Ashok Leyland Placement Papers-Free Download
ASHOK LEYLAND-Mechanical Engineering Sample Aptitude Questions
1 :: WHY BIG TYRE USED IN REAR OF VEH?
Tractors have big rear tires because ,the larger the surface
area of the tractor's wheels touching the ground, the more
pulling power you have. Like how tractor pullers have large
Another reason is that the tractor doesn't have to operate
at a higher speed to get the same ground speed with larger
tires. Gear ratios don't have to be as high b/c of the
2 :: WHAT IS KING PIN OFFSET?
A geometric parameter which is positive if the kingpin axis
intersects the wheel plane at or below ground level, or is
negative if the point of intersection is above ground level.
Also called scrub radius
3 :: What is the formula for calculating BHP IN SI UNITS?
Boiler horse power (BHP) is a power unit used for measuring the power
output of boilers, widely used in the past, but now confined to North
America. The boiler horsepower conversion formula is as follows.
1 Boiler Horsepower = 9,809.5 Watts
4 :: Explain different between two stroke engine four stroke engine?
In a two stroke engine, for every two rotations of the crank
shaft there will be one power stroke.Hence during
compression stroke, fuel will be drawn in to the crank case
(suction) and during power stroke, burnt fuel will be thrown
out through transfer ports (exaust).
In a four stroke engine, for every four rotations of the
crank shaft there will be one power stroke.
Here, suction, compression,power & exaust strokes are seperate
as there will be inlet and exaust valves.
5 :: For the purpose of inflating car tyres, spray painting, etc. i.e. say
a small workshop, what size of a compressor (CFM) is recommended? It will
be generally for a hobby use and not commercial use?
spray painting it is generally used for painting in a very
smaller areas of any part and where it is very hard to paint
in a brush .... And to improve faster rate of painting,,
spray painting r used........usually reciprocating
compressor r used but size depends upon requirement...........
6 :: does the design & fittings vary on the type of the vehicle
engine.. why they use petrol for engines only & vice versa?
No, the type of fitting & design does not vary for automotive
segment. Its the same. However, its different in case of
aerospace & other sector.
In the fittings, usually of hole/shaft one of those is made at
the basic size so that it can accommodate the other one.
7 :: By mixing oil in fule of four stroke bike will it damage engine,
performance? if not than what happen?
yes, absolutely .. It leads to higher wear and tear in
cyclinder liners,piston and damage of the piston .. It even
leads to knocking and detonation where abnormal combustion
appears and dark smoke and harsh sound will be produced by
8 :: What is BHP & How it is measured?
BHP stands for Brake horse power
As the name implies it is the braking power required to
stall a engine Means horse power required to stop engine
9 :: WHAT IS THE DIFFRENCE BITWEEN BS2 & BS3 ENGINE?
IN BS2 there is No catalytic converter to reduce formation
of co and HC whereas in BS3 catalytic converter is
available to reduce the formation of HC and CO. So less
emission of HC and co will take place in BS3
10 :: WHAT IS THE MEANING OF CC OF ENGINE?
CC stands for Cubic centimeter. CC represents the total
volume of an engine cylinder. The engine which has more
CC , can produce more power than others.
11 :: What is a injecter pressure in heavy viehle?
injecter pressure is 220 kg/cm square
12 :: What is the range of the engine efficiency for two stroke engine? Why
you don’t see two stroke engine in car? What are problem with two stroke
the range of two sroke engine is too high compare to the
four stroke engine be cause of each revalution one power in
two sroke engine . i canot see the 2 sroke engine in
car.power loss is more.
13 :: Why tractor rear wheel is big then front wheel?
for maximum torque provied
14 :: WHAT IS TRANSVERSE WEIGHT SHIFT DUE TO DRIVE TORQUE?
it is weight of drive torque which is bolted to chassis of the car.
15 :: What is staring oil grade SAE nos of gear box,in passenger car?
"SAE" STAND "SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS" (USA).
SAE20W40 :4WHEELER ENGINE,2 WHEELER ENGINE, GEAR BOX &CLUTCH.
SAE40W60 :GEAR BOX OF RWD & 4WD VEHICLE.
16 :: WHY THE COLOR OF VEHICLE TYRES ARE ALWAYS BLACK IN COLOUR.
IS THERE ANY THING RELATED WITH HEAT CONDUCTION?
During the process of vulcanisation of rubber to make it
sheer resistant to make tyres out of it, a certain
proportion of carbon is mixed into it. Without this
procedure the tyres will not be able to withstand the
friction n stress of the road. This carbon is responsible
for giving tyres the characteristic black colour.. When
ozone combines with ultraviolet light from the sun, it
attacks the tire polymer. To prevent tires from rapidly
deteriorating, a sacrificial absorber is used, "carbon
black" - which, fittingly, makes tires black
17 :: What is the working principle of hydrostatic propeltion system in a
it depends on pascal law. As the pressure in the system is the same,
the force that the fluid gives to the surroundings is therefore equal
to pressure x area. In such a way, a small piston feels a small force
and a large piston feels a large force
1 :: Square root calculation for dp flow transmitter?
So, the way you would go about doing square root extraction is by using
an analog multipler. An analog multiplier has three inputs Vx, Vy &
Vz. The output is given by Vo = (Vx*Vy)/Vz; If we set Vy = 1V and Vo =
Vz through a feedback loop, we get Vo.^2 = Vx => Vo = sqrt(Vx).
If the interviewer further asks about an analog multiplier, you could
mention that it can be designed by a combination of
logarithmic/anti-logarithmic amplifier and an adder.
2 :: What is the meaning of wet leg & where is it used?
A process used to determine the differential pressure
present within a liquid-filled space.
The formula for determining the differential pressure
within a wet leg design is: d/p = h (SG)
Where: d/p = differential pressure, h = height of liquid
present, and SG = specific gravity
When the process vapors condense at normal ambient
temperatures or are corrosive, this reference leg can be
filled to form a wet leg. If the process condensate is
corrosive, unstable, or undesirable to use to fill the wet
leg, this reference leg can be filled with an inert liquid.
3 :: What are the key components of control loop?
A closed control loop in a very basic manner consists of
sensor, transmitter, controller,signal converters and final
control elements.Actually in a practical loop there will be
many other instruments apart from this to support the
working of above mentioned instruments.
4 :: Explain working principle of lvdt?
When an AC excitation signal is applied to the Primary Coil
(P), voltages are induced in the two Secondary Coils (S).
The MAGNETIC CORE inside the COIL WINDING ASSEMBLY provides
the magnetic flux path linking the Primary and secondary
Coils.Since the two voltages are of opposite polarity, the
Secondary Coils are connected series opposing in the
center, or Null Position. The output voltages are equal
and opposite in polarity and, therefore, the output voltage
is zero. The Null Position of an LVDT is extremely stable
When the MAGNETIC CORE is displaced rom the Null
Position, an electromagnetic imbalance occurs. This
imbalance generates a differential AC output voltage
across the Secondary Coils which is linearly proportional
to the direction and magnitude of the displacement.
As shown in the figure, when the MAGNETIC CORE is moved
from the Null
Position, the induced voltage in the Secondary Coil, toward
which the Core is
moved, increases while the induced voltage in the opposite
LVDTs possess the inherent ruggedness and durability of a
truly provide infinite resolution in all types of
environments. As a result of the
superior reliability and accuracy of LVDTs, they are the
ideal choice for linear
5 :: what is difference between differial pressure & delta pressure?
Differancial pressure means differanc between high pressure & low
delta pressure means it is the pressure drop..
6 :: How to trim the pressure transmitter?
Ensure that you have the necessary document on your hand
such as PTW.
Connect a HART Communicator, then close the Tx isolation valve
and open the VENT isolation to atmosphere.
Apply LRV and check w/ HART Comm, if the LRV is out, perform
TRIM function using HART 375/475
7 :: Explain types of valves?
various types of valves are used in industrial process
controls.Various types of valves are ball valve,gate
valve,globe valve,needle valve,mixing valve,diverting
valve,butterfly valve etc.Actually this is just an overview
of the types.To be elaborate we have several categories and
8 :: why use MMWC unit?
milli meter water column used to measure pressure
9 :: What is Difference between PLC and CNC?
CNC (Computer Numerical Control) is a particular application
usually to control a multi axis machine tool such as a
milling machine or a lathe but also could be a tube bending
machine punch press or similar. The CNC controller is
usually a purpose built controller using a micro computer
but could be a general purpose computer or a PLC. The
forerunner was NC (Numerical Control) before computers were
readily available, it used solid state logic and relays,
timers etc to provide the application.
A PLC (Programable Logic Controller) is a general purpose
logic controller specifically designed to allow the user to
create their own application. They select appropriate I/O
(Inputs Outputs) and perhaps function modules for purposes
such as communications and multi axis servo control and
program the PLC to perform the required functions.
10 :: if we have 450 mm heigth boiler drum level ,so what is span &
zero value for a dpt tranmitter?
zero will be -400mm and span will be LRV will be -400mm and
URV will be 0 mm.
11 :: How to use level tranasmitter in closed tank application?
In closed systems, the transmitter location is
restricted by the maximum allowable distance
above the lower tap. In pressurized systems, this is
the same as the 1 atmosphere equivalent seen
previously. In sub-atmospheric systems (vacuum
systems), the transmitter should be mounted at or
below the lower tap. This ensures the transmitter
always sees a positive pressure on both the
measurement and the reference sides.
In two seal systems, the distance between the taps
becomes the reference offset from zero. The
calculations are the same regardless of where the
transmitter is mounted.
1. One litre of water occupies a volume of
A. 100 cm3
B. 250 cm3
C. 500 cm3
D. 1000 cm3
2. The value of bulk modulus of a fluid is required to determine
A. Reynold's number
B. Froude's number
C. Mach number
D. Euler's number
3. In a depressed nappe
A. the pressure below the nappe is atmospheric
B. the pressure below the nappe is negative
C. the pressure above the nappe is atmospheric
D. the pressure above the nappe is negative
4. In one dimensional flow, the flow
A. is steady and uniform
B. takes place in straight line
C. takes place in curve
D. takes place in one direction
5. The kinematic viscosity is the
A. ratio of absolute viscosity to the density of the liquid
B. ratio of density of the liquid to the absolute viscosity
C. product of absolute viscosity and density of the liquid
D. product of absolute viscosity and mass of the liquid
6. A weir is said to be broad crested weir, if the width of the crest
of the weir is __________ half the height of water above the weir
A. equal to.
B. less than
C. more than
7. An error of 1% in measuring head over the apex of the notch (H) will
produce an error of __________ in discharge over a triangular notch.
8. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of
A. actual velocity of jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity
B. loss of head in the orifice to the head of water available at the
exit of the orifice
C. actual discharge through an orifice to the theoretical discharge
D. area of jet at vena contracta to the area of orifice
9. Coefficient of resistance is the ratio of
A. actual velocity of jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity
B. area of jet at vena contracta to the area of orifice
C. loss of head in the orifice to the head of water available at the
exit of the orifice
D. actual discharge through an orifice to the dieoretical discharge
10. In order to measure the flow with a venturimeter, it is installed
A. horizontal line
B. inclined line with flow upwards
C. inclined line with flow downwards
D. any direction and in any location
11. In a venturimeter, the velocity of liquid at throat is __________
than at inlet.
12.Which of the following is an example of laminar flow?
A. Under ground flow
B. Flow past tiny bodies
C. Flow of oil in measuring instruments
D. all of these
13.The pressure less than atmospheric pressure is known as
A. suction pressure
B. vacuum pressure
C. negative gauge pressure
D. all of these
14. The total energy line lies over the hydraulic gradient line by an
amount equal to the
A. pressure head
B. velocity head
C. pressure head + velocity head
D. pressure head - velocity head
15. The maximum efficiency of transmission through a pipe is
Numerical Aptitude Questions
1. Insert the missing number. 8, 24, 12, 36, 18, 54, (....)
2. 3 pumps, working 8 hours a day, can empty a tank in 2 days. How many
hours a day must 4 pumps work to empty the tank in 1 day?
3. A set has exactly five consecutive positive integers starting with
1. What is the percentage decrease in the average of the numbers when
the greatest one of the numbers is removed from
4.In a two-digit, if it is known that its unit's digit exceeds its
ten's digit by 2 and that the product of the given number and the sum
of its digits is equal to 144, then the number is:
5.Find a positive number which when increased by 17 is equal to 60
times the reciprocal of the number.
6.If log 27 = 1.431, then the value of log 9 is:
7.Speed of a boat in standing water is 9 kmph and the speed of the
stream is 1.5 kmph. A man rows to a place at a distance of 105 km and
comes back to the starting point. The total time
taken by him is:
1. 24 hours
2. 18 hours
3. 20 hours
4. 16 hours
8. A is two years older than B who is twice as old as C. If the total
of the ages of A, B and C be 27, the how old is B?
9.In how many ways can a group of 5 men and 2 women be made out of a
total of 7 men and 3 women?
10.The difference between the length and breadth of a rectangle is 23
m. If its perimeter is 206 m, then its area is:
1. 2520 m
2. 2480 m
3. 2420 m
4. 1520 m
11.The angle between the minute hand and the hour hand of a clock when
the time is 8.30, is:
12. A sum fetched a total simple interest of Rs. 4016.25 at the rate of
9 p.c.p.a. in 5 years. What is the sum?
1. Rs. 8900
2. Rs. 4462.50
3. Rs. 8032.50
4. Rs. 8925
13.Find out the wrong number in the given sequence of numbers. 8, 13,
21, 32, 47, 63, 83
14.A library has an average of 510 visitors on Sundays and 240 on other
days. The average number of visitors per day in a month of 30 days
beginning with a Sunday is:
15. What was the day of the week on 28th May, 2006?
16. The angle between the minute hand and the hour hand of a clock when
the time is 4.20, is:
17.A person takes a loan of Rs. 200 at 5% simple interest. He returns
Rs. 100 at the end of 1 year. In order to clear his dues at the end of
2 years, he would pay:
1. Rs. 115.5
2. Rs. 110
3. Rs. 120
4. Rs. 105
18.At what time between 9 and 10 o'clock will the hands of a watch be
1. 45 min. past 9
2. 50 min. past 9
19.Find out the wrong number in the given sequence of numbers. 22, 33,
66, 99, 121, 279, 594
20.A clock is started at noon. By 10 minutes past 5, the hour hand has
Reasoning Aptitude Questions
1.Translate from an imaginary language into English. Then, look for the
word elements that appear both on the list and in the answer choices.
Here are some words translated from an artificial language.
malgauper means peach cobbler
malgaport means peach juice
moggagrop means apple jelly
Which word could mean "apple juice"?
2. Which one of the following is always found in 'Bravery'?
3. A lotus flower always has
4. Five girls are sitting on a bench to be photographed. Seema is to
the left of Rani and to the right of Bindu. Mary is to the right of
Rani. Reeta is between Rani and Mary.
Who is sitting immediate right to Reeta ?
5. Ravi left home and cycled 10 km towards South, then turned right and
cycled 5 km and then again turned right and cycled 10 km. After this he
turned left and cycled 10 km. How many kilometers will he have to cycle
to reach his home straight?
1. 10 km
2. 15 km
3. 20 km
4. 25 km
6. In each word of the following questions consists of pair of words
bearing a relationship among these, from amongst the alternatives, pick
up the pair that best illustrate a similar relationship.
Sound : Muffled
1. Moisture : Humid
2. Despair : Anger
3. Colour : Faded
4. Odour : Pungent
7. A3P means A is the mother of P
A4P means A is the brother of P
A9P means A is the husband of P
A5P means A is the daughter of P
Which of the following means that K is the mother-in-law of M?
8. A cube is cut in two equal parts along a plane parallel to one of
its faces. One piece is then coloured red on the two larger faces and
green on the remaining, while the other is coloured green on two
smaller adjacent faces and red on the remaining. Each is then cut into
32 cubes of same size and mixed up.How many cubes have two red and one
green face on each ?
9. Each of these questions are based on the information given below:
A ,B, C, D and E are five men sitting in a line facing to south - while
M, N, O, P and Q are five ladies sitting in a second line parallel to
the first line and are facing to North.B who is just next to the left
of D, is opposite to Q. C and N are diagonally opposite to each other.E
is opposite to O who is just next right of M.P who is just to the left
of Q, is opposite to D.M is at one end of the line.If B shifts to the
place of E, E shifts to the place of Q, and Q shifts to the place of B,
then who will be the second to the left of the person opposite to O ?
10. If P + Q means P is the brother of Q; P x Q means P is the father
of Q and P - Q means P is the sister of Q, which of the following
relations shows that I is the niece of K?
1. K + Y + Z - I
2. K x Y + I - Z
3. K + Y x I - Z
4. Z - I x Y + K
11. In an Exhibition seven cars of different companies - Cadillac,
Ambassador, Fiat, Maruti, Mercedes, Bedford and Fargo are standing
facing to east in the following order :
Cadillac is next to right of Fargo.Fargo is fourth to the right of
Fiat.Maruti car is between Ambassador and Bedford.Fiat which is third
to the left of Ambassador, is at one end.Which one of the following is
the correct position of Mercedes ?
1. Fourth to the right of Maruti.
2. Next to the left of Cadillac
3. Between Bedford and Fargo
4. Next to the left of Bedford
12.In each of the following questions find out the alternative which
will replace the question mark.Safe : Secure :: Protect : ?
13.In each of the following questions, arrange the given words in a
meaningful sequence and thus find the correct answer from
alternatives.Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Key 2. Door 3. Lock 4. Room 5. Switch on
1. 5, 1, 2, 4, 3
2. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
3. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
4. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
14.A's son B is married with C whose sister D is married to E the
brother of B. How D is related to A?
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