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Biomedical Engineering Materials Free Download



20.What is the purpose of load extension graphs

Load extension graphs are used to show the result of mechanical test done on the material to know their certain properties for example finding out the heat treatment of a material. These graphs shows certain phases of a material when it is being tested for destruction of the properties like elastic range, limit of proportionality, etc. The material needs to obey Hooke’s law. The elastic limit needs to be at or very near to the limit of proportionality. If the limit is passed the material ceases to be proportional to the load. If the stress increases on the material then the waist reduces as the stress = force/area. This graph represents a curve that shows different stages like elastic stage, and plastic stage

21.Why is torsion such an important feature in aircraft engines

Torsion is used to drive shafts for aircraft engine driven pumps and motors. They are also involved in having a force behind propeller shafts, pulley assemblies and rive couplings for machinery. The shear stress is setup within the shafts and it results from the torsional loads. The size and the nature of torsional loads and stresses need to be known while making the design or else premature failure can occur. The shafts are used as a component to transmit torsional loads and twisting moments or torque. They can be a cross section or a circular component as it is more suitable to transmit the torque for pumps and motors to supply the power to the aircraft system

22.What is the main function of propulsive thrust

Propulsive thrust is used in aircraft system, when an aircraft is traveling through air in straight or level flight then the engine produces a thrust that is equal to the air resistance or the drag force on the aircraft. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag then the aircraft will accelerate and if drag exceeds the engine thrusts then the aircraft system will slow down. The thrust force that is used for aircraft propulsion should always come from air or gas pressure. The forces that are external always act on the engine or propeller. This propeller can be driven either by a piston or a gas turbine engine. If there is a use of jet engine then the high velocity exhaust gas is produced

23.Why is the study of gyroscopes motion required to learn aircraft applications

Gyroscopic motion is considered as an important study for aircraft application for the inertia and momentum of the body that is used in circular motion. The momentum is the product of the mass of a body and its velocity. This is a measure of the quantity of motion of a body. Inertia is the force that doesn’t allow any change to happen in momentum. Gyroscope is the rotating mass that can be moved freely at right angles to its plane of rotation. This utilizes the gyro rotor or gyroscopic inertia to provide the motion unless it is compelled by an external force to change the state. This uses property of rigidity as gyroscope acts as a reference point in space

24.What are the laws of gyro-dynamics Gyro-dynamics deals with gyroscopic motion that is used for creating aircraft application as it allows inertia and momentum of the body. These laws consist of the two properties of rigidity and precession to provide the visible effects gyro-dynamics. These are as follows 

If a rotating body is mounted and it is free to move about any axis that passes through the center of mass, then the spin axis that is used will remain fixed in inertial space without displacing any of the frame If a constant torque is applied to any direction such as about an axis, or perpendicular to the axis, then the spin axis will move about an axis that is mutually perpendicular to both the spin and the torque axis 

25.What is being expressed by Sperry’s rule of precession

Sperry’s rule of precession describes about the direction in which the precession takes place. This precession is dependent on the direction of rotation for the mass and the axis of the torque that is applied on the material. It provides a guide to the direction of precession that allows easy finding of the direction of the applied torque. This also helps in finding out the direction of the rotation of gyro-wheel. If the torque is applied and is perpendicular to the spin axis then it can be transferred as a force

26.What are the elements required to display oscillatory motion The elements required to display oscillatory motion are as follows 

Periodthis is related to the time and it 

signifies the time that elapses in between the motion that will repeat itself after some time again. Oscillatory motions allow themselves to be repeated after equal intervals of time and this is called as periodic Cycleit represents the completion of one period and it also signifies the motion that is completed in one period Frequencydefines the number of cycles completed in unit time Amplitudedefines the distance from one point to another or from highest to lowest point of the motion from the central position 

27.What are the different lift augmentation devices present

Lift augmentation devices provides flaps that are moving wing sections that increase wing camber and provide an angel of attack. Flaps have their own use like if an aircraft takes off and land in a short distance then the wings of it should produce sufficient lift at lower speed. Flaps provide a way to slow down the aircraft. There two categories and they are as follows 

Trailing edge flaps includes different flaps like

Plain flap that is used to retract the complete section of trailing edge and it is used in downward Split flap gets formed by the hinged lower part of trailing edge and the lowered top surface remains unchanged and it eliminates the airflow that occurs over the top of the surface of the plain flap Leading edge flaps: is used to augment the low speed lift that is swept on the wing aircraft. They help in increase the camber and allow the coupling to operate together with the trailing edge flaps 

28.What are the steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed

There are various steps required to solve the problems of aircraft flying high and at very large speed are as follows 

Build stiff wings that allow and provide the resistance to torsional diversion beyond the maximum speed of the aircraft Use two sets of ailerons and one outboard pair that can be operated at low speeds Use of one inboard pair that can be used to operate on high speeds, this will have less twisting impact when the ailerons are positioned outboard

Use spoilers that can be positioned independently or can be paired with ailerons. These reduce the lift on the down going wing by interrupting the airflow over the top surface 

29.What are the functions performed by rudder

The rudder is involved in providing the movement to the ports that gives a lift force to starboard. This will allow the aircraft to turn and uses the ailerons effectively to bank the aircraft by minimum use of rudder. The functions performed by rudder are as follows 

It is used with different applications that are involved in taking off and landing to keep aircraft straight Providing assistance that is, limited only for the aircraft to turn correctly Used in applications during spin to reduce the roll rate of the aircraft and there are some applications that provides low speeds and high angles to allow the raising of the wings 

30.What are the criteria need to be followed for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable

The criteria that are required for an aircraft to be longitudinal statically stable, is 

To have a nose-down pitching disturbance that is used to produce the aerodynamics forces to give a nose-up restoring moment

This restoring moment that is produced should be large enough to 

return the aircraft to its original position after the disturbance

The requirements are met by using the tail-plain that is horizontal stabilizer used to provide the stability to the aircraft 

31. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

32. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

33. What is ram jet?

34. Why you would like to join the aviation industry?

35. Doesn’t simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal protection system of are usable launch vehicle jeopardize the accuracy of results?

36. Why insulating tiles on reusable launch vehicles must be isolated from one another?

37. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

38. Why are all shear loads and twisting moments set to zero for the preliminary design phase of TPS?

39. How difficult is to mould and shape graphite epoxies compared with alloys or ceramic that may be used for thermal protective applications?

40. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle undersurface experiences during its mission?

41. Why the stall of the swept wing tends to occur at the tips first?

42. Why the fuselage of the pressurized aircraft is made of circular cross section?

43. Can we put engines on the end of a wing? If not, then why?

44. What is ram jet?

45. Why refrigeration is done inside aircraft, and why aircraft body is made of aluminum’s?

46. Does not simplification of complex honeycomb designed for thermal 

protection system of are usable launch vehicles jeopardize the accuracy of results?

47. Are thermal protection systems of space craft’s commonly composed of one panel or a collection of smaller tiles?

48. What is the highest temperature the space shuttle under surface experiences during its mission?

49. Explain how you overcame a major obstacle?

50. What are the main areas in Aviation?

51. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

52. What made you choose aerospace engineer line as your career?

53. Explain the day to day responsibilities of Aerospace engineering?

54. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautically engineering?

55. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

56. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics and controls?

57. What is the testing done in aerospace engineering?

58. How would you handle if your co-worker is not co-operating with you?

59. What would you do if your Captain is not following the instructions properly?

60. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

61. When a pilot is assigned a speed, how much can one deviate from that speed?

62. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

63. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency situation if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

64. How important is to get the passengers switch off the mobile phones and laptops during land off? What could be the consequences?

65. How many types of emergency landings are there and explain?

66. What are the three tactical elements of electronic warfare?

67. What are the main areas in Aviation?

68. What is the requirement to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the field of Aerospace?

69. Explain the differences between Aeronautical Engineering and astronautical engineering?

70. Does the knowledge of mathematics of Science is required to get into aerospace engineering?

71. What do you understand by Aerodynamics/performance analysis?

72. What will be the responsibility of the spacecraft operations, dynamics, and controls?

73. What would you do if your Captain were not following the instructions properly?

74. When can one deviate from any flight rules and regulations?

75. Without Air Traffic Control, what is the minimum descent rate you can descend the plane?

76. You are about to take off the plane in few seconds and a catastrophic engine fails, and your captain tells you not to take off and just stay in the center line

77. How would you handle the extreme pressure during emergency if you know that plane is not safe and it might crash anytime?

78. What operational benefits do hydraulic actuator/rate controls have over gas charged units?

79. How do I decide which is the best technology to solve my vibration isolation problem?

80. What is isolation efficiency?

Tell us what you know about Biomedical Engineering professions receptive to women?

Biomedical Engineering is extremely attractive to women as a degree program and career. Women earn a greater percentage of college degrees in Biomedical Engineering than any other engineering discipline, according to the American Society for Engineering education. Among those earning B.S. degrees in biomedical engineering, 39% were awarded to women in 2000; at the master’s level, 34% of biomedical degrees awarded went to women; and at the doctoral level, 32% of biomedical engineering degrees awarded went to women. The attractions for many women are: the flexibility and inherent creativity of the discipline relative to other engineering areas; the ability to work in a profession that strives to improve the quality of people’s lives; the existing critical mass of women in medical professions; and the integration of biological sciences. 

11) Do you know what are some important advances made by Biomedical Engineers?

Biomedical Engineers have developed many important techniques and equipment:

–> Hip joint replacement

–> Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

–> Heart pacemakers

–> Arthroscopic instrumentation for diagnostic and surgical purposes

–> Heart-lung machines

–> Angioplasty

–> Bioengineered skin

–> Time-release drug delivery

–> Artificial articulated joints

–> Kidney dialysis

12) What is Systems Physiology?

Systems Physiology focuses on understanding – at the microscopic and submicroscopic levels – how systems within living organisms function, from pharmaceutical drug response to metabolic systems and disease response, voluntary limb movements to skin healing and auditory physiology. This specialty involves experimentation and modeling using mathematical formulations. 

13) What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on enhancing the independence, capabilities and quality of life of individuals with physical impairments. This specialty may involve development of customized solutions to address highly specific needs of individuals. 

14) What is Medical Imaging?

Medical Imaging combines electronic data processing, analysis and display with understanding of physical phenomena to identify and characterize health problems such as tumors, malformations and the like. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and other techniques are commonly used 

15) What is Clinical Engineering in Biomedical Engineering?

Clinical Engineering involves development and maintenance of computer databases, inventorying medical equipment and instruments as well as purchase of medical equipment used in hospitals. Clinical engineers may work with physicians to customize equipment to the explicit needs of the hospital or medical procedure. 

16) What is Biomaterials?

Biomaterials involves development of natural living tissue and artificial materials for use in the human body. Choice of materials with appropriate properties is critical to design of functional organs, bones and other implantable materials, which may include alloys, ceramics, polymers and composites. 

17) What is Biomechanics?

Biomechanics applies principles of mechanics to understand and simulate medical problems and systems such as fluid transport and range of motion. Prosthetic organs such as artificial hearts, kidneys, and joints are examples of devices developed by biomechanical engineers. 

18) What is Bioinstrumentation?

Bioinstrumentation involves use of engineering principles and methods, including computers, in developing devices for diagnosis and treatment of disease. 

19) Do you know what Biomedical Engineers actually do?

Biomedical engineers may work in hospitals, universities, industry and laboratories. They enjoy a range of possible duties, including the design and development of artificial organs, modeling of physical processes, development of blood sensors and other physiologic sensors, design of therapeutic strategies and devices for injury recovery, development and refinement of imaging techniques and equipment, development of advanced detection systems, testing of product performance, and optimal lab design. 

20) Do you know what is Biomedical Engineering?

Biomedical Engineering blends traditional engineering techniques with biological sciences and medicine to improve the quality of human health and life. The discipline focuses both on understanding complex living systems – via experimental and analytical techniques – and on development of devices, methods and algorithms that advance medical and biological knowledge while improving the effectiveness and delivery of clinical medicine. 

21) What you know DNA fingerprinting?

DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting. 

22) What is therapeutic cloning?

Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body. 

23) What you know about microarray?

Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously. 

24) Do you know what are the most commonly used technologies in medical imaging?

Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 

25) Do you know about epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness. 

26) Do you know about Alzheimer’s disease?

Alzheimer’s is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer’s is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests. 

27) Do you know what are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?

Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta – state of sleep, theta drowsiness, alpha – relaxation, beta – active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm 

28) What is MRI?

MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ. 

29) Do you know about BMI? 

BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person’s height and weight. It is a person’s weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m. 

30) Do you know what is myoelectric control?

Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs. 

31) What is Biomedical Engineering?

Biomedical engineering is an application of engineering in medicine. It combines the expertise of life sciences, engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering deals with design and development of advanced medical devices, artificial replacement of organs, devices and methods for disease diagnosis and DNA chips. Biomedical engineering is one of the upcoming fields with its reach expanding exponentially everyday.

Source: Contents are provided by Technicalsymposium Google Group Members. 
Disclaimer: All the above contents are provided by technicalsymposium.com Google Group members. 
Further, this content is not intended to be used for commercial purpose. Technicalsymposium.com is not liable/responsible for any copyright issues.


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