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31. What are the major data structures used in the following areas : network data model & Hierarchical data model?

RDBMS – Array (i.e. Array of structures)

Network data model – Graph

Hierarchical data model – Trees

32. If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type will you use?

The heterogeneous linked list contains different data types in its nodes and we need a link, pointer to connect them. It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. So we go for void pointer. Void pointer is capable of storing pointer to any type as it is a generic pointer type. 

33. Minimum number of queues needed to implement the priority queue?

Two. One queue is used for actual storing of data and another for storing priorities. 

34. What is the data structures used to perform recursion?

• Stack. Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its ‘caller’ so knows whom to return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return addresses of the function calls. 

• Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative (non-recursive) function. Even when such equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used. 

35. What are the notations used in Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions using prefix and postfix forms?

Polish and Reverse Polish notations.

36. Convert the expression ((A + B) * C – (D – E) ^ (F + G)) to equivalent Prefix and Postfix notations?

1.Prefix Notation:

^ – * +ABC – DE + FG

2.Postfix Notation:

AB + C * DE – – FG + ^ 

37. Sorting is not possible by using which of the following methods?

(a) Insertion

(b) Selection

(c) Exchange

(d) Deletion

(d) Deletion.

Using insertion we can perform insertion sort, using selection we can perform selection sort, using exchange we can perform the bubble sort (and other similar sorting methods). But no sorting method can be done just using deletion. 

38. List out few of the Application of tree data-structure?

1. The manipulation of Arithmetic expression,

2. Symbol Table construction,

3. Syntax analysis.

39. List out few of the applications that make use of Multilinked Structures?

Sparse matrix, Index generation.

40. in tree construction which is the suitable efficient data structure?

(A) Array (b) Linked list (c) Stack (d) Queue (e) none

(b) Linked list

41. What is the type of the algorithm used in solving the 8 Queens problem?

Backtracking

42. In an AVL tree, at what condition the balancing is to be done?

If the ‘pivotal value’ (or the ‘Height factor’) is greater than 1 or less than –1.

43. In RDBMS, what is the efficient data structure used in the internal storage representation?

B+ tree. Because in B+ tree, all the data is stored only in leaf nodes, that makes searching easier. This corresponds to the records that shall be stored in leaf nodes. 

45. One of the following tree structures, which is, efficient considering space and time complexities?

a) Incomplete Binary Tree.

b) Complete Binary Tree.

c) Full Binary Tree.

b) Complete Binary Tree.

By the method of elimination:

Full binary tree loses its nature when operations of insertions and deletions are done. For incomplete binary trees,

extra property of complete binary tree is maintained even after operations like additions and deletions are done on it.

46. What is a spanning Tree?

A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. All the nodes of the graph appear on the tree once. A minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge weight between nodes is minimized. 

47. Does the minimum spanning tree of a graph give the shortest distance between any 2 specified nodes? 

No.Minimal spanning tree assures that the total weight of the tree is kept at its minimum. But it doesn’t mean that the distance between any two nodes involved in the minimum-spanning tree is minimum. 

48. Whether Linked List is linear or Non-linear data structure?

According to Storage Linked List is a Non-linear one. 

1.What is JVM?

The Java interpreter along with the run time environment required to run the Java application in called as Java virtual machine(JVM) 

2. What is the most important feature of Java?

Java is a platform independent language.

3. What do you mean by platform independence?

Platform independence means that we can write and compile the java code in one platform (eg Windows) and can execute the class in any other supported platform eg (Linux,Solaris,etc). 

4. What is the difference between a JDK and a JVM?

JDK is Java Development Kit which is for development purpose and it includes execution environment also. But JVM is purely a run time environment and hence you will not be able to compile your source files using a JVM. 

5. What is the base class of all classes?

java.lang.Object

6. What are the access modifiers in Java?

There are 3 access modifiers. Public, protected and private, and the default one if no identifier is specified is called friendly, but programmer cannot specify the friendly identifier explicitly. 

7. What is are packages?

A package is a collection of related classes and interfaces providing access protection and namespace management. 

8. What is meant by Inheritance and what are its advantages?

Inheritance is the process of inheriting all the features from a class. The advantages of inheritance are reusability of code and accessibility of variables and methods of the super class by sub classes. 

9. What is the difference between superclass and subclass?

A super class is a class that is inherited whereas sub class is a class that does the inheriting.

10. What is an abstract class?

An abstract class is a class designed with implementation gaps for sub classes to fill in and is deliberately incomplete.

11. What are the states associated in the thread?

Thread contains ready, running, waiting and dead states.

12. What is synchronization?

Synchronization is the mechanism that ensures that only one thread is accessed the resources at a time.

13. What is deadlock?

When two threads are waiting each other and can’t precede the program is said to be deadlock.

14. What is an applet?

Applet is a dynamic and interactive program that runs inside a web page displayed by a java capable browser

15. What is the lifecycle of an applet?

• init() method - Can be called when an applet is first loaded

• start() method - Can be called each time an applet is started.

• paint() method - Can be called when the applet is minimized or maximized.

• stop() method - Can be used when the browser moves off the applet’s page.

• destroy() method - Can be called when the browser is finished with the applet.

16. How do you set security in applets?

using setSecurity Manager() method

17. What is a layout manager and what are different types of layout managers available in java AWT?

A layout manager is an object that is used to organize components in a container. The different layouts are available are FlowLayout, BorderLayout, CardLayout, GridLayout and GridBagLayout 

18. What is JDBC?

JDBC is a set of Java API for executing SQL statements. This API consists of a set of classes and interfaces to enable programs to write pure Java Database applications. 

19. What are drivers available?

a) JDBC-ODBC Bridge driver b) Native API Partly-Java driver

c) JDBC-Net Pure Java driver d) Native-Protocol Pure Java driver

20. What is stored procedure?

Stored procedure is a group of SQL statements that forms a logical unit and performs a particular task. Stored Procedures are used to encapsulate a set of operations or queries to execute on database. Stored procedures can be compiled and executed with different parameters and results and may have any combination of input/output parameters

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