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Question 1. Do You Know How The Dose For Children Is Being Estimated Based On Preclinical Data?
There are a number of ways of estimating children's doses from preclinical (adult) data - often depends on the therapeutic index of the drug in question (the wider the therapeutic window the less accurate the child's dose needs to be). Sometimes straight weight-basis i.e. 7kg child gets 1/10 dose of 70kg adult.
More accurate (so they say) is a dose based on body surface area (child's surface area is greater in proportion to its body weight than an adult is). There are normograms to calculate surface area from weight and height of child.
All of these may be wrong if clearance of drug in child is significantly different from adult e.g. different metabolism or different route of clearance.
• Question 2. What Is The Definition Of “biomedical”? What Topics Cover The Study Of Biomedical Sciences?
The term "biomedical" covers a vast range of subjects - everything that relates biology to medicine. This can range from the obvious like Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics to the less obvious like Botany (most drugs were originally derived from plants and, thus, these is a big science called Phytopharmacology).
• Question 3. Is Phenoxyethanol Harmful?
Phenoxyethanol is harmful and can be absorbed through the skin - official sites for toxicity data, however, show little toxicity in man and some toxicity (irritation) with high doses in animals. Phenoxyethanol is in cosmetics as a bactericide (kills bacteria).
• Question 4. Why Is Buprenorphine Less Addictive Than Other Opioids (like Fentanyl) - Is It Explainable By Its Strength Of Binding To The Common Receptor, Or?
Buprenorphine is what is referred to as a partial agonist - i.e. it binds to the receptor but even at its maximum cannot give as much of an effect as a full agonist (such as morphine) - it is, thus, also a partial antagonist (partially inhibits the actions of full agonists). As addiction is likely to be linked to strength of the effect of the drug, buprenorphine has less effect and, therefore, less addiction.
• Question 5. How Is The Concentration Of Drugs In Human Plasma Defined?
Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (Warfarin binds 99%) whereas others have virtually no binding.
Extraction depends on the type of drug - there are different standard techniques for acidic, basic, and neutral drugs - and, indeed, some drugs need specific extraction techniques.
It is important for you doing bioequivalence studies to know exactly the proportion of drug extracted but such controls are again specific for each drug and use specific marker compounds.
• Question 6. How Is The Calculation Derived For A Drug To Be Bio Equivalent With Other? On Which Base The Limit Is Fixed As 80-120% For A Drug To Be Bio Equivalent. What Is Meant By 90% Confidential Interval?
To be "bioequivalent" two preparations or drugs need to give the same biological effect.
The usual "experimental error" put on this is 20% - thus, 80-120% is considered "bioequivalent.”
90 percentage confidence interval means that statistically it is 90% certain that the results are equivalent.
• Question 7. When We Do Liquid Extraction, What Is The Effect Of Adding 10%acid Or Any Base And How Do We Know Which Has To Be Added And Up To Which Concentration Or Micro Litre Level Can We Add Such Buffers? If Any Gel Formation Occurs At The Time Of Extraction, How Will It Affect The Analysis? Shall We Continue The Extraction With The Same Or Should We Drop That Method?
The idea of adding acid/base is to change the lipid (and therefore organic solvent) solubility of the components you want to extract.
For example, a fatty acid is more soluble in water as a salt (and, thus, in basic conditions) whereas it is largely insoluble in water in its uncharged state (in acid conditions). So adding acid to the solution of fatty acid salt in water will render it water-insoluble and, thus, move it from the water to the organic solvent.
This is a standard extraction technique for organic acids and bases. Also, note that exact concentrations of acid/base need to be calibrated for each extraction.
Gel formation is difficult to deal with, as you cannot be sure of the extraction (difficult to mix and separate). We would suggest changing the method unless you can show a decent extraction or the description of the method says to expect a gel formation.
• Question 8. What Are High Affinity Receptors?
Mast cells and basophils express high affinity receptor. The high affinity enables it to bind with IgE, despite low serum concentration of IgE.
• Question 9. What Is P-k Reaction?
The response produced when an allergen is injected into an individual, who is sensitive is called P-K reaction.
• Question 10. Give An Example For Electrophilic Substitution Reaction?
The species, which accepts the electrons, are called Electrophilles (or) Electrophilic reagents. When the atom (or) group of atoms present in the organic compound is replaced by another atom (or) group of atoms (electrophilic) is called electrophilic substitution reaction.
• Question 11. Where Do Most Allergic Reactions Occur?
Most of them occur on mucous membrane. Allergens enter the body by the process of inhalation or ingestion.
• Question 12. Name Some Common Allergens Associated With Type-i Hypersensitivity?
Penicillin, sulfonamide, eggs, milk, dust mites, animal air, vaccines etc.
• Question 13. What Are Allergens?
Allergens are non-parasitic antigens. They are capable of stimulating hypersensitive reactions in allergy conditions in an individual.
• Question 14. Which Type Of Immunoglobulin Level Will Increase When An Individual Is Exposed To A Parasite?
Serum IgE levels will increase and remain until the parasite is washed out from the body.
• Question 15. What Is Type Iv Hypersensitivity?
It is cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Typical manifestations include graft rejection, dermatitis etc.
• Question 16. What Is Serum Sickness?
When an individual is exposed to foreign serum antigen then a combination of symptoms are produced which is called as serum sickness.
• Question 17. Give Some Symptoms Of Serum Sickness?
Symptoms include fever, weakness, rashes, with erythema and edema. Serum sickness depends on the immune complexes formed and the size of the complexes.
• Question 18. What Are Primary Mediators? Answer :
Primary mediators are those, which are produced before degranulation. These primary mediators are stored in granules. Some of the primary mediators are histamine, heparin, proteases etc.
• Question 19. What Are Secondary Mediators? Answer :
Secondary mediators are produced after target cell activation or released by the break down of phospholipids membrane during the process of degarnulation. Some of the secondary mediators are leukotrienes, various cytokines, prostaglandins etc
• Question 20. Explain In Brief About Histamine? Answer :
It is formed by the decarboxylation of amino acid histidine. It accounts for 10% of granule weight. This histamine binds to specific receptors on various target cells.
• Question 21. How Many Types Of Histamine Receptors Are There And What Are They?
There are three types of histamine receptors. They are H1, H2 and H3.They has different tissue distributions.
• Question 22. What Is The Reaction-taking Place When H2 Receptor Binds To Mast Cells And Basophils?
When H2 binds to mast cells and basophils it suppresses degranulation.
• Question 23. Explain In Brief About Leukotrienes And Prostaglandins?
Answer : Leukotrienes and prostaglandins are formed only when the mast cell undergo degranulation and enzymatic break down of phospholipids in the plasma membrane.
The effects produced by them are more pronounced and long lasting than histamine. Leukotrienes mediate mucous production and bronchoconstriction. Prostaglandin D2 causes bronchoconstriction.
• Question 24. Explain In Brief About Cytokines?
Cytokines activate inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and eosnophils.IL-5 is important in activation of eosnophils, IL-4 increases IgE production by B-cells. IL-4, Il-5, IL-6, TNF-a has been secreted by human mast cells.
• Question 25. What Is Atopic Dermatitis? Answer :
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease. This disease is observed frequently in young children. There will be skin eruptions.
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