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1. Event (A): Senior students ragged junior students.

Event (B): Senior students were suspended.

Options:

(1) if 'A' is the effect and 'B' is its immediate and principal cause.

(2) if 'A' is the immediate and principal cause and 'B' is its effect.

(3) if 'A' is an effect but 'B' is not its immediate and principal cause.

(4) if 'B' is an effect but 'A' is not its immediate and principal cause.

(5) None of these

2. Event (A): India has been categorized as one of the flawed democracies in the world.

Event (B): India is the largest democratic country in the world.

Options:

(1) if 'A' is the effect and 'B' is its immediate and principal cause.

(2) if 'A' is the immediate and principal cause and 'B' is its effect.

(3) if 'A' is an effect but 'B' is not its immediate and principal cause.

(4) if 'B' is an effect but 'A' is not its immediate and principal cause.

(5) None of these

3. Statement (A): An earthquake of magnitude 8.2 rocked the islands of Maldives.

Statement (B): A devastating Tsunami struck the coastal belt of Maldives.

Options:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.

Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.

Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.

Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.

Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

4. Statement (A): The Greenland ice cap is melting so quickly that pieces of ice which are several cubic
kilometres in size are breaking off.

Statement (B): Greenland is prone to earth quakes.

Options:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.

Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.

Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.

Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.

Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

5. Statement (A): A disease called conjunctivitis (also called Madras eye) prevailed in the state of
Andhra Pradesh where one in every five people were effected.

Statement (B): A large number of people from Madras migrated to Andhra Pradesh.

Options:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.

Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.

Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.

Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.

Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

Answer & Explanations

1. Option(2).

Exp: Event (A) and (B) are related. Chronologically (A) occurs before (B). Ragging of junior students is
the immediate and principal cause for the suspension of the senior students.

2. Option(5)

Exp: Being the largest democratic country in the world is not the reason for being categorized as
flawed democracy.

3. (1). Exp: It is known that earthquake leads to Tsunami. Hence, A is the cause and B is its effect.

4. (1). Exp: When pieces of ice which are several cubic kilometres in size break they will cause
earthquakes. So, (A) is the cause and (B) is its effect.

5. (4). Exp: The disease has no relation with people of Madras. Hence, (A) and (B) are effects of
independent causes.

Questions based on cause and effect test the ability of the candidate to determine the relation between two events and examine how they are dependent on each other i.e. which of them is the cause for the other one.

Type- I: Directions:

Mark answer

(1) if 'A' is the effect and 'B' is its immediate and principal cause.
(2) if 'A' is the immediate and principal cause and 'B' is its effect.
(3) if 'A' is an effect but 'B' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(4) if 'B' is an effect but 'A' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(5) None of these

Example 1:

Event (A): Mr. Amitab Bachchan received the best actor award.
Event (B): Mr. Amitab Bach cause of chan is a good actor.
Solution: Here, event (A) could be the cause for event (B) and vice-versa. The answer for this question is choice (5).

Type - II Directions:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.
Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.
Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.
Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.
Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

Example 2:

Statement (A): Indonesia suffered a major earth quake today.
Statement (B): The term of the Indonesian prime Minister ends by December.
Solution: The two statements given above are independent of each other, but they lead to certain major consequences. Hence they are independent causes i.e, choice (3) is the answer.

Exercise questions:

1) Event (A): Mr. X was killed in the floods.

Event (B): It was raining heavily.

Options:

(1) if 'A' is the effect and 'B' is its immediate and principal cause.
(2) if 'A' is the immediate and principal cause and 'B' is its effect.
(3) if 'A' is an effect but 'B' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(4) if 'B' is an effect but 'A' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(5) None of these

Solution: The given events are not related events as the place where Mr.X was killed and the place where it was raining heavily may or may not be the same.


2)Event (A): Bank perceive huge business opportunities in the insurance segment.

Event (B): As many as 11 nationalised banks are entering into the lucrative insurance market.

Options:

(1) if 'A' is the effect and 'B' is its immediate and principal cause.
(2) if 'A' is the immediate and principal cause and 'B' is its effect.
(3) if 'A' is an effect but 'B' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(4) if 'B' is an effect but 'A' is not its immediate and principal cause.
(5) None of these

Solution: The bank perceive huge business opportunities in the insurance sector hence, they are in the process of entering into the sector. So, (A) is the cause and (B) is its effect.


3) Statement (A): The shortage of employable talent has become severe.

Statement (B): There are more job opportunities than there are qualified professionals.

Options:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.
Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.
Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.
Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.
Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

Solution: As the number of talented people is less, those with talent are getting more opportunities. Hence, (A) is the cause and (B) is its effect.


4) Statement (A): Recently, an Air India Airbus was grounded in Delhi because of a technical snag.

Statement (B): Air India faces a severe shortage of maintenance engineers.

Options:

Mark answer (1) if statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.
Mark answer (2) if statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.
Mark answer (3) if both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.
Mark answer (4) if both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.
Mark answer (5) if both the statements are effects of some common cause.

Solution: As Air India is facing a severe shortage of maintenance engineers the technical snags is a common sight. Hence, (B) is the cause and (A) is the effect.



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