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Biomedical Engineering Materials Free Download



Question 21. What Is Systems Physiology?

Answer :

Systems Physiology focuses on understanding - at the microscopic and submicroscopic levels - how systems within living organisms function, from pharmaceutical drug response to metabolic systems and disease response, voluntary limb movements to skin healing and auditory physiology. This specialty involves experimentation and modeling using mathematical formulations. 

• Question 22. Do You Know What Are Some Important Advances Made By Biomedical Engineers?

Answer :

Biomedical Engineers have developed many important techniques and equipment:

1. Hip joint replacement.

2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

3. Heart pacemakers.

4. Arthroscopic instrumentation for diagnostic and surgical purposes.

5. Heart-lung machines.

6. Angioplasty.

7. Bioengineered skin.

8. Time-release drug delivery.

9. Artificial articulated joints.

10. Kidney dialysis.

• Question 23. Do You Know What Is Flow Control In Biomedical Engineering?

Answer :

Flow control, also called optimized production technology, focuses on the efficient flow of material through the production process. The philosophy of flow control focuses on bottlenecks. For example, an owner using flow control will not buy a machine capable of 1,000 units an hour if supply is only 500 units. Examine systems and determine where lowest flow is experienced, then address that point and make sure it operates at full capacity. Flow control applies well where maximum productivity is required. 

• Question 24. What Is Gram Staining Method?

Answer :

This method is used to identify bacterial species into two communities i.e. Gram positive and gram negative. This method is based on chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. It can be used to detect peptidoglycan, which is present in a thick layer in Gram positive bacteria. Purple/blue colour refers to the gram positive bacteria. Red colour stain refers to the gram negative bacteria. This method is very popularly used in the identification of bacterial organism. 

• Question 25. Explain What Is Blood Brain Barrier?

Answer :

Blood brain barrier is caused in central nervous system, when blood circulation is separated from the brain extra cellular fluid (BECF). This phenomenon occurs along all capillaries. It consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. This barrier also consists of astrocytic end feet and also includes a thick basement membrane. 

• Question 26. Do You Know What Is Lmo? State Some Of Its Importance?

Answer :

LMO stands for living modified organism. LMO are those organisms that have been genetically modified through the application of biotechnology. LMO also includes organisms that have been modified by novel recombinant DNA techniques as well as those that have been modified by mutagenesis or classical breeding and selection techniques. Importance of LMO's is that they can eat hazardous waste. 

• Question 27. What Is Technique Of Gene Conversion?

Answer :

Gene conversion refers to the event in DNA genetic recombination. This event occurs at high frequencies during meiotic division but which also occurs in somatic cells. Through this process we can transfer DNA information from one DNA helix to another DNA helix, whose sequence is altered. Gene mutation can also be accomplished through this process. IT may lead to non-Mendelian inheritance. This phenomenon has often been recorded in fungal crosses. 

• Question 28. What Is Rccs? What Is Its Lifespan?

Answer :

RCCS stands for rotary cell culture system. It is a device designed to grow three-dimensional cell clusters in microgravity. This device was developed by NASA to study the cell tissues of mammals-including humans-in microgravity. Tissues grown in the RCCS are larger and three-dimensional, with structural and chemical characteristics similar to normal tissue. RCCS has no moving parts, thus cells are less prone to damage and hence provides longer life span. 

• Question 29. What Is Method Of Perfusion. State Some Of Its Drawbacks?

Answer :

Perfusion is the process of delivery of blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusion can be of two types over perfusion and under perfusion. Types of perfusion is classified according to the average level of perfusion across all tissues in an individual body, Tissues like the heart are considered overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue. 

• Question 30. Explain Difference Between Introns And Exons?

Answer :

An intron refers to any nucleotide sequence within a gene which is removed by RNA splicing to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene. The term intron refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene, and the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses. 

An exon can be referred to a sequence in DNA or its RNA transcript. In broad sense. An exon is a nucleic acid sequence that is represented in the mature form of an RNA molecule. 

• Question 31. What Are Immunoglobulins? Explain Its Structure?

Answer :

Immunoglobulins are popularly known as antibody. These are large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulins are "Y" shaped structure which is having two tips and each tip of immunoglobulins contains a paratope. Immunoglobulins are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. The general structure of all antibodies is very similar; a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable. 

• Question 32. What Is Frame Shift Mutation? Is This Mutation Similar To Single-nucleotide Polymorphism?

Answer :

This is the type of mutation in which DNA sequence is changed due to addition and deletion of nucleotides. This mutation changes the code for amino acids. This is also called framing error or reading frame shift. This mutation will cause the reading of the codons after the mutation to code for different amino acids. No, this mutation is not similar to single-nucleotide polymorphism. In single-nucleotide polymorphism nucleotide is replaced, rather than inserted or deleted. 

• Question 33. Explain The Difference Between Retrovirus And Provirus?

Answer :

A retrovirus is a RNA virus which can be duplicated in a host cell using the reverse transcriptase enzyme. It can produce DNA from its RNA genome. The produced DNA is then incorporated into the host's genome by anintegrase enzyme. The RNA virus thereafter replicates as part of the host cell's DNA. Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae. 

Provirus is a virus genome which can integrate into DNA of host cell. In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself but through replication of its host cell. This state can last over many host cell generations.

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