kong international airport, civil engineers have excelled in every step. Interview questions for civil engineers include strength of materials, material science, energy engineering, environmental engineering and earthquake engineering.

Define Modulus of Elasticity?
Modulus of Elasticity, also know as elastic modulus is the elastic deformation tendency of a material. In the stress strain curve the slope is the elastic modulus.

What is the chemical composition of cement?
Cement primarily consists of CaO. The chemical composition of Portland cement is tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite.

What is tensile strength?
It is the maximum longitudinal stress that an object can withstand without necking. It denotes the maximum point in a stress strain curve.

Which is the world’s largest hydroelectric project?
The Three Gorges dam on Yangtze River in China is the world’s largest hydroelectric project in terms of total capacity. The total capacity of the Three Gorges dam upon full completion would be 22500 MW with 32 turbines. Its length is 2335m and height is 101m. The second largest is the Itaipu dam on the Parana River in the border of Brazil and Paraguay. Its length is 7700m and height is 196m with a capacity of 14GW in 20 turbines.
Explain soil analysis.
Soil testing is a qualitative analysis to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. Soil is mostly tested for elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is also tested for acidity, moisture, organic contents and contaminants.

What are the points in the stress strain curve for mild steel?
The points in the stress strain curve for mild steel are Proportional limit, elastic limit or yield point, ultimate stress and stress at failure.

What are building codes?
Building codes are a set of specifications regarding minimum safety conditions that any building should take in account during construction. Building codes deal with the height, spacing, installations of a building. These codes lay huge emphasis on safety and ease to evacuate the building in case of an emergency.

What is fire resistance rating?
It is a measure of time up to which a system could resist the fire resistance test. It is generally depicted by a time-temperature graph.

What are tectonic plates?
Tectonic plates are the pieces of the Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere lies over the asthenophere, which has a higher density and makes the tectonic plates on the lithosphere to move. The movement of the tectonic plates is said to be the cause of earthquakes. Ocean trenches, volcanoes and mountains exist at the meeting points of two tectonic plates.

What is the Richter scale?
The Richter scale, a base 10 logarithmic scale, is a measure to quantify the seismic energy from an earthquake.

The size of concrete cube is 150mm x 150mm x 150mm as per indian standards. Why?
According to British Standard (BS) 1881:1983 .
100 mm cubes can take up to 20mm CA and 150mm cubes can accommodate up to 40mm CA!

What is the quantity of 20mm concrete, sand used for 1 cum R.C.C?
The total volume of materials needed for getting 1cum of concrete is 1.5cum.
The mix prop for M20 is 1:1.5:3.
So let a be the qty of cement,
then a+1.5a+3a=1.5
5.5a=1.5
a=0.27
so cement=0.27cum,sand=o.41cum,gravel=0.81cum.
This is more descriptive way to understand,the way of cal.the qnty.

How can we calculate 4/6 lane road width and maximum percentage of super elevation in national highways in india.
SINGLE LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS WIDE+1.5M EACH SIDE SHOULDER

DOUBLE LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS +7.50MTS
WIDE+1.5M+1.5M BOTH SIDE SHOULDER

FOUR LANE= CARRIAGE WAY OF 7.50 MTS +7.50MTS WIDE+1.5M EACH SIDE SHOULDER+1.50 MTS CENTRE MEDIAN


What is the bearing capacity of soil?
It is defined as the maximum load carrying capacity of soil per unit area without any shearing failure of the soil.

How are freeway bridges built?
After calculating the anticipated traffic for the bridge, cement/reinforced- with- rebar stanchions are spaced over the freeway to accommodate the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the freeway to the bridge is constructed, as is an 'on-ramp' to the subsequent road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to form the platform, and voila! Drive carefully.
Although the bridge deck/roadway is almost always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck can be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a combination of steel and concrete.

What are the applications of modulus of elasticity?
As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” relates to the elasticity or "flexibility" of a material. The value of modulus of elasticity is very much significant relating to deflection of certain materials used in the construction industry. Take for example the general E value of mild carbon steel is about 200 GPA compared to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This simply translate that aluminum is 3 times flexible than steel.

What are the causes of building collapse?
The Passage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings or demolition of buildings is also other reasons.

What is mean by least count? Tell the least count of dumpy level and theodolite?

What is the difference between working stress method and limit state design approaches?

For a construction which of the following is preferred - a precast pile or a cast-in-stu pile?

What isVdf?

Full form of VDF is Vehicle Damage Factor

What is header in brick work?
The short face of the brick in known as header and the longer is stretcher

Rate analysis for hammering pile foundation?

Rcc vs steel design?

What is the method of calculation for require cement qty. In 1 cum brick work with csm 1:6.?

What is the method of calculate the requirement steel quantity in 1 cum rcc?

How much opening area % (windows,doors) required for industrial building?

What is the effect of doing rcc raft foundation without pcc(if provide some protection like polythene sheets tp prevent direct contact of rcc with soil?

What is the process of executing dmc piling?

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