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Biomedical Engineering Materials Free Download
Question 34. What Is Prosthetic Limb? What Are Its Drawbacks?
It is an artificial device which can be used to replace a missing body part. It is based on the principle of biomechatronics. It can be used to replace body part missing from birth, due to injury or due to defect. The main drawback of prosthetic limb is its cost. Moreover, prosthetic limbs have to be replaced every 3-4 year due to the wear and tear. If the limb has fit tissues then the sockets in the limb have to be replaced every month.
• Question 35. Explain The Mechanism Of Elisa. What Are Its Uses?
ELISA stands for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is a wet lab type analytical biochemistry assay. It can detect presence of a substance in a liquid or wet sample by using one subtype of heterogeneous, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. ELISA can be used as ligand binding assays. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant pathology. Quality check operations can also be performed in various industries with the help of ELISA.
• Question 36. What Is Isotopic Tracer Technique?
This technique is used to understand chemical reaction and interactions in bio-chemistry and chemistry. In this technique, one or more of the atoms of the molecule of interest is substituted for an atom of the same chemical element, but that element belongs to different isotope. It can be used to detect the difference in number of neutrons separately from the other atoms of the same element. The atom has the same number of protons; it will behave in almost exactly the same way chemically as other atoms in the compound, and with few exceptions will not interfere with the reaction under investigation.
• Question 37. Explain The Difference Between Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria?
In gram staining protocol, gram positive bacteria are stained dark blue or violet. Crystal violet stain can be retained by the gram positive bacteria because of the high amount of the peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.
In gram staining protocol, gram negative bacteria do not retain crystal violet dye. Gram negative bacteria have pathogenic capability. Gram negative bacteria have cytoplasmic membrane which is not present in gram positive bacteria.
• Question 38. What Are Forbidden Clones?
Clones refer to producing genetically identical individuals. Forbidden clones refer to clones of those cells which had immunological reactivity with self antigens. Embryonic life is eliminated from these types of clones. Such type of clones is called 'forbidden clones'.
• Question 39. What Is Superiority Of Tlc Over Paper Chromatography?
TLC is superior over paper chromatography because of inorganic nature of adsorbent concentrated sulfuric acid spray. The spray is then followed by heating. It may be used to develop on the chromatogram by charring. Also, amino acid mixtures require 18 hours for separation on paper. It requires 3 hrs using cellulose TLC. The advantages of TLC lie in adsorbents which don't allow separation on paper. In TLC we have much wider choice of adsorbents depending upon needs and sample.
• Question 40. Explain The Biological Neuron Model. How Is It Different From Artificial Neuron?
Biological neuron is also commonly known as spiking neuron model. This model is mathematical description of the properties of the nerve cell or neuron. This model is formulated to predict and describe the biological processes. This is different from artificial neuron because, artificial neuron is based on computational effectiveness. Artificial neuron is based on the synaptic weight for determining the neuron output.
1. What is Biomedical Engineering?
2. Do you know what is myoelectric control?
3. Do you know about BMI?
4. What is MRI?
5. Do you know what are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?
6. Do you know about Alzheimer's disease?
7. Do you know about epilepsy?
8. Do you know what are the most commonly used technologies in medical imaging?
9. What you know about microarray?
10. What is therapeutic cloning?
11. Is there one type of equipment that you feel you are the most efficient at repairing?
12. What is Bioinstrumentation?
13. What is Biomechanics?
14. What is Biomaterials?
15. What is Clinical Engineering in Biomedical Engineering?
16. What is Medical Imaging?
17. What is Rehabilitation Engineering?
18. What is Systems Physiology?
• What is myoelectric control?
Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs.
• What is BMI?
BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person's height and weight. It is a person's weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m.
• Explain MRI.
MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ.
• What are the wave patterns seen in an EEG scan?
Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta - state of sleep, theta ? drowsiness, alpha - relaxation, beta - active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm
• What is Alzheimer's disease?
Alzheimer's is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer's is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests.
• What is epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness.
• What are the commonly used technologies in medical imaging?
Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
• What is a microarray?
Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously.
• Explain therapeutic cloning.
Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body.
• What is DNA fingerprinting?
DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting
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