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i-Drive Abstract Details

Abstract

Our project is to create an automated four wheeler driving system without using GPS(GlobalPositioning System) for position tracking. . This is to reduce the occurrences of road accidentsand make traveling safe. It integrates various technologies and provides a platform for a widerange of applications too.

In the play, to detect obstacles we use sensors. For sensing other vehicles we use a reader which reads the signals transmitted from those vehicles. We use a roadmap to travel, and theautomobiles’ dynamics to track its own position. This is used as an alternative to GPS. All these data are then combined and plotted on a frame buffer. Then we apply algorithms to generate path by considering the frame buffer. Using this we can achieve a safe and easy travel.

iDrive allows the driver and front-seat passenger to control such amenities as the climate (airconditioner and heater), the audio system (radio and CD player), the navigation system andcommunication system. Recently, iDrive is used in BMW cars.

We have simulated the working of i-Drive. It is a simple simulation showing the responses of the system when it comes across an obstacle or a vehicle approaching it.

Introduction:

The main cause of accidents is the long travel which results in loss of concentration andfatigue. The proposed system can thus reduce the burden of human involvement in vehicledriving. Though this system will work on all roads right now most optimal performance can beexperienced on highways.

It is not necessary to rely entirely on the automatic driving system. The user can also drivethe vehicle manually if he/she wishes. This automobile runs on two modes:

1) i-Drive Mode (iDM)
2) Manual Driver Mode (MDM)


The iDM is the auto driver mode and MDM is the manual driving mode. The user can switch to any mode anytime. Another great advantage of this system is that it doesn’t use any kind of telecommunication system and hence avoids the need for any network consequently reducing the communication cost. Some of the consequent applications of this system are:

1. Vehicle Tracing
2. Automatic Parking
3. Automatic Toll Paying

Construction:

The design of our system requires some of the existing technologies to be integrated. Each technology is incorporated in different components.These components are described below:

1. Presence Maker
2. Environment Perceiving Unit (EPU)
i. Vehicle Spotter
ii. Obstacle Detectors
3. Digitized Road Map (DRM)
4. Position Tracking Unit (PTU)
5. Scene Plotter
6. Smart Algorithms
EPU
DRM PTU
Obstacle
Detectors
Scene Plotter
Smart Algorithms
Controllers
Vehicle
Spotter

1. Presence Maker

It is an affordable transmitting device which is to be attached to every vehicle. The optimal range can be fixed as 50m. The function of this device is to transmit the followingdata continuously:

Tag ID (Unique)
Vehicle Dimensions (Length & Breadth)

For this we can use devices like Passive Read Only Memory RFID tags. These tags arecapable of transmitting data written into them continually.

2. Environment Perceiving Unit (EPU)

This unit is responsible for sensing various entities around the automobile.The entities might be anything, from a piece of rock to a moving vehicle.It has two components viz.Vehicle Spotter and Obstacle Detector each detecting a class of objects.

Vehicle Spotter:

This unit reads the signals transmitted from Presence Maker of vehicles, within theeffective range and computes the relative position of the vehicle from ours. The data isthen extracted from these signals and processed. Along with Unique Tag Id and dimensions the processed data contains following information:

i. Position:

The Receiver (e.g.: RFID reader) reads the signals and finds the relative positions.

ii. Speed & Acceleration:

a) It can be calculated by comparing two samples of signals of a vehicle.
b) A negative speed indicates that a vehicle is approaching ours’ whereas a positive speed indicates that a vehicle is moving away from ours’
c) The speeds are relative to ours.
d) A negative value of acceleration indicates deceleration and a positive value represents acceleration .

3. Digitized Road Map (DRM)

This is a high detail data about the roads or various routes in an area. It is stored on aremovable media. To make fast and efficient computation the data can be transferred to aflash memory or a RAM rather than accessing it always via a removable media. The updated version can be made available on the internet.

4. Position Tracking Unit (PTU)

This unit senses the direction and the displacement in that direction and updates the position of the vehicle with respect to the previous position. It uses an angle measuring device fixed to the steering shaft to measure steered torque. It has a digital speedometer tomeasure speed.

5. Scene Plotter

The scene plotter uses a kind of Painters’ algorithm to plot the scene. Scene plotter has a frame buffer which is a two dimensional array of bits. A one (1) represents an obstacle or invalid path or another vehicle. Thus zeros represent a valid obstacle free path to move on

Advantages:

1.Eliminates use of telecommunication systems, there by reducing the design cost considerably.
2. Flashing of head lights by vehicles approaching ours’ from opposite direction causes emporal blindness, leads to accidents in many cases.
3. In steep curves a human cannot sense the vehicle coming from the other side which may esult in an accident.

Limitations:

Although useful, the functioning will not provide fruitful effect in crowded traffic. This can be achieved only when all the vehicles are automated. Then irrespective of the traffic the system is accurate.

Algorithm:

1. First it looks for a free straight path and chooses it if it is free of accidents.
2. If the vehicle in front of it is maintaining the correct speed limit it follows it.
3. Else it goes to the faster lane and tries to overtake the vehicle if it finds no possible collisions while overtaking it.

Simulation:

The simulation is a limited illustration of the proposed system. It has a Status Notification area which explains in simple text, various aspects of the situation.

Conclusion and future work:

The use of i-Drive will surely reduce the occurrences of road accidents by a considerable value. In the future, the wide acceptance of our technology will create an “Accident Free World.

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